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Jennifer M Pearson, Elizabeth R Homerosky, Nigel A Caulkett, John R Campbell, Michel Levy, Edmond A Pajor, M Claire Windeyer
This cross-sectional study quantifies subclinical trauma associated with calving difficulty, calf vigour, and passive immunity (PI) in newborn beef calves. The degree of calving difficulty was categorised as: unassisted, easy assist (one or two people manually pulling to deliver the calf) and difficult assist (more than two people pulling, a fetal extractor (ie, calf jack), or caesarean section). Vigour assessment occurred at 10 minutes and blood sampling at 24 hours after birth in 77 beef calves. The measured blood parameters associated with trauma were creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and haptoglobin...
2019: Veterinary Record Open
Mingming Wang, Haibin Qu, Huidi Zhang, Shuai Liu, Yan Li, Chunqing Zhang
ABA/GA4 ratio, stress resistance, carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and chromatin structure play important roles in vigour differences of seeds located at different maize ear positions. Seed vigour, which ensures rapid and uniform field emergence across diverse environments, differs at different maize ear positions. However, little is known regarding the associated mechanisms. In this study, we determined that seed vigour, stress resistance, and carbon and nitrogen metabolism were higher in seeds from middle and bottom section of the ear, while the ABA/GA4 ratio in the embryos was significantly lower...
February 1, 2019: Plant Molecular Biology
Rina Tilak, Renuka Kunte
Scrub typhus has struck back, albeit with renewed vigour, impacting areas with previously known endemicity as also impressing newer expanses. It is not surprising, therefore, that Scrub typhus has emerged as a leading cause of public health concern globally as well as in India, but are we ready to take on the challenge? Over the last decade, there has been a global increase in the number of outbreaks of Scrub typhus, be it the military occupied areas or the civil population at large. The innumerable outbreaks of Scrub typhus, although disconcerting, have nonetheless contributed phenomenally towards better understanding of the dynamics of scrub typhus...
January 2019: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Jia Bainga Kangbai, Christian Heumann, Michael Hoelscher, Foday Sahr, Guenter Froeschl
BACKGROUND: The West Africa Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in 2014-2016 was declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) a public health emergency of international concern. Most of the previous studies done in Sierra Leone relating to the clinical and epidemiological features of EVD during the 2014-2016 West African outbreak focused on adult EVD patients. There have been conflicting reports about the effects of EVD on children during previous outbreaks. METHODS: This is an observational retrospective analysis of medical data of all laboratory confirmed paediatric EVD patients below 15 years of age who were admitted at the 34 Military Hospital Ebola Treatment Center (ETC) in Wilberforce, Sierra Leone between June 2014 to April 2015...
January 24, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Patricia Palomo-López, Ricardo Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, Marta Elena Losa-Iglesias, Daniel López-López, David Rodríguez-Sanz, Carlos Romero-Morales, César Calvo-Lobo
Generalized ligamentous hyperlaxity (GLH) has been shown to predispose an individual to a number of orthopaedic conditions. Little is known about how GLH affects people' foot health-related quality of life. This study analyses a sample of people with GLH and people without GLH with normalised reference values of the scores collected with regard to using the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FSHQ). A total of 100 respondents with mean age of 22.69 ± 3.78 years old, who attended a health centre were classified as GLH (n = 50) or non-GLH (n = 50)...
September 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Luqmon Azeez, Agbaje Lateef, Abideen A Wahab, Muhammed A Rufai, Amadu K Salau, Ebenezer I O Ajayi, Mercy Ajayi, Maryam K Adegbite, Basirat Adebisi
This study has reported the effects of biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using cocoa pod extract on physiological tolerance indices, antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective potentials of Corchorus olitorius as well as its efficiency for controlling soil phytopathogens. C. olitorius seeds were grown in soil prepared with water (control), 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 mg AgNPs/g soil. C. olitorus grown with AgNPs had significantly (p < 0.05) higher free radical scavenging ability, ferric reducing ability, percentage germination, vigour indices, longer roots and shoots as well as lower moisture content over control...
