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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765202/il-17-and-limits-of-success
#1
Zahra Omidian, Rizwan Ahmed, Adebola Giwa, Thomas Donner, Abdel Rahim A Hamad
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that protects a host against fungal and extracellular bacterial infections. On the other hand, excessive or dysregulated production of IL-17 underlines susceptibility to autoimmune disease. Consequently, blocking IL-17 has become an effective strategy for modulating several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Notably, however, IL-17 blockade remains ineffective or even pathogenic against important autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
September 17, 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762428/effects-of-antibiotics-on-%C3%AE-toxin-levels-during-staphylococcus-aureus-culture-implications-for-the-protection-of-chondrocytes-in-a-model-of-septic-arthritis
#2
Robbie P Miller, Marie E Berlouis, Alan G Hall, A Hamish R W Simpson, Innes D M Smith, Andrew C Hall
OBJECTIVE: Septic arthritis results from joint infection by Staphylococcus aureus, which produces potent α-toxin causing cell death, potentially leading to permanent cartilage damage. Treatment is by joint irrigation and antibiotics, although it is unclear if, following treatment with antibiotics which cause bacterial lysis, there is release of additional stored α-toxin. DESIGN: A rabbit erythrocyte hemolysis assay was optimised to assess biologically-active α-toxin from cultured S...
February 14, 2019: Cartilage
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760471/-prevotella-copri-in-individuals-at-risk-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#3
Deshire Alpizar-Rodriguez, Till Robin Lesker, Achim Gronow, Benoît Gilbert, Elena Raemy, Celine Lamacchia, Cem Gabay, Axel Finckh, Till Strowig
OBJECTIVES: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with a relative expansion of faecal Prevotellaceae. To determine the microbiome composition and prevalence of Prevotella spp. in a group of individuals at increased risk for RA, but prior to the development of the disease. METHODS: In an ongoing cohort study of first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with RA, we identified 'FDR controls', asymptomatic and without autoantibodies, and individuals in pre-clinical RA stages, who had either developed anticitrullinated peptide antibodies or rheumatoid factor positivity and/or symptoms and signs associated with possible RA...
February 13, 2019: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30748031/ifn-%C3%AE-dependent-nitric-oxide-suppresses-brucella-induced-arthritis-by-inhibition-of-inflammasome-activation
#4
Carolyn A Lacey, Catherine A Chambers, William J Mitchell, Jerod A Skyberg
Brucellosis, caused by the intracellular bacterial pathogen Brucella, is a globally important zoonotic disease for which arthritis is the most common focal complication in humans. Wild-type mice infected systemically with Brucella typically do not exhibit arthritis, but mice lacking IFN-γ develop arthritis regardless of the route of Brucella infection. Here, we investigated mechanisms by which IFN-γ suppresses Brucella-induced arthritis. Several cell types, including innate lymphoid cells, contributed to IFN-γ production and suppression of joint swelling...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30732563/a-case-report-of-severe-recurrent-varicella-in-an-ankylosing-spondylitis-patient-treated-with-adalimumab-a-new-side-effect-after-15-years-of-usage
#5
Tomislava Skuhala, Anita Atelj, Jelena Prepolec, Mahmoud Al-Mufleh, Andrija Stanimirović, Dalibor Vukelić
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) antagonists, most of which are monoclonal antibodies, became a widespread treatment for autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory bowel diseases, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, hidradenitis suppurativa and uveitis. Their use is based on the blockage of TNF-α, which plays an important role in granulomas formation, development of phagosomes, activation and differentiation of macrophages, immune response against viral pathogens...
February 7, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723784/alpha-1-antitrypsin-substitution-for-extrapulmonary-conditions-in-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficient-patients
#6
Boris M Baranovski, Ronen Schuster, Omer Nisim, Ido Brami, Yotam Lior, Eli C Lewis
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a genetic disorder which most commonly manifests as pulmonary emphysema. Accordingly, alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) augmentation therapy aims to reduce the progression of emphysema, as achieved by life-long weekly slow-drip infusions of plasma-derived affinity-purified human AAT. However, not all AATD patients will receive this therapy, due to either lack of medical coverage or low patient compliance. To circumvent these limitations, attempts are being made to develop lung-directed therapies, including inhaled AAT and locally-delivered AAT gene therapy...
September 19, 2018: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706296/the-role-of-real-time-pcr-testing-in-the-investigation-of-paediatric-patients-with-community-onset-osteomyelitis-and-septic-arthritis
#7
Sadhbh O'Rourke, Mary Meehan, Désirée Bennett, Nicola O'Sullivan, Robert Cunney, Patrick Gavin, Roisin McNamara, Noelle Cassidy, Stephanie Ryan, Kathryn Harris, Richard Drew
BACKGROUND: Culture yield in osteomyelitis and septic arthritis is low, emphasising the role for molecular techniques. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to review the laboratory investigation of childhood osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken in an acute tertiary referral paediatric hospital from January 2010 to December 2016. Cases were only included if they had a positive culture or bacterial PCR result from a bone/joint specimen or blood culture, or had radiographic evidence of osteomyelitis...
