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Oral Melanocytic

Easwar Natarajan
Black and brown-colored mucocutaneous lesions present a differential diagnostic challenge, with malignant melanoma being the primary clinical concern. The vast majority of pigmented lesions in the head and neck region are the result of benign, reactive factors such as post-inflammatory melanosis. However, it is not uncommon to discover a range of muco-cutaneous black and brown neoplasms in the oro-facial area. The majority of black/brown pigmented neoplasms are melanocytic in origin; these are neoplasms of neural crest derivation...
January 29, 2019: Head and Neck Pathology
Anna Niezgoda, Andrzej Winnicki, Tomasz Kosmalski, Bogna Kowaliszyn, Jerzy Krysiński, Rafał Czajkowski
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is a chronic skin disorder presenting with depigmentation, the pathogenesis of which is complex but the autoimmune theory is now preferred. Multiple immunologic processes, including stimulation of the T-helper (Th)1 response, formation of autoreactive melanocyte-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes, a decrease in the blood concentration of T regulatory (Treg) cells, and an increase in interleukin (IL)-17 and interferon (IFN) concentration, have been shown to contribute to vitiligo progression and maintenance...
January 25, 2019: Trials
Aanchal Tandon, Abhinav Srivastava, Rohit Jaiswal, Bharadwaj Bordoloi
Oral melanoacanthoma is a rare, pigmented lesion which brings suspicion of a malignancy with its sudden appearance and rapid growth. It is characterized clinically as a brown-black lesion and histologically it shows acanthosis of the superficial epithelium and proliferation of dendritic melanocytes. Due to their unusual clinical pattern, biopsy is mandatory to rule out malignancy.
September 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Ciro Soares, Thayná Melo de Lima Morais, Roman Carlos, Fernanda Viviane Mariano, Albina Altemani, Maria Goretti Freire de Carvalho, Marcelo Brum Corrêa, Rodrigo Ribas Dias Dos Reis, Luciana Schultz Amorim, Oslei Paes de Almeida, Jacks Jorge
Melanomas are highly aggressive tumours derived from melanocytes, which occur most commonly in the skin. Occasionally, these tumours may appear in oral and sinonasal mucous membranes. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of the Phosphorylated Akt1 (p-Akt1) expression in 144 patients affected by cutaneous (CM), 34 oral cavity (OM), and 31 sinonasal melanomas (SNM). Similar to the metastatic cutaneous melanomas, p-Akt1 was overexpressed in 17/34 of the oral cavity and 20/31 of the sinonasal melanomas...
December 18, 2018: Oncotarget
Hyo Kyung Lee, Cheol Lee, Mee Kum Kim
RATIONALE: Pigmented lesions of conjunctiva and cornea can be observed in various conditions, from the benign nevus to malignant melanoma. Pigmented acquired melanosis (PAM) is one of them, which is a neoplastic proliferation with malignant transformation potential of melanocytes. However, to our knowledge, there has been no report as to a disturbance of corneal barrier function caused by PAM. Here we report a case of corneal PAM which led to recurrent corneal erosions. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 60-year-old woman was referred with a 4-month history of intractable recurrent epithelial erosions in the left eye...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Dorina Coricovac, Claudia Farcas, Cristian Nica, Iulia Pinzaru, Sebastian Simu, Dana Stoian, Codruta Soica, Maria Proks, Stefana Avram, Dan Navolan, Catalin Dumitru, Ramona Amina Popovici, Cristina Adriana Dehelean
The link between melanoma development and the use of oral combined contraceptives is not fully elucidated, and the data concerning this issue are scarce and controversial. In the present study, we show that the components of oral contraceptives, ethinylestradiol (EE), levonorgestrel (LNG), and their combination (EE + LNG) ± UVB (ultraviolet B radiation) induced differential effects on healthy (human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and primary epidermal melanocytes, and murine epidermis cells) and melanoma cells (human-A375 and murine-B164A5), as follows: (i) at low doses (1 µM), the hormones were devoid of significant toxicity on healthy cells, but in melanoma cells, they triggered cell death via apoptosis; (ii) higher doses (10 µM) were associated with cytotoxicity in all cells, the most affected being the melanoma cells; (iii) UVB irradiation proved to be toxic for all types of cells; (iv) UVB irradiation + hormonal stimulation led to a synergistic cytotoxicity in the case of human melanoma cells-A375 and improved viability rates of healthy and B164A5 cells...
