Shaoke Lou, Tianxiao Li, Daniel Spakowicz, Xiting Yan, Geoffrey Lowell Chupp, Mark Gerstein
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of asthma is a complex process involving multiple genes and pathways. Identifying biomarkers from asthma datasets, especially those that include heterogeneous subpopulations, is challenging. Potentially, autoencoders provide ideal frameworks for such tasks as they can embed complex, noisy high-dimensional gene expression data into a low-dimensional latent space in an unsupervised fashion, enabling us to extract distinguishing features from expression data...
October 15, 2020: BMC Bioinformatics
Gregorio González-Alcaide, Pedro Llorente, José-Manuel Ramos-Rincón
Introduction: Population surveillance provides data on the health status of the population through continuous scrutiny of different indicators. Identifying risk factors is essential for the quickly detecting and controlling of epidemic outbreaks and reducing the incidence of cross-infections and non-communicable diseases. The objective of the present study is to analyze research on population surveillance, identifying the main topics of interest for investigators in the area. Methodology: We included documents indexed in the Web of Science Core Collection in the period from 2000 to 2019 and assigned with the generic Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) "population surveillance" or its related terms ("public health surveillance," "sentinel surveillance" or "biosurveillance")...
October 2020: Heliyon
M Larissa Avilés-Santa, Laura Hsu, Tram Kim Lam, S Sonia Arteaga, Ligia Artiles, Sean Coady, Lawton S Cooper, Jennifer Curry, Patrice Desvigne-Nickens, Holly L Nicastro, Adelaida Rosario
Hispanics/Latinos are expected to constitute 25% of the U.S. population by 2060. Differences in the prevalence of health risk factors, chronic diseases, and access to and utilization of health-care services between Hispanics/Latinos and other populations in the U.S. have been documented. This study aimed to describe and analyze the landscape of Research Program Grants (RPGs) funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) between 2008 and 2015 involving Hispanic/Latino health research in six health condition areas-asthma, cancer, dementia, diabetes, liver/gallbladder disease, and obesity-and to identify opportunities for continued research in these areas...
2020: Frontiers in Public Health
Matthew Bozigar, Andrew B Lawson, John L Pearce, Kathryn King, Erik R Svendsen
Asthma disparities have complex, neighborhood-level drivers that are not well understood. Consequently, identifying particular contextual factors that contribute to disparities is a public health goal. We study pediatric asthma emergency department (ED) visit disparities and neighborhood factors associated with them in South Carolina (SC) census tracts from 1999 to 2015. Leveraging a Bayesian framework, we identify risk clusters, spatially-varying relationships, and risk percentile-specific associations. Clusters of high risk occur in both rural and urban census tracts with high probability, with neighborhood-specific associations suggesting unique risk factors for each locale...
October 1, 2020: Health & Place
Xin Zhang, Li Zhang, Gang Wang, Min Feng, Rui Liang, Vanessa McDonald, Hong Ping Zhang, He Yu, Zong An Liang, Lei Wang, Guy B Marks, Wei Min Li, Gang Wang, Peter Gerard Gibson
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization due to acute asthma exacerbation (AE) is a highly detrimental situation requiring critical management to prevent further deterioration, including mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death. However, patients hospitalized for AEs are highly heterogeneous and remain largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE: Identify clinical and inflammatory phenotypes of AE requiring hospitalization associated with in-hospital outcomes...
October 1, 2020: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Andrea Corsonello, Paolo Fabbietti, Francesc Formiga, Rafael Moreno-Gonzalez, Lisanne Tap, Francesco Mattace-Raso, Regina Roller-Wirnsberger, Gerhard Wirnsberger, Johan Ärnlöv, Axel C Carlsson, Christian Weingart, Ellen Freiberger, Tomasz Kostka, Agnieszka Guligowska, Pedro Gil, Sara Lainez Martinez, Itshak Melzer, Ilan Yehoshua, Fabrizia Lattanzio
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is known to be associated with several co-occurring conditions. We aimed at exploring multimorbidity patterns associated with CKD, as well as the impact of physical performance and CKD severity on them in a population of older outpatients. METHODS: Our series consisted of 2252 patients enrolled in the Screening of CKD among Older People across Europe multicenter observational study. Hypertension, stroke, transient ischemic attack, cancer, hip fracture, osteoporosis, Parkinson's disease, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, angina, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, anemia, CKD (defined as GFR < 60, < 45 or < 30 ml/min/1...