January 31, 2019: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30700427/il-23-favours-outgrowth-of-spondyloarthritis-associated-pathobionts-and-suppresses-host-support-for-homeostatic-microbiota
#8
Linda M Rehaume, Nicholas Matigian, Ahmed M Mehdi, Nancy Lachner, Kate L Bowerman, Joshua Daly, Kim-Anh Lê Cao, Philip Hugenholtz, Ranjeny Thomas
OBJECTIVES: Certain gut bacterial families, including Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae and Prevotellaceae, are increased in people suffering from spondyloarthropathy (SpA), a disease group associated with IL23R signalling variants. To understand the relationship between host interleukin (IL)-23 signalling and gut bacterial dysbiosis in SpA, we inhibited IL-23 in dysbiotic ZAP-70-mutant SKG mice that develop IL-23-dependent SpA-like arthritis, psoriasis-like skin inflammation and Crohn's-like ileitis in response to microbial beta 1,3-glucan (curdlan)...
January 30, 2019: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30681737/interleukin-35-in-immune-related-diseases-protection-or-destruction
#9
REVIEW
Junfeng Zhang, Yunsheng Zhang, Qingpeng Wang, Chunlei Li, Hongxin Deng, Chuanping Si, Huabao Xiong
Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is a recently identified heterodimeric cytokine in the IL-12 family. It consists of an IL-12 subunit α chain (P35) and IL-27 subunit Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) β chain. Unlike the other IL-12 family members, it signals through four unconventional receptors: IL-12Rβ2-IL-27Rα, IL-12Rβ2-IL-12Rβ2, IL-12Rβ2-GP130, and GP130-GP130. IL-35 signaling is mainly carried out via the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of proteins. It is secreted not only by regulatory T cells (Tregs), but also by CD8+ Tregs, activated dendritic cells, and regulatory B cells...
January 25, 2019: Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30679153/risk-of-serious-infections-in-tocilizumab-versus-other-biologic-drugs-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-multidatabase-cohort-study
#10
Ajinkya Pawar, Rishi J Desai, Daniel H Solomon, Adrian J Santiago Ortiz, Sara Gale, Min Bao, Khaled Sarsour, Sebastian Schneeweiss, Seoyoung C Kim
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the rate of serious bacterial, viral or opportunistic infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) starting tocilizumab (TCZ) versus tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) or abatacept. METHODS: Using claims data from US Medicare from 2010 to 2015, and IMS and MarketScan from 2011 to 2015, we identified adults with RA who initiated TCZ or TNFi (primary comparator)/abatacept (secondary comparator) with prior use of ≥1 different biologic drug or tofacitinib...
January 24, 2019: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30677505/translocation-of-dead-or-alive-bacteria-from-mucosa-to-joints-and-epiphyseal-bone-marrow-facts-and-hypotheses
#11
Jean-Marie Berthelot, Daniel Wendling
The recent demonstration that DNA from several mucosal bacteria, including Prevotella spp, could be found in numerous tissues (mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, serum, liver, lung, eye and ankle joints), either in HLA-B27 rats with or without arthritis, or control rats without HLA-B27, could be a revolution in our understanding of spondyloarthritis and close disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis. Indeed, similar translocations of dead or alive bacteria or fungi from mucosa to joints, could contribute to the onset and flares of inflammatory rheumatisms...
January 21, 2019: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670899/use-of-standard-diagnostic-techniques-to-determine-eradication-of-infection-in-experimental-equine-septic-arthritis
#12
Roman V Koziy, Seiji Yoshimura, Ryan Dickinson, Joanna M Rybicka, Igor Moshynskyy, Musangu Ngeleka, Jose L Bracamonte, Elemir Simko
Septic arthritis is an important disease in horses, necessitating aggressive and prolonged therapy. In order to guide therapy, reliable methods of detecting the eradication of infection are needed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate detection of eradication of infection in an experimental model of equine septic arthritis using standard diagnostic techniques. For this purpose, 17 adult horses were assigned to 3 experimental groups. The middle carpal joint of each horse was injected with Escherichia coli (Septic group, n = 8), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (LPS group, n = 6), or sterile saline (Control group, n = 3) at day 0...
January 2019: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30669496/traditional-uses-botany-phytochemistry-pharmacology-pharmacokinetics-and-toxicology-of-xanthium-strumarium-l-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Wenxiang Fan, Linhong Fan, Chengyi Peng, Qing Zhang, Li Wang, Lin Li, Jiaolong Wang, Dayong Zhang, Wei Peng, Chunjie Wu
Xanthium strumarium L. (Asteraceae) is a common and well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine usually named Cang-Er-Zi, and has been used for thousands of years in China. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the progress of modern research, and provide a systematic review on the traditional usages, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of the X. strumarium . Moreover, an in-depth discussion of some valuable issues and possible development for future research on this plant is also given...
