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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776193/prenatal-imaging-of-genital-defects-clinical-spectrum-and-predictive-factors-for-severe-forms
#1
F Fuchs, P Borrego, C Amouroux, B Antoine, M Ollivier, J M Faure, C Lopez, D Forgues, A Faure, T Merrot, P Boulot, C Jeandel, P Philibert, L Gaspari, C Sultan, F Paris, N Kalfa
OBJECTIVES: 1-To report the clinical spectrum of genital defects diagnosed before birth, 2- to identify predictive factors for severe phenotypes at birth 3- to determine the rate of associated malformations. METHODS: A retrospective study (2008-2017) of 4580 fetuses identified prenatally with abnormalities evaluated by our Reference Center for Fetal Medicine included cases with fetal sonographic finding of abnormal genitalia or uncertainty of fetal sex determination...
February 18, 2019: BJU International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773561/-predictive-value-of-umbilical-arterial-cord-ph-on-complications-during-hospitalization-in-neonates-after-cesarean-section
#2
J Bao, J Liu, Y Qu, D L Mu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the predictive value of umbilical arterial cord pH on complications of hospitalized neonates after cesarean section. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study and carried out in Peking University First Hospital from January 1, 2017 to June 30, 2017. Neonates who were delivered by cesarean section were enrolled. The primary endpoint was the incidence of complications during in-hospital stay (including infection, aspiration pneumonia, myocardial damage, etc...
February 18, 2019: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772493/the-european-registry-on-obstetric-antiphospholipid-syndrome-euroaps-a-survey-of-1000-consecutive-cases
#3
REVIEW
Jaume Alijotas-Reig, Enrique Esteve-Valverde, R Ferrer-Oliveras, L Sáez-Comet, E Lefkou, A Mekinian, C Belizna, A Ruffatti, A Tincani, L Marozio, G Espinosa, R Cervera, S de Carolis, O Latino, E LLurba, P L Meroni, C B Chighizola, M Gerosa, V Pengo, K Lundelin, P Rovere-Querini, V Canti, K Mayer-Pickel, T Reshetnyak, A Hoxha, S Tabacco, L Stojanovich, V Gogou, A Varoudis, A Arnau, D Ruiz-Hidalgo, J Trapé, L Sos, C Stoppani, A Martí-Cañamares, Inmaculada Farran-Codina
Aim To analyse the clinical features, laboratory data and foetal-maternal outcomes, and follow them up on a cohort of 1000 women with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (OAPS). METHODS: The European Registry of OAPS became a registry within the framework of the European Forum on Antiphospholipid Antibody projects and was placed on a website in June 2010. Thirty hospitals throughout Europe have collaborated to carry out this registry. Cases with obstetric complaints related to antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) who tested positive for aPL at least twice were included prospectively and retrospectively...
February 14, 2019: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771304/mir-126-regulates-glycogen-trophoblast-proliferation-and-dna-methylation-in-the-murine-placenta
#4
Abhijeet Sharma, Lauretta A Lacko, Lissenya B Argueta, Michael D Glendinning, Heidi Stuhlmann
A functional placenta develops through a delicate interplay of its vascular and trophoblast compartments. We have identified a previously unknown expression domain for the endothelial-specific microRNA miR-126 in trophoblasts of murine and human placentas. Here, we determine the role of miR-126 in placental development using a mouse model with a targeted deletion of miR-126. In addition to vascular defects observed only in the embryo, loss of miR-126 function in the placenta leads to junctional zone hyperplasia at E15...
