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positron emission tomography perfusion

Michael J Zellweger
Patient tailored diagnosis and risk stratification in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD) are pivotal. At present, cardiac imaging modalities provide the possibility to evaluate the whole ischaemic cascade noninvasively. In asymptomatic patients, the evaluation of the calcium score may be beneficial and also guide the individual preventive strategy. Furthermore, the calcium score provides complimentary information to the information as assessed by functional testing. Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is an excellent tool to exclude CAD, having a negative predictive value of 97–99%...
February 11, 2019: Swiss Medical Weekly
YanLiang Yuan, Bing Huang, Haoran Miao, Xiucheng Liu, Hao Zhang, Fan Qiu, Zhiwei Liu, Yiqian Zhang, Hongyan Dong, Zhongming Zhang
Background The failure to maintain the viability of ischemic myocardium is one of the mechanisms causing ischemic heart dysfunction after revascularization. Hibernating Myocardium is considered to be able to maintain a long-term viability during chronic hypoperfusion. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) decreases the contractility of hypoxic cardiomyocytes and protects cardiomyocytes against ischemic injury, which is strikingly similar to the pathophysiologic characteristics of Hibernating Myocardium. We therefore postulate that PEDF may induce the acute ischemic myocardium into a "Hibernating-like" state to maintain its viability...
February 8, 2019: Human Gene Therapy
Xuanting Li, Junliang Yuan, Lei Liu, Wenli Hu
BACKGROUND: Anti leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) encephalitis is a rare autoimmune encephalitis (AE), characterized by acute or subacute cognitive impairment, faciobrachial dystonic seizures, psychiatric disturbances and hyponatremia. Antibody-LGI 1 autoimmune encephalitis (anti-LGI1 AE) has increasingly been recognized as a primary autoimmune disorder with favorable prognosis and response to treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we reported a male patient presenting as rapidly progressive dementia and hyponatremia...
February 7, 2019: BMC Neurology
Firas J Al Badarin, John A Spertus, Timothy M Bateman, Krishna K Patel, Eric V Burgett, Kevin F Kennedy, Randall C Thompson
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing emphasis on reducing radiation exposure from myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), the use of radiation-sparing practices (RSP) at nuclear laboratories remains limited. Defining real-world impact of RSPs on effective radiation dose (E) can potentially further motivate their adoption. METHODS: MPI studies performed between 1/2010 and 12/2016 within a single health system were included. Mean E was compared between sites with 'basic' RSP (defined as elimination of thallium-based protocols and use of stress-only (SO) imaging on conventional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cameras) and those with 'advanced' capabilities (sites that additionally used solid-state detector (SSD) SPECT cameras, advanced post-processing software (APPS) or positron emission tomography (PET) imaging), after matching patients by age, gender, and weight...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Philipp Lohmann, Jan-Michael Werner, N Jon Shah, Gereon R Fink, Karl-Josef Langen, Norbert Galldiks
Imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide valuable information about brain tumor patients. Particularly amino acid PET, advanced MRI techniques, and combinations thereof are of great interest for the non-invasive assessment of biological characteristics in patients with primary or secondary brain cancer. A methodological innovation that potentially advances research in patients with brain tumors is the increasing availability of hybrid PET/MRI systems, which enables the simultaneous acquisition of both imaging modalities...
January 29, 2019: Cancers
Mads Ryø Jochumsen, Lars Poulsen Tolbod, Bodil Ginnerup Pedersen, Maria Munk Nielsen, Søren Høyer, Jørgen Frøkiær, Michael Borre, Kirsten Bouchelouche, Jens Sorensen
The aim of this work was to evaluate 82 Rubidium (82 Rb) positron emission tomography (PET) / computed tomography (CT) as a diagnostic tool for quantitative tumor blood flow (TBF) imaging in prostate cancer (PCa). Study 1 was performed to evaluate 82 Rb as a marker of TBF, using 15 O-H2O-PET as reference method. Study 2 investigated the ability of 82 Rb uptake measurements to differentiate between PCa and normal prostate. Methods: Study 1. Nine PCa patients scheduled for radical prostatectomy were included...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Roel S Driessen, Ibrahim Danad, Wijnand J Stuijfzand, Pieter G Raijmakers, Stefan P Schumacher, Pepijn A van Diemen, Jonathon A Leipsic, Juhani Knuuti, S Richard Underwood, Peter M van de Ven, Albert C van Rossum, Charles A Taylor, Paul Knaapen
BACKGROUND: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) computation from coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) datasets (FFRCT ) has emerged as a promising noninvasive test to assess hemodynamic severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), but has not yet been compared with traditional functional imaging. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of FFRCT and compare it with coronary CTA, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) for ischemia diagnosis...