December 12, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Eugenia M A Enfissi, Marilise Nogueira, Caterina D'Ambrosio, Adriana Lucia Stigliani, Giovanni Giorio, Norihiko Misawa, Paul D Fraser
Tomato fruit are an important nutritional component of the human diet and offer potential to act as a cell factory for speciality chemicals, which are often produced by chemical synthesis. In the present study our goal was to produce competitive levels of the high value ketocarotenoid, astaxanthin, in tomato fruit. The initial stage in this process was achieved by expressing the 4, 4' carotenoid oxygenase (crtW) and 3, 3' hydroxylase (crtZ) from marine bacteria in tomato under constitutive control. Characterisation of this genotype showed a surprising low level production of ketocarotenoids in ripe fruit but over production of lycopene (~3...
January 8, 2019: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Philippe D'Hooghe, Dimitri Picot, Sophie Brunel-Muguet, Stanislav Kopriva, Jean-Christophe Avice, Jacques Trouverie
In oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.), sulphur (S) limitation leads to a reduction of seed yield and nutritional quality, but also to a reduction of seed viability and vigour. S metabolism is known to be involved in the control of germination sensu stricto and seedling establishment. Nevertheless, how the germination and the first steps of plant growth are impacted in seeds produced by plants subjected to various sulphate limitations remains largely unknown. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the impact of various S-limited conditions applied to the mother plants on the germination indexes and the rate of viable seedlings in a spring oilseed rape cultivar (cv...
January 5, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Johanna Schwarz, John Axelsson, Andreas Gerhardsson, Sandra Tamm, Håkan Fischer, Göran Kecklund, Torbjörn Åkerstedt
Sleep deprivation commonly impairs affective regulation and causes worse mood. However, the majority of previous research concerns young adults. Because susceptibility to sleep deprivation and emotion regulation change distinctively across adult age, we tested here the hypothesis that the effect of sleep deprivation on mood is stronger in young than in older adults. In an experimental design, young (18-30 years) and older adults (60-72 years) participated in either a sleep control (young, n = 63; older, n = 47) or a total sleep deprivation condition (young, n = 61; older, n = 47)...
December 25, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
K S V Poorna Chandrika, R D Prasad, Varsha Godbole
Fungi under genus Trichoderma as ameliorates of biotic and abiotic stresses in cultivated crops is gaining popularity world-wide and their application in conjunction with seed coating polymers is an attractive proposition to reduce bioagent wastage and harnessing benefits of combined application. The synergistic action of Trichoderma with natural polymers like chitosan can enhance antimicrobial activity. A series of blended film solutions were synthesized by using chitosan, PEG and plasticizer in varying concentrations...
December 22, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
María Del Carmen Pérez-Fuentes, María Del Mar Molero Jurado, Ana Belén Barragán Martín, María Del Mar Simón Márquez, África Martos Martínez, José Jesús Gázquez Linares
Positive occupational health psychology (POHP) examines the mechanisms that promote the health and wellbeing of workers, in addition to the risk factors arising from work activity. The aim of this study was to analyse the mediating role of perceived stress in the effect that self-efficacy has on engagement in nurses. The sample was comprised of 1777 currently working nurses. We administered the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), the Perceived Stress Questionnaire and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Following bivariate correlational analysis, multiple linear regression analysis and simple and multiple mediation analysis, the results showed self-efficacy to be a powerful personal resource that positively predicts employee engagement, although the effect diminishes when there are mediating variables of stress...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Annie George, Jay Udani, Nurhayati Zainal Abidin, Ashril Yusof
Background: The use of alternative and complementary medicines to alleviate stress has increased to avoid the negative effects of pharmaceutical drugs. Objective: This study investigated the safety and efficacy of Eurycoma longifolia in combination with multivitamins (EL+MV) versus placebo on improving quality of life (QoL), mood and stress in moderately stressed healthy participants. Methods: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study enrolled 93 participants aged 25-65 years, with a body mass index of 18-30 kg/m2 , scoring ≤18 in tension and ≤14 in fatigue subscale of Profiles of Mood Scores (POMS) questionnaire and supplemented with EL+MV or placebo...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Jean-Pierre Berlan
George Shull's 1908 seminal article 'The composition of a field of maize' marked the 'exploitation of heterosis in plant breeding, surely one of genetics' greatest triumphs'. Hybrid corn became a 'symbol of American agriculture' and 'the paradigm for all developments of F1 hybrid crop varieties and more generally breeding. But there is still no consensus on the definition of heterosis while its biological basis, causal factors and genetic mechanisms remain 'unknown', or at best 'poorly understood'. It is thus logical to reverse the usual approach from the exploitation of a mysterious heterosis to the triumph of hybrid corn and focus on what breeders and geneticists do rather than on the theoretical reasons for their success...
