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Gut inflammation

Jing Liu, Tianxiang Li, Hui Wu, Haoze Shi, Jinmei Bai, Wei Zhao, Donghui Jiang, Xiufeng Jiang
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and high salt content in modern diet has been particularly implicated in systemic hypertension, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Gut dysbiosis, associated with increased risk of systemic immunological imbalance, plays a causal role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we investigated the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain (LGG) on the development of hypertension induced by OSA and high salt diet. In this study, hypertension was modeled in rats by feeding a high salt diet (HSD) for 6 wk and exposuring to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during the sleep cycle...
February 18, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Alexios-Fotios A Mentis, Marina Boziki, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Athanasios G Papavassiliou
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection affects an estimated 4.4 billion people globally. Moreover, H. pylori presents the most significant risk factor for gastric cancer and low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and it is the first example of bacterial infection linked to carcinogenesis. Here, we contend that H. pylori research, which focuses on a cancer-causing pathogen resident in a relatively accessible organ, the stomach, could constitute an exemplar for microbial-related carcinogenesis in less tractable organs, such as the pancreas and lung...
February 19, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Rosalie H Bartels, Emmanuel Chimwezi, Victoria Watson, Leilei Pei, Isabel Potani, Benjamin Allubha, Kate Chidzalo, Duolao Wang, Queen Dube, Macpherson Mallewa, Angela Allen, Robert H J Bandsma, Wieger P Voskuijl, Stephen J Allen
Intestinal pathology in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) persists despite standard management. Given the similarity with intestinal pathology in non-IgE mediated gastrointestinal food allergy and Crohn's disease, we tested whether therapeutic feeds effective in treating these conditions may benefit children with complicated SAM. After initial clinical stabilisation, 95 children aged 6-23 months admitted at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi between January 1st and December 31st , 2016 were allocated randomly to either standard feeds, an elemental feed or a polymeric feed for 14 days...
February 19, 2019: Scientific Reports
Debby Vreeken, Maximilian Wiesmann, Laura N Deden, Ilse A C Arnoldussen, Esther Aarts, Roy P C Kessels, Robert Kleemann, Eric J Hazebroek, Edo O Aarts, Amanda J Kiliaan
INTRODUCTION: Weight loss after bariatric surgery (BS) is often associated with improved cognition and structural brain recovery. However, improved cognition after BS is not always exhibited by patients, in fact, in some cases there is even a decline in cognition. Long-term consequences of BS weight loss, in terms of obesity and related diseases, can be hard to determine due to studies having short follow-up periods and small sample sizes.The aim of the BARICO study ( BA riatric surgery R ijnstate and Radboudumc neuro I maging and C ognition in O besity) is to determine the long-term effect of weight loss after BS on brain function and structure, using sensitive neuropsychological tests and (functional) MRI ((f)MRI)...
January 9, 2019: BMJ Open
Nima H Jazani, Javad Savoj, Michael Lustgarten, Wei Ling Lau, Nosratola D Vaziri
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide major health problem. Traditional risk factors for CKD are hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have identified gut dysbiosis as a novel risk factor for the progression CKD and its complications. Dysbiosis can worsen systemic inflammation, which plays an important role in the progression of CKD and its complications such as cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we discuss the beneficial effects of the normal gut microbiota, and then elaborate on how alterations in the biochemical environment of the gastrointestinal tract in CKD can affect gut microbiota...
February 13, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Julien Delmas, Lucie Gibold, Tiphanie Faïs, Sylvine Batista, Martin Leremboure, Clara Sinel, Emilie Vazeille, Vincent Cattoir, Anthony Buisson, Nicolas Barnich, Guillaume Dalmasso, Richard Bonnet
The adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), which colonize the ileal mucosa of Crohn's disease patients, adhere to intestinal epithelial cells, invade them and exacerbate intestinal inflammation. The high nutrient competition between the commensal microbiota and AIEC pathobiont requires the latter to occupy their own metabolic niches to survive and proliferate within the gut. In this study, a global RNA sequencing of AIEC strain LF82 has been used to observe the impact of bile salts on the expression of metabolic genes...