January 22, 2019: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Ahmed Haider, Susan Bengs, Monika Maredziak, Michael Messerli, Michael Fiechter, Andreas A Giannopoulos, Valerie Treyer, Moritz Schwyzer, Christel Hermann Kamani, Dimitri Patriki, Elia von Felten, Dominik C Benz, Tobias A Fuchs, Christoph Gräni, Aju P Pazhenkottil, Philipp A Kaufmann, Ronny R Buechel, Catherine Gebhard
PURPOSE: Evidence to date has failed to adequately explore determinants of cardiovascular risk in women with coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMVD). Heart rate responses to adenosine mirror autonomic activity and may carry important prognostic information for the diagnosis of CMVD. METHODS: Hemodynamic changes during adenosine stress were analyzed in a propensity-matched cohort of 404 patients (202 women, mean age 65.9 ± 11.0) who underwent clinically indicated myocardial perfusion 13 N-ammonia Positron-Emission-Tomography (PET) at our institution between September 2013 and May 2017...
January 16, 2019: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Giacomo Tondo, Marcello Esposito, George Dervenoulas, Heather Wilson, Marios Politis, Gennaro Pagano
Even before the success of combined positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT), the neuroimaging community was conceiving the idea to integrate the positron emission tomography (PET), with very high molecular quantitative data but low spatial resolution, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with high spatial resolution. Several technical limitations have delayed the use of a hybrid scanner in neuroimaging studies, including the full integration of the PET detector ring within the MRI system, the optimization of data acquisition, and the implementation of reliable methods for PET attenuation, motion correction, and joint image reconstruction...
2019: International Review of Neurobiology
Audrey P Fan, Mohammad M Khalighi, Jia Guo, Yosuke Ishii, Jarrett Rosenberg, Mirwais Wardak, Jun Hyung Park, Bin Shen, Dawn Holley, Harsh Gandhi, Tom Haywood, Prachi Singh, Gary K Steinberg, Frederick T Chin, Greg Zaharchuk
Background and Purpose- Noninvasive imaging of brain perfusion has the potential to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Moyamoya disease and enable clinical imaging of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to select revascularization therapies for patients. We used hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology to characterize the distribution of hypoperfusion in Moyamoya disease and its relationship to vessel stenosis severity, through comparisons with a normative perfusion database of healthy controls...
February 2019: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Thomas J Biggans
When cognitive impairment is first evident it can be difficult to distinguish between different conditions such as idiopathic Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementia. Imaging both cerebral perfusion and dopamine transporter function has been shown to provide accurate differentiation between the most common conditions. At present cerebral perfusion and dopamine transporter imaging is conducted on separate days. Carrying out both scans on the same day has the potential to benefit the patient through the social convenience of one visit to hospital and the earlier availability of results...
January 7, 2019: Medical Engineering & Physics
Roland M Martens, Daniel P Noij, Meedie Ali, Thomas Koopman, J Tim Marcus, Marije R Vergeer, Henrica de Vet, Marcus C de Jong, C René Leemans, Otto S Hoekstra, Remco de Bree, Pim de Graaf, Ronald Boellaard, Jonas A Castelijns
This systematic review gives an extensive overview of the current state of functional imaging during (chemo)radiotherapy to predict locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for literature until April 2018 assessing the predictive performance of functional imaging (computed tomography perfusion (CTp), MRI and positron-emission tomography (PET)) within 4 weeks after (chemo)radiotherapy initiation. Fifty-two studies (CTp: n = 4, MRI: n = 19, PET: n = 26, MRI/PET: n = 3) were included involving 1623 patients...