February 13, 2019: Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768664/a-lower-maternal-cortisol-to-cortisone-ratio-precedes-clinical-diagnosis-of-preterm-and-term-preeclampsia-by-many-weeks
#5
Nimesh A Jayasuriya, Alice E Hughes, Ulla Sovio, Emma Cook, D Stephen Charnock-Jones, Gordon C S Smith
CONTEXT: Previous studies have shown reduced placental levels of 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-type 2 (11βHSD2) in preeclampsia. However, it is not known if the maternal cortisol to cortisone ratio is predictive of placental complications of pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between the maternal serum cortisol to cortisone ratio at different stages of pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction (FGR). DESIGN: Women from the Pregnancy Outcome Prediction (POP) study experiencing preeclampsia (n=194) or FGR (n=185) plus a random sample of healthy controls (n=279) were studied...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765769/rosiglitazone-blocks-first-trimester-in-vitro-placental-injury-caused-by-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-inflammation
#6
Leena Kadam, Brian Kilburn, Dora Baczyk, Hamid Reza Kohan-Ghadr, John Kingdom, Sascha Drewlo
Increased inflammation and abnormal placentation are common features of a wide spectrum of pregnancy-related disorders such as intra uterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and preterm birth. The inflammatory response of the human placenta has been mostly investigated in relation to cytokine release, but the direct molecular consequences on trophoblast differentiation have not been investigated. This study measured the general effects of LPS on both extravillous and villous trophoblast physiology, and the involvement of the transcription factors PPARγ and NF-κB, specifically using 1st trimester explants and HTR-8/ SVneo cell line models...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765280/the-placenta-a-site-of-end-organ-damage-after-fontan-operation-a-case-series
#7
Amanda L Phillips, Frank Cetta, Sarah E Kerr, E Heidi Cheek, Carl H Rose, Crystal R Bonnichsen, Sabrina D Phillips
BACKGROUND: Placental insufficiency may be the cause of the high preterm birth rate in women after Fontan operation. In this study we reviewed the clinical course and pregnancy outcome of women with Fontan physiology with a focus on placental pathology. METHODS: We reviewed clinical charts and placental pathology from 7 women with Fontan physiology who had pregnancies at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. The review was limited to cases where placental pathologic specimens were rigorously examined...
February 5, 2019: International Journal of Cardiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763271/neurological-development-may-be-accelerated-in-growth-restricted-fetuses-a-4d-ultrasound-study
#8
Nobuhiro Mori, Kenji Kanenishi, Mohamed Ahmed Mostafa AboEllail, Emiko Nitta, Toshiyuki Hata
Objective To assess whether neurological maturation and development are accelerated in fetal growth restriction (FGR) in utero using four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound. Methods The facial expressions of 50 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) and 34 FGR fetuses aged between 28 and 35 gestational weeks were assessed using 4D ultrasound. Subsequently, they were differentiated into two gestational age groups (19 aged 28-31 weeks and 31 aged 32-35 weeks in AGA, and 15 aged 28-31 weeks and 19 aged 32-35 weeks in FGR)...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762655/apparent-diffusion-coefficient-of-the-placenta-and-fetal-organs-in-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#9
Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel Razek, Mahmoud Thabet, Eman Abdel Salam
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the placenta and fetal organs in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study of 30 consecutive pregnant women (aged 21-38 years with mean age of 31.5 years and a mean gestational week of 35 ± 2.3) with IUGR and 15 age-matched pregnant women was conducted. All patients and controls underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The ADCs of the placenta and fetal brain, kidney, and lung were calculated and correlated with neonates needing intensive care unit (ICU) admission...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758974/differential-effects-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-and-a-hypersinsulinemic-isoglycemic-clamp-on-metabolic-pathways-and-insulin-action-in-the-fetal-liver
#10
Amanda K Jones, Laura D Brown, Paul J Rozance, Natalie J Serkova, William W Hay, Jacob E Friedman, Stephanie R Wesolowski
Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetal sheep have increased hepatic glucose production (HGP) that is resistant to suppression during a hyperinsulinemic-isoglycemic clamp (insulin-clamp). We hypothesized that the IUGR fetal liver would have activation of metabolic and signaling pathways that support HGP and inhibition of insulin signaling pathways. To test this, we used transcriptomic profiling with liver samples from control (CON) and IUGR fetuses receiving saline or an insulin-clamp. The IUGR liver had upregulation of genes associated with gluconeogenesis/glycolysis, transcription factor regulation, and cytokine responses and downregulation of genes associated with cholesterol synthesis, amino acid degradation, and detoxification pathways...
