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Cortical connectivity

Elise R Facer-Childs, Brunno M Campos, Benita Middleton, Debra J Skene, Andrew P Bagshaw
INTRODUCTION: Functional connectivity (FC) of the human brain's intrinsically connected networks underpins cognitive functioning and disruptions of FC are associated with sleep and neurological disorders. However, there is limited research on the impact of circadian phenotype and time of day on FC. STUDY OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate resting state FC of the default mode network (DMN) in Early and Late circadian phenotypes over a socially constrained day...
February 15, 2019: Sleep
Clara Rodriguez-Sabate, Ingrid Morales, Jesus N Lorenzo, Manuel Rodriguez
The motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been linked to changes in the excitatory/inhibitory interactions of centers involved in the cortical-subcortical closed-loop circuits which connect basal ganglia (BG) and the brain cortex. This approach may explain some motor symptoms of PD but not others, which has driven the study of BG from new perspectives. Besides their cortical-subcortical linear circuits, BG have a number of subcortical circuits which directly or indirectly connect each BG with all the others...
February 3, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
Chelsea M Kaplan, Andrew Schrepf, Deniz Vatansever, Tony E Larkin, Ishtiaq Mawla, Eric Ichesco, Laura Kochlefl, Steven E Harte, Daniel J Clauw, George A Mashour, Richard E Harris
A critical component of brain network architecture is a robust hub structure, wherein hub regions facilitate efficient information integration by occupying highly connected and functionally central roles in the network. Across a wide range of neurological disorders, hub brain regions seem to be disrupted, and the character of this disruption can yield insights into the pathophysiology of these disorders. We applied a brain network-based approach to examine hub topology in fibromyalgia, a chronic pain condition with prominent central nervous system involvement...
January 16, 2019: Pain
Xin Huang, Han-Dong Dan, Fu-Qing Zhou, Qin-Qin Deng, Yin Shen
Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that the long-term effects of peripheral vision loss lead to functional and morphological reorganization in visual cortices. However, it has not been determined whether whole-brain functional network centrality changes occur during peripheral vision loss. This study aimed to investigate functional network centrality and connectivity changes in individuals with peripheral vision loss because of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) by using voxel-wise degree centrality (DC) and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) methods...
March 6, 2019: Neuroreport
Sung Ho Jang, Chul Hoon Chang, Young Jin Jung, You Sung Seo
RATIONALE: A few mechanisms of recovery from an injured corticospinal tract (CST) in stroke patients have been reported: recovery of an injured CST through (1) normal CST pathway, (2) peri-lesional reorganization, and (3) shifting of the cortical origin area of an injured CST from the other areas to the primary motor cortex. However, it has not been clearly elucidated so far. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 57-year-old male patient presented with complete weakness of the right extremities due to an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the left basal ganglia...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Roisin McMackin, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Sergiu Groppa, Claudio Babiloni, John-Paul Taylor, Matthew C Kiernan, Bahman Nasseroleslami, Orla Hardiman
Advanced neuroimaging has increased understanding of the pathogenesis and spread of disease, and offered new therapeutic targets. MRI and positron emission tomography have shown that neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are associated with changes in brain networks. However, the underlying neurophysiological pathways driving pathological processes are poorly defined...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Sarah M Kark, Elizabeth A Kensinger
The amygdala is well-documented as the critical nexus of emotionally enhanced memory, yet its role in the creation of negative memory biases-better memory for negative as compared to positive stimuli-has not been clarified. While prior work suggests valence-specific effects at the moment of 'online' encoding and retrieval-with enhanced visuosensory processes supporting negative memories in particular-here we tested the novel hypothesis that the amygdala engages with distant cortical regions after encoding in a manner that predicts inter-individual differences in negative memory biases in humans...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jessica P Y Hua, Nicole R Karcher, Anne M Merrill, Kathleen J O'Brien, Kelsey T Straub, Timothy J Trull, John G Kerns
Psychosis is linked to aberrant salience or to viewing neutral stimuli as self-relevant, suggesting a possible impairment in self-relevance processing. Psychosis is also associated with increased dopamine in the dorsal striatum, especially the anterior caudate (Kegeles et al., 2010). Critically, the anterior caudate is especially connected to (a) the cortical default mode network (DMN), centrally involved in self-relevance processing, and (b) to a lesser extent, the cortical frontoparietal network (FPN; Choi, Yeo, & Buckner, 2012)...