November 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Johannes Laimer, Raphael Henn, Tom Helten, Susanne Sprung, Bettina Zelger, Bernhard Zelger, René Steiner, Dagmar Schnabl, Vincent Offermanns, Emanuel Bruckmoser, Christian W Huck
BACKGROUND: Dark pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa can represent a major diagnostic challenge. A biopsy is usually required to determine the nature of such intraoral discolorations. This study investigates the potential use of infrared spectroscopy for differential diagnosis of amalgam tattoos versus benign or malignant melanocytic neoplasms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this retrospective study, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE) specimens of dark pigmented lesions concerning the oral mucosa or the lip were investigated using mid infrared spectroscopy...
2018: PloS One
Ilaria Porcellato, Chiara Brachelente, Livia De Paolis, Laura Menchetti, Serenella Silvestri, Monica Sforna, Gaia Vichi, Selina Iussich, Luca Mechelli
Human melanoma is one of the deadliest forms of cancer, with poor prognosis and high resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The discovery of immunosuppressive mechanisms in the human melanoma microenvironment led to the use of new prognostic markers and to the development of immunotherapies targeting immune checkpoint molecules. Immunoescape mechanisms in canine melanoma have not yet been investigated, and no such immunotherapy has been tested. The aim of this study was to provide preliminary data on the expression of transcription factor forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in primary canine melanocytic tumors and to investigate their prognostic role...
October 31, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Eser Kaya, Tamer Aksoy, Ahmet Levent Güner, Hakan Temiz, Erkan Vardareli
Primary malignant melanoma occurs most often in the skin and much less frequently in the choroid layer of the eyes, in the leptomeninges, oral cavity, nasal mucosa, pharynx, esophagus, bronchus, under the nail and vaginal or anorectal mucosa. Primary melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract has been confirmed for lesions occurring in the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and anorectum through several published reports, as these are the areas where melanocytes normally exist. The occurrence of primary malignant melanoma in the colon is relatively rare, because melanocytes are embryologically absent in the large bowel...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Jae Hyeong Han, Joon Sok Bang, Yeung Joon Choi, Se-Young Choung
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) has been used to treat pigmentary disorders such as freckles, melasma, and moles in Korea. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of oyster hydrolysate (OH) on melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells and UVB-irradiated C57BL/6J mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The molecular weight distribution and peptide sequences of OH were detected using MALDI-TOF and UHPLC...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Donthula Nagaraju, Rajsmita Bhattacharjee, Keshavamurthy Vinay, Uma Nahar Saikia, Davinder Parsad, Muthu Sendhil Kumaran
Tranexamic acid (TXA), a plasmin inhibitor, is an antifibrinolytic drug widely used to prevent and treat hemorrhage. We evaluated the effects of oral TXA clinically and immunohistopathologically in patients of refractory melasma. To evaluate the efficacy of oral TXA in patients with refractory melasma and correlate histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in pretreatment and post-treatment skin biopsies in patients willing to undergo biopsy. Thirty patients with refractory melasma were treated with oral TXA 500 mg twice daily along with a sunscreen and followed up...
September 2018: Dermatologic Therapy
Svetoslava Troyanova-Slavkova, Lena Eickenscheidt, Jörg-Martin Pönnighaus, Lutz Kowalzick
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (also known as Lewandowsky-Lutz dysplasia) is an extremely rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis, in which the skin is unusually sensitive to human papilloma viruses (HPV). It is associated with a high risk of developing non-melanocytic skin tumors. Treatment with keratolytic retinoids is currently considered to be the most effective therapy. Retinoids have a broad spectrum of activity and inhibit the growth of squamous cell carcinoma and other malignant tumors. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman who had been receiving prophylactic treatment with oral isotretinoin at a daily dose of 1...
September 24, 2018: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
D Bessis, F Morice-Picard, E Bourrat, C Abadie, S Aouinti, C Baumann, M Best, A-C Bursztejn, Y Capri, C Chiaverini, C Coubes, F Giuliano, S Hadj-Rabia, M-L Jacquemont, D Lacombe, S Lyonnet, S Mallet, J Mazereeuw-Hautier, J Miquel, N Molinari, B Parfait, C Pernet, N Philip, L Pinson, N Pouvreau, Y Vial, P Sarda, S Sigaudy, A Verloes, H Cavé, D Geneviève
BACKGROUND: Data on dermatological manifestations of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFCS) remain heterogeneous and almost without expert dermatological classification. OBJECTIVES: To describe the dermatological manifestations of CFCS; to compare them with the literature findings; to assess those discriminating CFCS from other RASopathies, including Noonan syndrome (NS) and Costello syndrome (CS); and to test for dermatological phenotype-genotype correlations. METHODS: We performed a 4-year, large, prospective, multicentric, collaborative dermatological and genetic study...