February 13, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746307/intrauterine-growth-and-the-maturation-process-of-adrenal-function
#11
Sachiko Iwata, Masahiro Kinoshita, Hisayoshi Okamura, Kennosuke Tsuda, Mamoru Saikusa, Eimei Harada, Shinji Saitoh, Osuke Iwata
Backgrounds: Environmental factors during early life alter the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation and increase the risk of diseases in later life. However, adrenal function at each developmental stage has not fully been investigated in relation to pathological antenatal conditions. Cortisol levels of newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are elevated during the neonatal period; however, when studied during early childhood, cortisol levels are reduced compared with their peers, suggesting that the HPA axis regulation might be altered from activation to suppression, the timing of which remains uncertain...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745494/lvrn-expression-is-not-critical-for-mouse-placentation
#12
Tomohiro Tobita, Daiji Kiyozumi, Masanaga Muto, Taichi Noda, Masahito Ikawa
Preeclampsia is a systemic disease caused by abnormal placentation that affects both mother and fetus. It was reported that Laeverin (LVRN, also known as Aminopeptidase Q) was up-regulated in the placenta of preeclamptic patients. However, physiological and pathological functions of LVRN remained to be unknown. Here we characterized Lvrn function during placentation in mice. RT-PCR showed that Lvrn is expressed in both fetus and placenta during embryogenesis, and several adult tissues. When we overexpressed Lvrn in a placenta-specific manner using lentiviral vectors, we did not see any defects in both placentae and fetuses...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745114/the-untapped-potential-of-placenta-enriched-molecules-for-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-development
#13
REVIEW
Carole-Anne Whigham, Teresa M MacDonald, Susan P Walker, Natalie J Hannan, Stephen Tong, Tu'uhevaha J Kaitu'u-Lino
Pregnancy complications such as fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia are diseases with limited biomarkers for prediction, and a complete lack of therapeutic options. We define placenta-enriched molecules as those that are highly expressed in the placenta relative to all other human tissues. Many exist including mRNAs, miRNAs and proteins. It is now well established that placenta-enriched mRNAs are found within the maternal circulation and are cleared rapidly after birth. Similarly, distinct clusters of miRNAs that are placenta-enriched have been identified and are measurable within the circulation...
February 4, 2019: Placenta
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744513/fetal-growth-restriction-is-associated-with-decreased-number-of-ovarian-follicles-and-impaired-follicle-growth-in-young-adult-guinea-pig-offspring
#14
Patrycja A Jazwiec, Xinglin Li, Brad Matushewski, Bryan S Richardson, Deborah M Sloboda
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms mediating the impacts of fetal growth restriction (FGR) on follicular development are commonly studied in mouse/rat models, where ovarian development occurs largely during the early postnatal period. These models have shown that FGR is associated with premature follicle loss, early pubertal onset, and accelerated ovarian aging. Whether the same occurs in precocious species is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Since guinea pig follicle development occurs in utero in a manner consistent with human ovarian development, we sought to determine whether FGR had similar impacts on guinea pig ovarian development...
February 11, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742784/plasticity-of-the-maternal-vasculature-during-pregnancy
#15
George Osol, Nga Ling Ko, Maurizio Mandalà
Maternal cardiovascular changes during pregnancy include an expansion of plasma volume, increased cardiac output, decreased peripheral resistance, and increased uteroplacental blood flow. These adaptations facilitate the progressive increase in uteroplacental perfusion that is required for normal fetal growth and development, prevent the development of hypertension, and provide a reserve of blood in anticipation of the significant blood loss associated with parturition. Each woman's genotype and phenotype determine her ability to adapt in response to molecular signals that emanate from the fetoplacental unit...