February 12, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Filipe O Barroso, Bryan Yoder, David Tentler, Josephine Wallner, Amina Kinkhabwala, Maria K Jantz, Robert D Flint, Pablo Tostado, Evonne Pei, Ambika Satish, Sarah Brodnick, Aaron Suminski, Justin C Williams, Lee E Miller, Matthew Tresch
OBJECTIVE: Recovery of voluntary gait after spinal cord injury (SCI) requires the restoration of effective motor cortical commands, either by means of a mechanical connection to the limbs, or by restored functional connections to muscles. The latter approach might use functional electrical stimulation (FES), driven by cortical activity, to restore voluntary movements. Moreover, there is evidence that this peripheral stimulation, synchronized with patients' voluntary effort, can strengthen descending projections and recovery...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Kyle Joseph Edmunds, Hannes Petersen, Mahmoud Hassan, Sahar Yassine, Antonella Olivieri, Fabio Barollo, Rún Friðriksdóttir, Patricia Edmunds, Magnús Gíslason, Antonio Fratini, Paolo Gargiulo
Maintaining upright posture is a complex task governed by the integration of afferent sensorimotor and visual information with compensatory neuromuscular reactions. The objective of the present work was to characterize the visual dependency and functional dynamics of cortical activation during postural control. 
 Approach. Proprioceptic vibratory stimulation of calf muscles at 85 Hz was performed to evoke postural perturbation in open-eye (OE) and closed-eye (CE) experimental trials, with pseudorandom binary stimulation phases divided into four segments of 16 stimuli...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Jochen Hammes, Hendrik Theis, Kathrin Giehl, Merle C Hoenig, Andrea Greuel, Marc Tittgemeyer, Lars Timmermann, Gereon R Fink, Alexander Drzezga, Carsten Eggers, Thilo van Eimeren
Impulsive-compulsive behaviours like pathological gambling or hypersexuality are a frequent side effect of dopamine replacement therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease. Multiple imaging studies suggest a significant reduction of presynaptic dopamine transporters in the nucleus accumbens to be a predisposing factor, reflecting either a reduction of mesolimbic projections or, alternatively, a lower presynaptic dopamine transporter expression per se. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis of fewer mesolimbic projections as a risk factor by using dopamine synthesis capacity as a proxy of dopaminergic terminal density...
February 8, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Rafael Penadés, Nicolas Franck, Laura González-Vallespí, Marie Dekerle
Persons suffering from schizophrenia present cognitive impairments that have a major functional impact on their lives. Particularly, executive functions and episodic memory are consistently found to be impaired. Neuroimaging allows the investigation of affected areas of the brain associated with these impairments and, moreover, the detection of brain functioning improvements after cognitive remediation interventions. For instance, executive function impairments have been associated with prefrontal cortex volume and thickness; cognitive control impairments are correlated with an increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, and episodic memory impairments are linked to hippocampal reduction...
2019: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Hai Lin, Wei-Ping Li, Synnöve Carlson
Top-down modulation is engaged during multiple stages of working memory (WM), including expectation, encoding, and maintenance. During WM maintenance period, an "incidental cue" can bring one of the two items into a privileged state and make the privileged item be recalled with higher precision, despite being irrelevant to which one to be probed as the target. With regard to the different representational states of WM, it's unclear whether there is top-down modulation on earth sensory cortical areas...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Murat Demirtaş, Joshua B Burt, Markus Helmer, Jie Lisa Ji, Brendan D Adkinson, Matthew F Glasser, David C Van Essen, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Alan Anticevic, John D Murray
The large-scale organization of dynamical neural activity across cortex emerges through long-range interactions among local circuits. We hypothesized that large-scale dynamics are also shaped by heterogeneity of intrinsic local properties across cortical areas. One key axis along which microcircuit properties are specialized relates to hierarchical levels of cortical organization. We developed a large-scale dynamical circuit model of human cortex that incorporates heterogeneity of local synaptic strengths, following a hierarchical axis inferred from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived T1- to T2-weighted (T1w/T2w) mapping and fit the model using multimodal neuroimaging data...
