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Lipid signaling

Andrew R Korte, Nicholas Morris, Akos Vertes
Silicon nanopost arrays (NAPA) have been shown to be effective substrates for laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (LDI-MS), and have been used to analyze a variety of samples including peptides, metabolites, drugs, explosives, and intact cells, as well as to image lipids and metabolites in tissue sections. However, no direct comparison has yet been conducted between NAPA-MS and the most commonly-used LDI-MS technique, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-MS. In this work, we compare the utility of NAPA-MS to that of MALDI-MS using two common matrices for the analysis of metabolites in cellular extracts and human urine...
February 20, 2019: Analytical Chemistry
Chuan-Hai Li, Xiao-Min Ren, Liang-Hong Guo
Hexafluoropropylene oxide trimer acid (HFPO-TA) and hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA) have been used as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) alternatives in the fluoropolymer industry for years. Their widespread environmental distribution, high bioaccumulation capability and human exposure have caused great concern. Nevertheless, their potential toxicity and health risk remain largely unknown. In the present study, we compared potential disruption effects of HFPO-TA, HFPO-DA and PFOA on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) via the investigation of receptor binding, receptor activity and cell adipogenesis effects...
February 20, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
D Merrill Dane, Cuneyt Yilmaz, Dipendra Gyawali, Roshni Iyer, Jyothi U Menon, Kytai T Nguyen, Priya Ravikumar, Aaron S Estrera, Connie C W Hsia
Paracrine erythropoietin (EPO) signaling in the lung recruits endothelial progenitor cells, promotes cell maturation and angiogenesis , and is upregulated during canine post-pneumonectomy (PNX) compensatory lung growth. To determine whether inhalational delivery of exogenous EPO augments endogenous post-PNX lung growth, adult canines underwent right PNX and received, via a permanent tracheal stoma, weekly nebulization of recombinant human EPO-containing nanoparticles or empty nanoparticles (control) for 16 weeks...
February 20, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Kamran Gaba, Richard Bulbulia
BACKGROUND: Carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting, in addition to good medical therapy, halve long-term stroke risk in asymptomatic patients with carotid artery stenosis. Since the absolute benefits following successful intervention are moderate, identification of asymptomatic patients at high-risk of future stroke could maximise the effectiveness of carotid interventions. AIM: To summarise the evidence for high-risk features associated with increased long-term stroke risk in asymptomatic patients...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Yatao Shi, Jillian Johnson, Bowen Wang, Bingming Chen, Gregory L Fisher, Go Urabe, Xudong Shi, K Craig Kent, Lian-Wang Guo, Lingjun Li
Restenosis, or re-narrowing of the arterial lumen, is a common recurrent disease following balloon angioplasty and stenting treatments for cardiovascular disease. A major technical barrier for deciphering restenotic mechanisms is the dynamic, spatial profiling of bioactive lipids in the arterial wall, especially in small animals. Here, applying matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI), we conducted the first lipidomic study of temporal-spatial profiling in a small animal model of angioplasty-induced restenosis...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Proteome Research
Agnieszka Gęgotek, Ewa Ambrożewicz, Anna Jastrząb, Iwona Jarocka-Karpowicz, Elżbieta Skrzydlewska
The combination of ascorbic acid and rutin is frequently used in oral preparations. However, despite numerous protective effects of each component individually, their combined effect on ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated skin cells has never been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of ascorbic acid and rutin on human keratinocytes and fibroblasts exposed to UVA and UVB radiation. Skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts exposed to UVA and UVB radiation were treated with ascorbic acid or/and rutin...
February 19, 2019: Archives of Dermatological Research
Xiaoli Wu
In the present study, candidate genes affected by rosiglitazone to exert glycemic control in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated with its adverse cardiovascular effects were identified using a bioinformatics analysis. The gene expression profiles of the dataset GSE36875 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, including heart samples from 5 non-diabetic control mice (NC), 5 untreated diabetic mice (NH) and 5 rosiglitazone-treated diabetic mice (TH), were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the NC vs...