December 2018: Journal of Genetics
Hana Ševčíková, Zuzana Lhotáková, Jaromír Hamet, Helena Lipavská
Rate of photosynthesis and related plant carbohydrate status are crucial factors affecting plant vigour. Sugars providing carbon and energy sources serve also as important signalling molecules governing plant growth and development through a complex regulatory network. These facts are often neglected when mixotrophic cultivation of plants in vitro is used, where artificial exogenous sugar supply hinders studies of metabolism as well as sugar-driven developmental processes. We compared the growth, selected gas-exchange parameters and sugar metabolism characteristics in four model plants, potato (Solanum tuberosum 'Lada'), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'Samsun'), rapeseed (Brassica napus 'Asgard') and strawberry (Fragaria vesca), under both photomixotrophic (PM) and photoautotrophic (PA) conditions...
December 7, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207788.].
2018: PloS One
Olga Troynikov, Christopher G Watson, Nazia Nawaz
Sleep loss impairs task performance and post-physical activity recovery, cognitive performance and mood, heightens fatigue and decreases vigour; poor sleep quality impairs decision-making, the speed and accuracy of task performance, and post-exercise recovery. Sleep time and quality are affected by age, psychological and physiological conditions, culture and environmental factors. Skin temperature, rapid temperature change and sweating during sleep can significantly reduce sleep quality. Hence, the thermal properties of bedding and sleepwear, both in steady-state and transient ambient temperature conditions, are logically important factors...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Sarah V Hatzig, Jan-Niklas Nuppenau, Rod J Snowdon, Sarah V Schießl
BACKGROUND: Drought stress has a negative effect on both seed yield and seed quality in Brassica napus (oilseed rape, canola). Here we show that while drought impairs the maternal plant performance, it also increases the vigour of progeny of stressed maternal plants. We investigated the transgenerational influence of abiotic stress by detailed analysis of yield, seed quality, and seedling performance on a growth-related and metabolic level. Seeds of eight diverse winter oilseed rape genotypes were generated under well-watered and drought stress conditions under controlled-environment conditions in large plant containers...
November 23, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Yue-Yu Gu, Meng-Hua Chen, Brian H May, Xiao-Zhong Liao, Jia-Hui Liu, Lan-Ting Tao, Daniel Man-Yuen Sze, Anthony Lin Zhang, Sui-Lin Mo
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that colorectal cancer (CRC) was the third most common cancer in men and the second in women, worldwide. Our previous meta-analysis found Sophora flavescens increased tumour response rate in randomised controlled trials of CRC. We hypothesised that its principal constituent matrine had exerted anti-tumour effects. PURPOSE: To elucidate its mechanisms of action we investigated the dose-related anti-tumour effects of matrine on four human CRC cell-lines: LS174T, Caco-2, SW1116 and RKO...
December 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
David Meder, Damian Marc Herz, James Benedict Rowe, Stéphane Lehéricy, Hartwig Roman Siebner
Parkinson's disease causes a characteristic combination of motor symptoms due to progressive neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. The core impairment of dopaminergic neurotransmission has motivated the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with Parkinson's disease to elucidate the role of dopamine in motor control and cognition in humans. Here we review the main insights from functional brain imaging in Parkinson's disease. Task-related fMRI revealed many disease-related alterations in brain activation patterns...
November 20, 2018: NeuroImage
Benjamin P Chapman, Alison Huang, Elizabeth Horner, Kelly Peters, Ellena Sempeles, Brent Roberts, Susan Lapham
BACKGROUND: It is unclear if adolescent personality predicts mortality into late life, independent of adolescent socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS: Over 26 000 members of Project Talent, a US population cohort of high school students, completed a survey including 10 personality scales and SES in 1960. Multi-source mortality follow-up obtained vital status data through an average 48-year period ending in 2009. Cox proportional hazard models examined the relative risk associated with personality traits, as well as confounding by both a measure of SES and by race/ethnicity...
February 2019: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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