August 23, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Juliana Berk-Krauss, Amy Kalowitz Bieber, Maressa C Criscito, Jane M Grant-Kels, Marcia S Driscoll, Martin Keltz, Miriam Keltz Pomeranz, Kathryn J Martires, Tracey N Liebman, Jennifer A Stein
BACKGROUND: The role of female sex hormones in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma (MM) remains controversial. Although melanocytes appear to be hormonally responsive, the effect of estrogen on MM cells is less clear. Available clinical data does not consistently demonstrate that increased endogenous hormones from pregnancy or increased exogenous hormones from oral contraceptive pills and hormone replacement affect MM prevalence and outcome. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine potential associations between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and melanoma...
December 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Dileep Kumar, Hafeez Rahman, Ethika Tyagi, Tong Liu, Chelsea Li, Ran Lu, David Lum, Sheri L Holmen, J Alan Maschek, James E Cox, Matthew W VanBrocklin, Douglas Grossman
There are conflicting epidemiologic data on whether chronic aspirin (ASA) use may reduce melanoma risk in humans. Potential anticancer effects of ASA may be mediated by its ability to suppress prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) production and activate 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We investigated the inhibitory effects of ASA in a panel of melanoma and transformed melanocyte cell lines, and on tumor growth in a preclinical model. ASA and the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib did not affect melanoma cell viability, but significantly reduced colony formation, cell motility, and pigmentation (melanin production) in vitro at concentrations of 1 mmol/L and 20 μmol/L, respectively...
October 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Abigael C Songok, Pradip Panta, William T Doerrler, Megan A Macnaughtan, Carol M Taylor
Peptides that exhibit enzymatic or hormonal activities are regulatory factors and desirable therapeutic drugs because of their high target specificity and minimal side effects. Unfortunately, these drugs are susceptible to enzymatic degradation, leading to their rapid elimination and thereby demanding frequent dosage. Structurally modified forms of some peptide drugs have shown enhanced pharmacokinetics, improving their oral bioavailability. Here, we discuss a novel glycomimetic approach to modify lysine residues in peptides...
2018: PloS One
Thalita S Tavares, Daniela P Meirelles, Maria Cássia F de Aguiar, Patrícia C Caldeira
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clinical, demographic, and histopathological characteristics of pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted over a 64-year period. Information was collected from medical charts, and all archived histopathological specimens with diagnoses of any pigmented lesion were retrieved. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. RESULTS: A total of 34,127 archived specimens were reviewed, revealing 458 (1...
June 26, 2018: Oral Diseases
Feng Chen, Qian Zhang, Yanjin Wang, Siwen Wang, Shawein Feng, Liyuan Qi, Xuefen Li, Chong Ding
Oral mucosal melanoma (OMM) is an aggressive malignant tumor derived from melanocytes in the oral cavity. The genetic etiology of OMM has not been extensively investigated to date. In the present study, the aim was to detect novel gene mutations in patients with OMM. Mutation analysis of KIT, BRAF and NRAS was conducted by polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the relevant literature was searched using the PubMed database, and previous findings were compared with the results of the present study. Among the 9 patients with OMM examined, KIT, BRAF and NRAS mutations were detected, and these mutations were all observed at a frequency of 11...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Laura Nordio, Andreia T Marques, Cristina Lecchi, Alberto M Luciano, Damiano Stefanello, Chiara Giudice
Fragile X mental retardation-related protein 1 (FXR1) is a cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein highly conserved among vertebrates. It has been studied for its role in muscle development, inflammation, and tumorigenesis, being related, for example, to metastasizing behavior in human and canine uveal melanoma. Anti-FXR1 antibodies have never been validated in the canine species. To investigate FXR1 expression in canine melanocytic tumors, the present study tested two commercially available polyclonal anti-human FXR1 antibodies, raised in goat and rabbit, respectively...
August 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Gina Pennacchiotti, Carlos Oviedo, Ana Ortega-Pinto
BACKGROUND: A variety of local and systemic processes caused exogenous and endogenous pigmentation of the oral mucosa. Solitary melanotic pigmentation is rare, hence the scarce number of studies in children and adolescents. METHODS: Clinical and histopathologic features of 10 Latin American children with solitary pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa were reviewed. RESULTS: The area most affected was the gingiva, followed by the palate. All lesions were flat and <1 cm in diameter...
May 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
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