February 10, 2019: Annual Review of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742329/the-controversial-role-of-the-ductus-venosus-in-hypoxic-human-fetuses
#16
Enrico Ferrazzi, Christoph Lees, Ganesh Acharya
The ductus venosus plays a critical role in circulatory adaptation to hypoxia in fetal growth restriction, but the mechanisms still remain controversial. Increased shunting of blood through the ductus venosus under hypoxic conditions has been shown in animal and human studies. The hemodynamic laws governing the accelerated flow in this vessel suggest that any dilatation at its isthmus, which increases the blood flow shunting to the heart, is associated with a low, absent or reversed a-wave, and a high pulsatility index...
February 11, 2019: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30741571/increased-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-the-kidneys-of-intrauterine-growth-restricted-rats
#17
Tyrus Stewart, Mahmoud Kallash, V Matti Vehaskari, Sydney M Hodgeson, Diego H Aviles
BACKGROUND: IUGR has been associated with nephron loss and chronic kidney disease (CKD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined autophagy and apoptosis markers in the kidneys of IUGR Sprague Dawley rats induced by maternal low protein diet (LP), comparing them to controls. The autophagy marker LC3B, the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were determined by quantitative immunoblotting. Immunohistochemical expressions of LC3B, Bax, and Bcl-2 were evaluated at 4 weeks age...
February 11, 2019: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30741044/umbilical-artery-pulsatility-index-and-half-peak-systolic-velocity-deceleration-time-in-fetuses-with-trisomy-21
#18
Juan Carlos Bustos, Alvaro Herrera, Waldo Sepulveda
OBJECTIVE: To analyze placental vascular resistance and the role of placental insufficiency in the etiology of reduced fetal growth in fetuses with trisomy 21 as determined by umbilical artery (UA) Doppler velocimetry. METHODS: Second- and third-trimester UA Doppler ultrasound studies were performed in fetuses with trisomy 21 at the time of clinically indicated obstetric ultrasound assessment. The UA pulsatility index (PI) and half-peak systolic velocity deceleration time (hPSV-DT) were measured and recorded...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740741/clinical-biochemical-and-molecular-overview-of-transaldolase-deficiency-and-evaluation-of-the-endocrine-function-update-of-34-patients
#19
Monique Williams, Vassili Valayannopoulos, Ruqaiah Altassan, Wendy K Chung, Annemieke C Heijboer, Wei Teik Keng, Risto Lapatto, Patricia McClean, Margot F Mulder, Anna Tylki-Szymańska, Marie-Jose E Walenkamp, Majid Alfadhel, Hajar Alakeel, Gajja S Salomons, Wafaa Eyaid, Mirjam M C Wamelink
BACKGROUND: Transaldolase deficiency (TALDO-D) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of the pentose phosphate pathway. Since its first description in 2001, several case reports have been published, but there has been no comprehensive overview of phenotype, genotype, and phenotype-genotype correlation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective questionnaire and literature study of clinical, biochemical, and molecular data of 34 patients from 25 families with proven TALDO-D...
January 2019: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739099/brain-intracrinology-of-allopregnanolone-during-pregnancy-and-hormonal-contraception
#20
REVIEW
Nicola Pluchino, Yveline Ansaldi, Andrea R Genazzani
Allopregnanolone (ALLO) has a crucial role in brain development and remodeling. Reproductive transitions associated with endocrine changes affect synthesis and activity of ALLO with behavioral/affective consequences. Pregnancy is characterized by an increased synthesis of progesterone/ALLO by the placenta, maternal and fetal brains. This suggests the critical role of these steroids in maternal brain adaptation during pregnancy and the development of the fetal brain. ALLO is brain protective during complications of pregnancy, such as preterm delivery or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), reducing the impact of hypoxia, and excitotoxic brain damage...
February 11, 2019: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
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