January 2019: Oral Oncology
Federico Caobelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2019: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Seong-Jang Kim, Kyoungjune Pak, Keunyoung Kim
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The PubMed and EMBASE database, from the earliest available date of indexing through 31 March 31, 2018, were searched for studies evaluating the diagnostic performance of F-18 FDG PET or PET/CT for CS...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Michiel J Bom, Stefan P Schumacher, Roel S Driessen, Pieter G Raijmakers, Henk Everaars, Pepijn A van Diemen, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Peter M van de Ven, Albert C van Rossum, Juhani Knuuti, Maija Mäki, Ibrahim Danad, Paul Knaapen
Aims: Despite high variability in coronary anatomy, quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) perfusion in coronary territories is traditionally calculated according to the American Heart Association (AHA) 17-segments model. This study aimed to assess the impact of individualized segmentation of myocardial segments on the diagnostic accuracy of hyperaemic myocardial blood flow (MBF) values for haemodynamically significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and results: Patients with suspected CAD (n = 204) underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and [15O]H2O PET followed by invasive coronary angiography with fractional flow reserve assessment of all major coronary arteries...
December 24, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Jincheng Li, Meiyu Jin, Xiaoyan Sun, Jingying Li, Yumei Liu, Yanli Xi, Qiang Wang, Wenzhuo Zhao, Yanzhi Huang
Moyamoya disease (MMD) and Moyamoya syndrome (MMS) are referring to a progressive steno-occlusive vasculopathy at terminal portions of the bilateral internal carotid arteries and their proximal branches with prominent collateral artery formation. They can be found throughout the world and cause irreversible damage to the cerebral hemodynamics due to the progressive nature. Prompt diagnosis and accurate assessment could significantly improve the prognosis of MMD and MMS. Some imaging modalities could be used for diagnosis and nonquantitative evaluation of MMD and MMS, such as conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), digital subtraction angiography, CT angiography (CTA), and magnetic resonance angiography...
December 26, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Michael C Desiderio, Justin B Lundbye, William L Baker, Mary Beth Farrell, Scott D Jerome, Gary V Heller
BACKGROUND: Radiation exposure during nuclear cardiology procedures has received much attention and has prompted citations for radiation reduction. In 2010, the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology recommended reducing the average patient study radiation exposure to <9 mSv in 50% of studies by 2014. Cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has emerged within recent years, but current radiation exposure in cardiac nuclear PET laboratories is unknown...
December 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVESome adult patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) undergoing revascularization surgery show an improvement or decline in cognition postoperatively. Revascularization surgery for ischemic MMD augments cerebral blood flow (CBF) and improves cerebral oxygen metabolism. However, cerebral hyperperfusion, which is a short-term, major increase in ipsilateral CBF that is much greater than the metabolic needs of the brain, sometimes occurs as a complication. Cerebral hyperperfusion produces widespread, minimal injury to the ipsilateral white matter and cortical regions...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
S Du, H Sun, S Gao, J Xin, Z Lu, Z Chen, S Pan, Q Guo
AIM: To explore the relationship between positron-emission tomography (PET) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) histogram parameters and their correlations with the clinicopathological features of cervical squamous cell cancer (CSCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four patients with CSCC underwent pelvic combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including IVIM sequences. The maximum/mean standardized uptake value (SUVmax /SUVmean ), metabolic tumour volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) of PET, histogram parameters of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), IVIM biomarkers of tissue diffusivity (D), and perfusion fraction (F) were calculated...
December 10, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Pierre-Yves Le Roux, Rodney J Hicks, Shankar Siva, Michael S Hofman
Ventilation/Perfusion (V/Q) positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) is now possible by substituting Technetium-99m (99m Tc) with Gallium-68 (68 Ga), using the same carrier molecules as conventional V/Q imaging. Ventilation imaging can be performed with 68 Ga-carbon nanoparticles using the same synthesis device as Technegas. Perfusion imaging can be performed with 68 Ga-macroaggregated albumin. Similar physiological processes can therefore be evaluated by either V/Q SPECT/CT or PET/CT. However, V/Q PET/CT is inherently a superior technology for image acquisition, with higher sensitivity, higher spatial and temporal resolution, and superior quantitative capability, allowing more accurate delineation and quantification of regional lung function...
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
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