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CNS disease

Caroline Houillier, Luc Taillandier, Sylvain Dureau, Thierry Lamy, Mouna Laadhari, Olivier Chinot, Cecile Moluçon-Chabrot, Pierre Soubeyran, Remy Gressin, Sylvain Choquet, Gandhi Damaj, Antoine Thyss, Julie Abraham, Vincent Delwail, Emmanuel Gyan, Laurence Sanhes, Jérôme Cornillon, Reda Garidi, Alain Delmer, Marie-Laure Tanguy, Ahmad Al Jijakli, Pierre Morel, Pascal Bourquard, Marie-Pierre Moles, Adrien Chauchet, Thomas Gastinne, Jean-Marc Constans, Adriana Langer, Antoine Martin, Patricia Moisson, Lucette Lacomblez, Nadine Martin-Duverneuil, Daniel Delgadillo, Isabelle Turbiez, Loïc Feuvret, Nathalie Cassoux, Valérie Touitou, Damien Ricard, Khê Hoang-Xuan, Carole Soussain
PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy and toxicity of chemoimmunotherapy followed by either whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) or intensive chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) as a first-line treatment of primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Immunocompetent patients (18 to 60 years of age) with untreated PCNSL were randomly assigned to receive WBRT or ASCT as consolidation treatment after induction chemotherapy consisting of two cycles of R-MBVP (rituximab 375 mg/m2 day (D) 1, methotrexate 3 g/m2 D1; D15, VP16 100 mg/m2 D2, BCNU 100 mg/m2 D3, prednisone 60 mg/kg/d D1-D5) followed by two cycles of R-AraC (rituximab 375 mg/m2 D1, cytarabine 3 g/m2 D1 to D2)...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Song Chen, Su-Ting Chen, Yan Sun, Zheng Xu, Ying Wang, Si-Yuan Yao, Wen-Bing Yao, Xiang-Dong Gao
Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying process in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is far from completion and new therapeutic targets are urgently needed. Recently, the link between dementia and diabetes mellitus (DM) prompted us to search for new therapeutic strategies from glucose metabolism regulators for neurodegeneration. Previous studies have indicated that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), an attractive and potential therapeutic treatment for DM, may exert diverse effects in the central nervous system...
February 1, 2019: Redox Biology
Gerard Rosse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2019: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Thuy-Truc Ta, Hasan Onur Dikmen, Simone Schilling, Bruno Chausse, Andrea Lewen, Jan-Oliver Hollnagel, Oliver Kann
Type II IFN (IFN-γ) is a proinflammatory T lymphocyte cytokine that serves in priming of microglia-resident CNS macrophages-during the complex microglial activation process under pathological conditions. Priming generally permits an exaggerated microglial response to a secondary inflammatory stimulus. The impact of primed microglia on physiological neuronal function in intact cortical tissue (in situ) is widely unknown, however. We explored the effects of chronic IFN-γ exposure on microglia in hippocampal slice cultures, i...
February 19, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rafael Franco, Gemma Navarro, Eva Martínez-Pinilla
Differential antioxidant action is found upon comparison of organ/tissue systems in the human body. In erythrocytes (red blood cells), which transport oxygen and carbon dioxide through the circulatory system, the most important issue is to keep hemoglobin in a functional state that requires maintaining the haem group in ferrous (Fe2+ ) state. Conversion of oxidized Fe3+ back into Fe2+ in hemoglobin needs a special mechanism involving a tripeptide glutathione, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glucose and NADPH as suppliers of reducing power...
February 18, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
S Anis, K Regev, S J Pittock, E P Flanagan, Y Alcalay, A Gadoth
MOG-Ab positive CNS demyelination typically involves the optic nerve and spinal cord. Recurrent episodes of myelitis without optic neuritis are very rare and according to current literature review represent about 3-5% of positive MOG-Ab cases. We report a 30-year-old woman with positive serum MOG-Ab suffering two discrete episodes of transverse myelitis without ophthalmic involvement. Repeated serum MOG-Ab test after the second relapse was positive, correlating with high likelihood of relapsing disease. Of note, our patient relapsed under Rituximab therapy, which does not seem to be uncommon for MOG-Ab patients...