March 2019: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jorge Moreno-Fernandez, María J M Alférez, Inmaculada López-Aliaga, Javier Diaz-Castro
Oxidative stress is a harmful factor for male reproductive function, and a major cause of infertility. On the other hand, fermented goat milk has positive effects on anemia recovery and mineral metabolism. This study evaluated the effect of feeding rats with fermented milks during anaemia recovery on molecular mechanisms linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling in rats reproductive system. Forty male Wistar rats were placed on a pre-experimental period of 40 days (control group, receiving normal-Fe diet and Fe-deficient group, receiving low-Fe diet)...
February 19, 2019: Scientific Reports
Rui Miao, Shiu-Cheung Lung, Xin Li, Xiang David Li, Mee-Len Chye
Lysophospholipids (LPLs) are important lipid-signaling molecules in plants, of which lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) is one of the most well-characterized LPLs, having important roles in plant stress responses. It is broken down by lysophospholipases, but the molecular mechanism involved in lysoPC degradation is unclear. Recombinant Arabidopsis thaliana ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN2 (AtACBP2) has been reported to bind lysoPC via its acyl-CoA-binding domain and also LYSOPHOSPHOLIPASE 2 (AtLYSOPL2) via its ankyrin repeats in vitro To investigate the interactions of AtACBP2 with AtLYSOPL2 and lysoPC in more detail, we conducted isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) with AtACBP270-354 , an AtACBP2 derivative consisting of amino acids 70-354, containing both the acyl-CoA-binding domain and ankyrin repeats...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Arun Anantharam, Alex J B Kreutzberger
Ca2+ -dependent secretion is a process by which important signaling molecules that are produced within a cell-including proteins and neurotransmitters-are expelled to the extracellular environment. The cellular mechanism that underlies secretion is referred to as exocytosis. Many years of work have revealed that exocytosis in neurons and neuroendocrine cells is tightly coupled to Ca2+ and orchestrated by a series of protein-protein/protein-lipid interactions. Here, we highlight landmark discoveries that have informed our current understanding of the process...
February 19, 2019: Journal of General Physiology
Yueyue Lei, Leilei Gong, Fanggen Tan, Yixiao Liu, Shuangshuang Li, Houwang Shen, Min Zhu, Weiwei Cai, Fei Xu, Bao Hou, Yuetao Zhou, Hongxiu Han, Liying Qiu, Haijian Sun
Destructive glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver is a crucial characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), eventually leading to insulin resistance and subsequent hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Vaccarin is an active flavonoid glycoside associated with various biological functions, but its effects on glucose and lipid metabolic disorder in T2DM are still unclear. In this study, glucosamine (GlcN) and free fatty acids (FFAs, oleate/palmitate, 2:1 ratio) were applied to mimic insulin resistance and lipid deposition in HepG2 cells, respectively...
February 16, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Erdi Sozen, Tugce Demirel, Nesrin Kartal Ozer
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality, all around the world. Vitamin E is an important nutrient influencing key cellular and molecular mechanisms as well as gene expression regulation centrally involved in the prevention of CVD. Cell culture and animal studies have focused on the identification of vitamin E regulated signaling pathways and involvement on inflammation, lipid homeostasis, and atherosclerotic plaque stability. While some of these vitamin E functions were verified in clinical trials, some of the positive effects were not translated into beneficial outcomes in epidemiological studies...