January 19, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30655563/human-tnf-luc-reporter-mouse-a-new-model-to-quantify-inflammatory-responses
#14
Faisal Minshawi, Mike R H White, Werner Muller, Neil Humphreys, Dean Jackson, Barry J Campbell, Antony Adamson, Stamatia Papoutsopoulou
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a key cytokine during inflammatory responses and its dysregulation is detrimental in many inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we used a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) construct that expresses luciferase under the control of the human TNF locus to generate a novel transgenic mouse, the hTNF.LucBAC strain. In vitro stimulation of hTNF.LucBAC cells of different origin revealed a cell specific response to stimuli demonstrating the integrated construct's ability as a proxy for inflammatory gene response...
January 17, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30647146/the-phytosphingosine-cd300b-interaction-promotes-zymosan-induced-nitric-oxide-dependent-neutrophil-recruitment
#15
Mariko Takahashi, Kumi Izawa, Makoto Urai, Yoshinori Yamanishi, Akie Maehara, Masamichi Isobe, Toshihiro Matsukawa, Ayako Kaitani, Ayako Takamori, Shino Uchida, Hiromichi Yamada, Masakazu Nagamine, Tomoaki Ando, Toshiaki Shimizu, Hideoki Ogawa, Ko Okumura, Yuki Kinjo, Toshio Kitamura, Jiro Kitaura
Zymosan is a glucan that is a component of the yeast cell wall. Here, we determined the mechanisms underlying the zymosan-induced accumulation of neutrophils in mice. Loss of the receptor CD300b reduced the number of neutrophils recruited to dorsal air pouches in response to zymosan, but not in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial membrane component recognized by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). An inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis reduced the number of neutrophils in the zymosan-treated air pouches of wild-type mice to an amount comparable to that in CD300b-/- mice...
January 15, 2019: Science Signaling
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30638708/gut-microbiota-in-children-and-altered-profiles-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#16
REVIEW
Carlotta De Filippo, Monica Di Paola, Teresa Giani, Francesca Tirelli, Rolando Cimaz
Microbial diversity plays a key role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and in the development of the immune system in the gut mucosa. Maybe one of the most important function of our gut microbiota is the immune system education, in particular the discrimination of friends from foes that occurs during childhood. In addition to bacterial antigens, several metabolites of microbial origin have a crucial role in training of the immune system, such as Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs). There are many evidences on the role of the gut microbiota in rheumatic diseases, in particular modifications of microbiota composition causing dysbiosis that, in turn, can induce gut permeability, and thus immunological imbalance and trigger inflammation...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30624285/the-microbiome-in-systemic-autoimmune-disease-mechanistic-insights-from-recent-studies
#17
Carina Dehner, Rebecca Fine, Martin A Kriegel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The resident bacterial communities and the host immune system have coevolved for millennia. However, recent changes in modern societies have disrupted this coevolutionary homeostasis and contributed to a rise in immune-mediated conditions. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of recently elucidated mechanisms of how certain taxa within the bacterial microbiome propagate autoimmunity. RECENT FINDINGS: Interactions between the bacterial microbiome with innate and adaptive immune cells propagate autoreactivity, chronic inflammation, and tissue damage in susceptible hosts...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30611306/altered-composition-and-phenotype-of-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-in-early-untreated-rheumatoid-arthritis
#18
Hester Koppejan, Diahann T S L Jansen, Marjolijn Hameetman, Ranjeny Thomas, Rene E M Toes, Floris A van Gaalen
BACKGROUND: Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells that recognise bacterial metabolites presented by MHC class I-related protein 1 (MR1). Bacterial dysbiosis has been implicated in auto-inflammatory disease development. We investigated MAIT cells in early, untreated rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients. METHODS: Blood and synovial fluid mononuclear cells obtained from patients (SpA/RA) and controls were stimulated with fixed Escherichia coli to provide MAIT ligand...
January 5, 2019: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30593363/induction-of-arthritis-in-chickens-by-infection-with-novel-virulent-salmonella-pullorum-strains
#19
Rongxian Guo, Zhuoyang Li, Xiaohui Zhou, Cuiying Huang, Yachen Hu, Shizhong Geng, Xiang Chen, Qiuchun Li, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum (Salmonella Pullorum) is a host-specific serovar causing systemic infection with high mortality in young chicks. Pullorum disease is characterized by white diarrhea. However, arthritis has become increasingly frequent recently, particularly in southern China. The aim of the present study was to determine the pathogenesis and arthritis induction of new Salmonella Pullorum isolates. We isolated and identified five Salmonella Pullorum strains from broilers with bacterial arthritis and lameness in a commercial poultry farm...
January 2019: Veterinary Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30584505/chronic-recurrent-multifocal-osteomyelitis-a-rare-clinical-presentation-and-review-of-literature
#20
T K Jeejesh Kumar, Jasim Salim, T Jaseem Shamsudeen
Introduction: Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an idiopathic inflammatory disorder of bone seen primarily in children and adolescents. It is part of the clinical picture of non-bacterial osteomyelitis and typically presents a relapsing course with both remissions and spontaneous exacerbations. CRMO is typically seen in the metaphysis of long bones. Usually, the clinical symptoms include painful swellings of the affected regions. It is being reported with increasing frequency but many cases of this disease go unreported...
May 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
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