October 2, 2020: BMC Geriatrics
LiWei Yin, YaCen Gao, ZiPing Li, MengYu Wang, KaiXin Chen
BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP), or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a worldwide health threat that has affected millions of people globally. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been introduced for the treatment of COVID-19. However, efficacy differs among herbal medicines, and the ideal prescription pattern for TCM herbal formulae for COVID-19 treatment needs to be explored. Therefore, the data mining method has been used in this study to analyze the TCM prescription pattern for COVID-19...
October 1, 2020: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Holly Tibble, Amy Chan, Edwin A Mitchell, Elsie Horne, Dimitrios Doudesis, Rob Horne, Mehrdad A Mizani, Aziz Sheikh, Athanasios Tsanas
Asthma preventer medication non-adherence is strongly associated with poor asthma control. One-dimensional measures of adherence may ignore clinically important patterns of medication-taking behavior. We sought to construct a data-driven multi-dimensional typology of medication non-adherence in children with asthma. We analyzed data from an intervention study of electronic inhaler monitoring devices, comprising 211 patients yielding 35,161 person-days of data. Five adherence measures were extracted: the percentage of doses taken, the percentage of days on which zero doses were taken, the percentage of days on which both doses were taken, the number of treatment intermissions per 100 study days, and the duration of treatment intermissions per 100 study days...
September 14, 2020: Scientific Reports
Emma Stewart, Xiaomei Wang, Geoffrey L Chupp, Ruth R Montgomery
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that afflicts over 30 million individuals in the United States and over 300 million individuals worldwide. The inflammatory response in the airways is often characterized by the analysis of sputum, which contains multiple types of cells including neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, and rare bronchial epithelial cells. Subtyping patients using microscopy of the sputum has identified both neutrophilic and eosinophilic infiltrates in airway inflammation...
September 10, 2020: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Ji Hyun Oh, Kyung-Min Ahn, Soo Jie Chung, Ji-Su Shim, Heung-Woo Park
AIM: Acute exacerbation (AE) is a significant burden in the management of asthma. In this study we aimed to investigate whether routine blood test results predicted AE in asthmatics. METHODS: We applied k-means cluster to routine blood test results which included eosinophil counts, total calcium, phosphorus, uric acid (UA), total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) obtained from 590 asthmatics...
August 2020: Respiratory Medicine
Heikki O Koskela, Tuomas A Selander, Anne M Lätti
BACKGROUND: Recognition of disorder phenotypes may help to estimate prognosis and to guide the clinical management. Current cough management guidelines classify patients according to the duration of the cough episode. However, this classification is not based on phenotype analyses. The present study aimed to identify cough phenotypes by clustering. METHODS: An email survey among employed, working-age subjects identified 975 patients with current cough. All filled in a comprehensive 80-item questionnaire including the Leicester Cough Questionnaire...
August 20, 2020: Respiratory Research
H Amazouz, B de Lauzon-Guillain, M Bourgoin-Heck, J Just, N Beydon, G Lezmi, F Rancière, I Momas
BACKGROUND: As infant feeding may influence allergy development, we aimed to identify groups of infants based on feeding practices and to examine their associations with respiratory health/allergy at 8 years in the PARIS birth cohort. METHODS: Data on breastfeeding, consumption of infant formula (regular, pre-/probiotics, partially hydrolysed with hypoallergenic label [pHF-HA], extensively hydrolysed [eHF], soya) and solid food introduction were collected using repeated questionnaires at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months...
August 20, 2020: Allergy
In-Uk Koh, Nak-Hyeon Choi, Kibaick Lee, Ho-Yeong Yu, Jun Ho Yun, Jin-Hwa Kong, Hyo Jin Kim, Song Lee, Song Cheol Kim, Bong-Jo Kim, Sanghoon Moon
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is growing global health concern and highly associated with increased risk of metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes. We aimed to discover new differential DNA methylation patterns predisposing obesity and prioritize surrogate epigenetic markers in Koreans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed multistage epigenome-wide analyses to identify differentially expressed CpGs in obesity using the Illumina HumanMethylationEPIC array (EPIC)...