February 5, 2019: Neuron
Stephanie N DeCross, Amy H Farabaugh, Avram J Holmes, Maeve Ward, Emily A Boeke, Rick P F Wolthusen, Garth Coombs, Maren Nyer, Maurizio Fava, Randy L Buckner, Daphne J Holt
BACKGROUND: Subclinical delusional ideas, including persecutory beliefs, in otherwise healthy individuals are heritable symptoms associated with increased risk for psychotic illness, possibly representing an expression of one end of a continuum of psychosis severity. The identification of variation in brain function associated with these symptoms may provide insights about the neurobiology of delusions in clinical psychosis. METHODS: A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was collected from 131 young adults with a wide range of severity of subclinical delusional beliefs, including persecutory ideas...
February 12, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Fang Liu, Xiaohong Gong, Xudong Yao, Lingling Cui, Zhiyang Yin, Chao Li, Yanqing Tang, Fei Wang
BACKGROUND: Calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit β2 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CACNB2 gene. The β2 subunit is an auxiliary protein of voltage-gated calcium channels, which is predominantly expressed in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. A single-nucleotide polymorphism at the CACNB2 gene (rs11013860) has been reported in genome-wide association studies to be associated with bipolar disorder (BD). However, the neural effects of rs11013860 expression are unknown...
February 11, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Kristin Marquardt, Megan Josey, Johnny A Kenton, James F Cavanagh, Andrew Holmes, Jonathan L Brigman
A common feature across neuropsychiatric disorders is inability to discontinue an action or thought once it has become detrimental. Reversal learning, a hallmark of executive control, requires plasticity within cortical, striatal and limbic circuits and is highly sensitive to disruption of N-methyl-D -aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function. In particular, selective deletion or antagonism of GluN2B containing NMDARs in cortical regions including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), promotes maladaptive perseveration...
February 8, 2019: Neuroscience
Estelle E In 't Zandt, Hillary L Cansler, Heather B Denson, Daniel W Wesson
The inter-regional connectivity of sensory structures in the brain allows for the modulation of sensory processing in manners important for perception. In the olfactory system, odor representations in the olfactory bulb (OB) are modulated by feedback centrifugal innervation from several olfactory cortices, including the piriform cortex (PCX) and anterior olfactory nucleus (AON). Previous studies reported that an additional olfactory cortex, the olfactory tubercle (OT), also centrifugally innervates the OB and may even shape the activity of OB output neurons...
January 2019: ENeuro
Yufeng Zhou, Kai Yang
INTRODUCTION: Surgery or trauma may induce extensive arthrofibrosis around joints and tendon for the restrictive range of motion. Although some approaches were proposed, this problem is not solved satisfactorily. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been used for orthopedic, musculoskeletal, and fibrotic disorders. Whether it could prevent the formation of arthrofibrosis during the joint repair is unknown. METHODS: Intra-articular adhesions were created in the right knee of the rabbit by cortical bone shaving and subsequent cast immobilization...
February 2, 2019: Injury
Miguel Ángel García-Cabezas, Basilis Zikopoulos, Helen Barbas
The classical theory of cortical systematic variation has been independently described in reptiles, monotremes, marsupials and placental mammals, including primates, suggesting a common bauplan in the evolution of the cortex. The Structural Model is based on the systematic variation of the cortex and is a platform for advancing testable hypotheses about cortical organization and function across species, including humans. The Structural Model captures the overall laminar structure of areas by dividing the cortical architectonic continuum into discrete categories (cortical types), which can be used to test hypotheses about cortical organization...
February 9, 2019: Brain Structure & Function
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