February 18, 2019: Scientific Reports
Yixuan Liang, Xiaoke Wang, Dongmei He, Qi You, Tingting Zhang, Wanfa Dong, Jingjin Fei, Yun Xing, Jie Wu
AIMS: Recent studies have revealed that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) provide negative feedback in the progression to chronic inflammation and contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes (T1D). In addition, accumulating evidences suggest that gut immunity play a key role in T1D pathogenesis. Our study aimed to evaluate whether staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) targeting intestinal NETs can ameliorate the intestinal inflammatory environment and protect against T1D development in non-obese diabetic(NOD) mice...
February 15, 2019: Life Sciences
Yang Wang, Toshimitsu Hatabu
This study aimed to evaluate the microbial compositions and gene expression related to inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced acute colitis and the effect of mulberry supplementation. Male BALB/c mice received a diet supplemented with mulberry juice freeze-dried powder (MFP) or not for 3 weeks. After 3 weeks, the mice received water containing 5% (w/v) DSS or not for 1 week. The disease activity index score in mice fed MFP was significantly decreased. A significant decrease in Bifidobacterium spp...
February 17, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Charlotte Alexandra Woodhouse, Vishal C Patel, Simon Goldenberg, Alberto Sanchez-Fueyo, Louise China, Alastair O'Brien, Clare Flach, Abdel Douiri, Debbie Shawcross
INTRODUCTION: Patients with advanced cirrhosis have enteric bacterial dysbiosis and translocation of bacteria and their products across the gut epithelial barrier. This culminates in systemic inflammation and endotoxaemia, inducing innate immune dysfunction which predisposes to infection, and development of complications such as bleeding, sepsis and hepatic encephalopathy. This feasibility study aims to assess the safety of administering faecal microbiota transplantion to patients with cirrhosis and explore the effect of the intervention on their prognosis by achieving restoration of a healthy gut microbiome...
February 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Cristina Morsiani, Maria Giulia Bacalini, Aurelia Santoro, Paolo Garagnani, Salvatore Collura, Antonia D'Errico, Magda de Eguileor, Gian Luca Grazi, Matteo Cescon, Claudio Franceschi, Miriam Capri
An appraisal of recent data highlighting aspects inspired by the new Geroscience perspective are here discussed. The main findings are summarized as follows: i) liver has to be considered an immunological organ, and new studies suggest a role for the recently described cells named telocytes; ii) the liver-gut axis represents a crucial connection with environment and life style habits and may influence liver diseases onset; iii) the physiological aging of liver shows relatively modest alterations. Nevertheless, several molecular changes appear to be relevant: a) an increase of microRNA-31-5p; -141-3p; -200c-3p expressions after 60 years of age; b) a remodeling of genome-wide DNA methylation profile evident until 60 years of age and then plateauing; c) changes in transcriptome including the metabolic zones of hepatocyte lobules; d) liver undergoes an accelerated aging in presence of chronic inflammation/liver diseases in a sort of continuum, largely as a consequence of unhealthy life styles and exposure to environmental noxious agents...
February 14, 2019: Ageing Research Reviews
Christina S Kim, Erika C Claud
Necrotizing enterocolitis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the preterm infant population. The gut microbiome is of particular interest in research surrounding necrotizing enterocolitis, because variations in the intestinal microbiota seem to correlate with the risk of inflammation and disease. Recent advances in non-culture-based genomic sequencing have also allowed for more intricate analyses of the intestinal microbiome. Its evolution seems to be influenced by intrauterine and extrauterine factors, ranging from antenatal antibiotic exposure to type of enteral feeds...
March 2019: Clinics in Perinatology
Ching-Yen Lin, Celeste Alexander, Andrew J Steelman, Chiristine M Warzecha, Maria R C de Godoy, Kelly S Swanson
Yeast products may serve as functional ingredients due to their benefits on host health, but vary greatly in source, composition, and functionality, justifying research in host species of interest. In this study, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) was investigated as a dietary supplement for adult dogs. Adult female beagles (n = 12; mean age = 3.3 ± 0.8 yr; mean BW = 10.3 ± 0.68 kg) were fed the same diet, but supplemented with 3 levels of SCFP (125, 250 and 500 mg/d) or a placebo (sucrose) via gelatin capsules in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Bijun Wen, Amel Taibi, Christopher R Villa, Shin-Hann Lee, Sofia Sagaidak, Elena M Comelli
In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that selected Bifidobacterium bifidum strains sustain intestinal homeostasis. This study aimed to examine whether the administration of B. bifidum MIMBb75 (BB75) attenuates Citrobacter rodentium infection, a murine model for enteric infection and inflammatory bowel disease in humans. C57Bl6/J mice were randomized to receive BB75 daily starting before or after C. rodentium infection. BB75 load and infection kinetics were monitored. On day 10 post-infection (p.i.), histological parameters of the large intestine were assessed...