February 18, 2019: IUBMB Life
Jiaqi Huang, Alison M Mondul, Stephanie J Weinstein, Andriy Derkach, Steven C Moore, Joshua N Sampson, Demetrius Albanes
Impaired metabolism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of lethal prostate cancer, yet there is a paucity of evidence regarding the association. We conducted a large prospective serum metabolomic analysis of lethal prostate cancer in 523 cases and 523 matched controls nested within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. Median time from baseline fasting serum collection to prostate cancer death was 18 years (maximum 30 years). We identified 860 known biochemicals through an ultrahigh-performance LC-MS/MS platform...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Cristina Corno, Paola Perego
Metastatic dissemination of tumor cells represents a major obstacle towards cancer cure. Tumor cells with metastatic capacity are often resistant to chemotherapy. Experimental efforts revealed that the metastatic cascade is a complex process that involves multiple positive and negative regulators. In this respect, several metastasis suppressor genes have been described. Here, we review the role of the metastasis suppressor KiSS1 in regulation of metastasis and in response to antitumor agents. Physiologically, KiSS1 plays a key role in the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis regulating puberty and reproductive functions...
February 11, 2019: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
Shu-Fang Xia, Yu-Yu Qiu, Li-Mei Chen, Yu-Yu Jiang, Wei Huang, Zhen-Xing Xie, Xue Tang, Jin Sun
Hepatic microRNAs (miRs) regulate local thyroid hormone (TH) action and TH-related lipid metabolism. We previously found that myricetin effectively ameliorated hepatic steatosis by targeting PPAR signaling pathway, in which the differentially expressed genes were TH-responsive. The present study was designed to explore the mechanism by which myricetin regulated miR-dependent TH action and lipid metabolism on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis. C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD with or without 100 mg kg-1 myricetin by oral gavage for 16 weeks (n = 8 for each group)...
February 18, 2019: Food & Function
King Faisal Yambire, Lorena Fernandez-Mosquera, Robert Steinfeld, Christiane Mühle, Elina Ikonen, Ira Milosevic, Nuno Raimundo
Perturbations in mitochondrial function and homeostasis are pervasive in lysosomal storage diseases, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we report a transcriptional program that represses mitochondrial biogenesis and function in lysosomal storage diseases Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) and acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASM), in patient cells and mouse tissues. This mechanism is mediated by the transcription factors KLF2 and ETV1, which are both induced in NPC and ASM patient cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis and function defects in these cells are rescued by the silencing of KLF2 or ETV1...
February 18, 2019: ELife
Yinzhao Zhong, Bo Song, Changbing Zheng, Fengna Li, Xiangfeng Kong, Yehui Duan, Jinping Deng
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the effects and roles of excess leucine (Leu) versus its metabolites α-ketoisocaproate (KIC) and β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB) on fatty acid composition and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of growing pigs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-two pigs with a similar initial weight (9.55 ± 0.19 kg) were fed one of the four diets (basal diet, L-Leu, KIC-Ca and HMB-Ca) for 45 days. Results indicated that dietary treatments did not affect the intramuscular fat (IMF) content (p > 0...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Eisuke Kato
Plant materials have been widely studied for their preventive and therapeutic effects for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. The effect of a plant material arises from its constituents, and the study of these bioactive compounds is important to achieve a deeper understanding of its effect at the molecular level. In particular, the study of the effects of such bioactive compounds on various biological processes, from digestion to cellular responses, is required to fully understand the overall effects of plant materials in these health contexts...
February 17, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Zhi-Xing Li, Hai-Hua Zhang, Dan-Chun Lan, Hong-Tao Zhang, Jian Sun
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of eletroacupuncture (EA) intervention on lipid metabolism and expression of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) protein in the liver in rats with insulin resistance (IR), so as to reveal its mechanisms underlying improvement of IR. METHODS: Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into blank control, model, medication, and EA groups ( n =8 in each)...
January 25, 2019: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Flavio Di Giacinto, Marco De Spirito, Giuseppe Maulucci
Membrane fluidity, a broad term adopted to describe the thermodynamic phase state of biological membranes, can be altered by local pressure variations caused by ultrasound exposure. The alterations in lipid spatial configuration and dynamics can modify their interactions with membrane proteins and activate signal transduction pathways, thus regulating several cellular functions. Here fluidity maps of murine fibroblast cells are generated at a sub-micrometric scale during ultrasound stimulation with an intensity and frequency typical of medical applications...
February 14, 2019: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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