February 13, 2019: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Ruoqi Gao, Colleen R Zaccard, Lauren P Shapiro, Leonardo E Dionisio, Maria Dolores Martin-de-Saavedra, Nicolas H Piguel, Christopher P Pratt, Katherine E Horan, Peter Penzes
GABAergic interneurons are emerging as prominent substrates in the pathophysiology of multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. Interneuron excitatory activity is influenced by 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid receptors (AMPARs), which in turn affects excitatory transmission in the central nervous system. Yet how dysregulation of interneuronal AMPARs distinctly contributes to the molecular underpinning of neurobiological disease is drastically underexplored...
February 16, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Begoña Monge-Maillo, María Olmedo Samperio, José Antonio Pérez-Molina, Francesca Norman, Carla Ruth Mejía, Sandra Chamorro Tojeiro, Rogelio López-Vélez
BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is present in all continents, except for the Antarctica. Characteristically, CE lesions are found in the liver and the lungs, but virtually any part of the body may be affected (the spleen, kidneys, heart, central nervous system, bones, among others). It is estimated that the incidence of bone involvement in CE is 0.5% to 4%. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study was performed of patients with osseous CE treated at the National Reference Unit of Tropical Diseases of the Ramon y Cajal Hospital, Madrid, Spain, between 1989 and December 2017...
February 19, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Dustin R Allen, M U Huang, Nathan B Morris, Georgia K Chaseling, Elliot M Frohman, Ollie Jay, Scott L Davis
INTRODUCTION: Impairments in sudomotor function during passive whole-body heating have been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS), a demyelinating disease of the CNS that disrupts autonomic function. However, the capability of the thermoregulatory system to control body temperature during exercise has never been assessed in MS. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that thermoregulatory function is impaired in MS patients compared with healthy controls (CON) exercising at similar rates of metabolic heat production...
March 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Matteo Provasi, Filippo Bagnoli, Daniele Fanoni, Silvia Alberti-Violetti, Dario Tomasini, Emilio Berti
Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is one of the rarest B-cell non Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), with an aggressive clinical behavior and a poor prognosis; in fact, its treatment is still an unmet clinical need, with a 3-year overall survival (OS) rate of 60-81%, and a central nervous system relapse rate of 25%. It usually presents as a widespread disease at diagnosis with multi-organ involvement. Previously considered as a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma variant, it now represents a different extranodal large B-cell lymphoma entity in the last WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Andrea Rodrigues Vasconcelos, Nilton Barreto Dos Santos, Cristoforo Scavone, Carolina Demarchi Munhoz
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates the expression of an array of enzymes with important detoxifying and antioxidant functions. Current findings support the role of high levels of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Given the central role played by Nrf2 in counteracting oxidative damage, a number of studies have targeted the modulation of this transcription factor in order to confer neuroprotection. Nrf2 activity is tightly regulated by oxidative stress and energy-based stimuli...
2019: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Martin R L Paine, Jingbo Liu, Danning Huang, Shane R Ellis, Dennis Trede, Jan H Kobarg, Ron M A Heeren, Facundo M Fernández, Tobey J MacDonald
Treatment for medulloblastoma (MB) - the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor - includes prophylactic radiation administered to the entire brain and spine due to the high incidence of metastasis to the central nervous system. However, the majority of long-term survivors are left with permanent and debilitating neurocognitive impairments as a result of this therapy, while the remaining 30-40% of patients relapse with terminal metastatic disease. Development of more effective targeted therapies has been hindered by our lack of understanding of the underlying mechanisms regulating the metastatic process in this disease...
February 18, 2019: Scientific Reports
Shahrzad Talebian, Jalal Gharesouran, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard, Behnaz Salek Esfahani, Shahram Arsang-Jang, Mir Davood Omrani, Mohammad Taheri, Maryam Rezazadeh
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Nearly 85% of MS patients are recognized with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), a typical clinical course of disease which is distinguished by several episodes of relapses, separated by remissions of neurological impairment. Failure of repair mechanisms is a main factor in progression of neurological dysfunction in MS. Several lines of evidence suggest that Reelin (RELN) signaling pathway can contribute in the regulation of repair mechanisms in MS patients...