August 2020: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Helen H Lee, Luis Faundez, Anthony T LoSasso
Importance: Dental surgery under general anesthesia (DGA) is an ineffective, costly treatment for caries. Interventions to reduce the need for DGA are challenging because children's parents may not seek care until surgery is required. Community water fluoridation (CWF) effectively prevents early childhood caries, but its effectiveness in reducing severe early childhood caries is unknown. Objective: To determine whether access to CWF is associated with the prevalence of DGA...
August 3, 2020: JAMA Network Open
Mats W Johansson, Brandon M Grill, Karina T Barretto, Molly C Favour, Hazel M Schira, Calvin M Swanson, Kristine E Lee, Ronald L Sorkness, Deane F Mosher, Loren C Denlinger, Nizar N Jarjour
BACKGROUND: Severe asthma has multiple phenotypes for which biomarkers are still being defined. Plasma P-selectin reports endothelial and/or platelet activation. OBJECTIVE: To determine if P-selectin is associated with features of asthma in a longitudinal study. METHODS: Plasmas from 70 adult patients enrolled in the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) III at the University of Wisconsin-Madison were analyzed for concentration of P-selectin at several points over the course of 3 years, namely, at baseline (BPS), after intramuscular triamcinolone acetonide (TA) injection, and at 36 months after baseline...
August 10, 2020: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Ying Liu, Yunen Liu, Changci Tong, Peifang Cong, Xiuyun Shi, Lin Shi, Mingxiao Hou, Hongxu Jin, Yongli Bao
AIM OF THE STUDY: The mechanism by which primary shock wave causes lung injury is unclear. The aim of this study is to find the changes of protein that can be helpful in understanding blast-induced lung injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A quantitative analysis of their global proteome was conducted in lung from mice with blast injury using LC-MS/MS. Protein annotation, unsupervised hierarchical clustering, functional classification, functional enrichment and cluster, and protein-protein interaction analyses were performed...
August 4, 2020: Experimental Lung Research
L W Guo, S K Zhang, S Z Liu, F N Yang, Y Wu, L Y Zheng, Q Chen, X Q Cao, X B Sun, J G Zhang
Objective: To evaluate the compliance of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for high-risk groups of lung cancer and influencing factors in urban area of Henan province during 2013-2017. Methods: Cluster sampling method was used to select the residents of 40-74 years old in Henan for cancer risk factor investigation and lung cancer risk assessment. Subjects with high risk of lung cancer received LDCT screening. The differences of LDCT receiving rates between groups were compared with χ (2) tests, and the time trend of rates were tested with the Cochran- Armitage trend test...
July 10, 2020: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Angelica Tiotiu, Nazanin Zounemat Kermani, Yusef Badi, Stelios Pavlidis, Philip M Hansbro, Yi-Ke Guo, Kian Fan Chung, Ian M Adcock
BACKGROUND: Macrophages control innate and acquired immunity, but their role in severe asthma remains ill-defined. We investigated gene signatures of macrophage subtypes in the sputum of 104 asthmatics and 16 healthy volunteers from the U-BIOPRED cohort. METHODS: Forty-nine gene signatures (modules) for differentially stimulated macrophages, one to assess lung tissue-resident cells (TR-Mφ) and two for their polarization (classically and alternatively activated macrophages: M1 and M2, respectively) were studied using gene set variation analysis...
August 1, 2020: Allergy
Patricia Duarte Freitas, Rafaella França Xavier, Vanessa Marie McDonald, Peter Gerard Gibson, Laura Cordova-Rivera, Karina Couto Furlanetto, Joice Mara de Oliveira, Regina Maria Carvalho-Pinto, Alberto Cukier, Rafael Stelmach, Celso Ricardo Fernandes Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous and complex disease, and the description of asthma phenotypes based on extrapulmonary treatable traits has not been previously reported. OBJECTIVE: to identify and characterise clusters based on clinical, functional, anthropometrical, and psychological characteristics in participants with moderate-to-severe asthma. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional multicentre study involving centres from Brazil and Australia...
July 30, 2020: European Respiratory Journal
Khairul Nizam Mohd Isa, Zailina Hashim, Juliana Jalaludin, Leslie Thian Lung Than, Jamal Hisham Hashim
BACKGROUND: To explore the inflammation phenotypes following indoor pollutants exposure based on marker expression on eosinophils and neutrophils with the application of chemometric analysis approaches. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among secondary school students in eight suburban and urban schools in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. The survey was completed by 96 students at the age of 14 by using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) and European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaires...
July 28, 2020: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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