February 12, 2019: Immunobiology
Jasmine Shell, Amit Tirosh, Corina Millo, Samira M Sadowski, Yasmine Assadipour, Patience Green, Dhaval Patel, Naris Nilubol, Electron Kebebew
PURPOSE: Patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease may develop various tumors, including neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (PNETs) and adrenal, central nervous system and retinal hemangioblastomas, kidney tumors and more. 68 Ga-DOTATATE positron emission tomography (PET)/computerized tomography (CT) has been shown to be highly accurate for tumors with cells expressing somatostatin receptors. We aimed to assess the performance of 68 Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in patients with VHL disease...
March 2019: European Journal of Radiology
Giuseppa Mudò, Monica Frinchi, Domenico Nuzzo, Pietro Scaduto, Fulvio Plescia, Maria F Massenti, Marta Di Carlo, Carla Cannizzaro, Giovanni Cassata, Luca Cicero, Maria Ruscica, Natale Belluardo, Luigi M Grimaldi
BACKGROUND: Aβ1-42 peptide abnormal production is associated with the development and maintenance of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in brains from Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Suppression of neuroinflammation may then represent a suitable therapeutic target in AD. We evaluated the efficacy of IFNβ1a in attenuating cognitive impairment and inflammation in an animal model of AD. METHODS: A rat model of AD was obtained by intra-hippocampal injection of Aβ1-42 peptide (23 μg/2 μl)...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Neuroinflammation
F Matcham, C Barattieri di San Pietro, V Bulgari, G de Girolamo, R Dobson, H Eriksson, A A Folarin, J M Haro, M Kerz, F Lamers, Q Li, N V Manyakov, D C Mohr, I Myin-Germeys, V Narayan, Penninx Bwjh, Y Ranjan, Z Rashid, A Rintala, S Siddi, S K Simblett, T Wykes, M Hotopf
BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of literature highlighting the role that wearable and mobile remote measurement technology (RMT) can play in measuring symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). Outcomes assessment typically relies on self-report, which can be biased by dysfunctional perceptions and current symptom severity. Predictors of depressive relapse include disrupted sleep, reduced sociability, physical activity, changes in mood, prosody and cognitive function, which are all amenable to measurement via RMT...
February 18, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Aleksandra Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Pål Klepstad, Dagny Faksvåg Haugen
CONTEXT: Most patients with advanced malignant disease need to take several drugs to control symptoms. This treatment raises risks of serious adverse effects and drug-drug interactions (DDIs). OBJECTIVES: To identify studies reporting clinically significant DDIs involving medications used for symptom control, other than opioids used for pain management, in adult patients with advanced malignant disease. METHODS: Systematic review with searches in Embase, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from the start of the databases (Embase from 1980) through 21st June 2018...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Gustavo Roberto Villas Boas, Roseli Boerngen de Lacerda, Marina Meirelles Paes, Priscila Gubert, Wagner Luis da Cruz Almeida, Vanessa Cristina Rescia, Pablinny Moreira Galdino de Carvalho, Adryano Augustto Valladao de Carvalho, Silvia Aparecida Oesterreich
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known as unipolar depression, is one of the leading causes of disability and disease worldwide. The signs and symptoms are low self‑esteem, anhedonia, feeling of worthlessness, sense of rejection and guilt, suicidal thoughts, among others. This review focuses on studies with molecular-based approaches involving MDD to obtain an integrated, more detailed and comprehensive view of the brain changes produced by this disorder and its treatment and how the Central Nervous System (CNS) produces neuroplasticity to orchestrate adaptive defensive behaviors...
February 15, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Felipe H Santiago-Tirado, Robyn S Klein, Tamara L Doering
Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental yeast found worldwide that causes lethal brain infections, particularly in immunocompromised hosts. In 2016, there were 280,000 cases of cryptococcal meningitis in the HIV+ population, two-thirds of them fatal; other immunocompromised patients are also affected. The burden of cryptococcal disease and the limits of current chemotherapy create a pressing need for improved treatment. One hindrance to the development of new therapies is lack of understanding of how this pathogen breaches the barriers protecting the brain...
February 18, 2019: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Suzanne M de la Monte, Ming Tong, Lori A Daiello, Brian R Ott
BACKGROUND: Brain insulin resistance is a well-recognized abnormality in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the likely mediator of impaired glucose utilization that emerges early and progresses with disease severity. Moreover, the rates of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD are significantly greater in people with diabetes mellitus or obesity. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine whether systemic and central nervous system (CNS) insulin resistant disease states emerge together and thus may be integrally related...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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