February 14, 2019: Microorganisms
Vasundhara Kain, William Van Der Pol, Nithya Mariappan, Aftab Ahmad, Peter Eipers, Deanna L Gibson, Cecile Gladine, Claire Vigor, Thierry Durand, Casey Morrow, Ganesh V Halade
Calorie-dense obesogenic diet (OBD) is a prime risk factor for cardiovascular disease in aging. However, increasing age coupled with changes in the diet can affect the interaction of intestinal microbiota influencing the immune system, which can lead to chronic inflammation. How age and calorie-enriched OBD interact with microbial flora and impact leukocyte profiling is currently under investigated. Here, we tested the interorgan hypothesis to determine whether OBD in young and aging mice alters the gut microbe composition and the splenic leukocyte profile in acute heart failure (HF)...
February 15, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Federica Laudisi, Davide Di Fusco, Vincenzo Dinallo, Carmine Stolfi, Antonio Di Grazia, Irene Marafini, Alfredo Colantoni, Angela Ortenzi, Claudia Alteri, Francesca Guerrieri, Maria Mavilio, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Massimo Federici, Thomas Thornton MacDonald, Ivan Monteleone, Giovanni Monteleone
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Food additives, such as emulsifiers, stabilizers, or bulking agents, are present in the Western diet and their consumption is increasing. However, little is known about their potential effects on intestinal homeostasis. In this study we examined the effect of some of these food additives on gut inflammation. METHODS: Mice were given drinking water containing maltodextrin (MDX), propylene glycol, or animal gelatin, and then challenged with dextran sulfate sodium or indomethacin...
September 11, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
M Demirci, H B Tokman, H K Uysal, S Demiryas, A Karakullukcu, S Saribas, H Cokugras, B S Kocazeybek
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The amounts of Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in gut microbiota are reduced in patients with allergic diseases compared to healthy controls. We aimed to quantify levels of A. muciniphila and F. prausnitzii amounts using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the gut microbiota of children with allergic asthma and in healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 92 children between the ages of three and eight who were diagnosed with asthma and 88 healthy children were included in the study and bacterial DNA was isolated from the stool samples using the stool DNA isolation Kit...
February 11, 2019: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Sabah Haq, Jensine Grondin, Suhrid Banskota, Waliul I Khan
The intestinal mucosa is a site of multiple stressors and forms the barrier between the internal and external environment. In the intestine, a complex interplay between the microbiota, epithelial barrier and the local immune system maintains homeostasis and promotes a healthy gut. One of the major cellular catabolic processes that regulate this homeostasis is autophagy. Autophagy is required to maintain anti-microbial defense, epithelial barrier integrity and mucosal immune response. Dysregulation of the autophagy process causes disruption of several aspects of the intestinal epithelium and the immune system that can lead to an inappropriate immune response and subsequent inflammation...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Devon Watts, Bianca Pfaffenseller, Bianca Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Luiza Paul Géa, Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Flavio Kapczinski
Present antidepressant treatments are only helpful in a quarter of patients with bipolar depression, and new strategies are warranted. Increasing evidence suggests that accelerated polyamine metabolism is associated with the pathophysiology of depression. Polyamines regulate stress responses, inflammation, and neuronal signaling in the central and enteric nervous system. Agmatine is a promising target of altered polyamine metabolism considering its unique ability to regulate intracellular polyamine content and neuroprotective effects...
February 15, 2019: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Lasha Gogokhia, Kate Buhrke, Rickesha Bell, Brenden Hoffman, D Garrett Brown, Christin Hanke-Gogokhia, Nadim J Ajami, Matthew C Wong, Arevik Ghazaryan, John F Valentine, Nathan Porter, Eric Martens, Ryan O'Connell, Vinita Jacob, Ellen Scherl, Carl Crawford, W Zac Stephens, Sherwood R Casjens, Randy S Longman, June L Round
Bacteriophages are the most abundant members of the microbiota and have the potential to shape gut bacterial communities. Changes to bacteriophage composition are associated with disease, but how phages impact mammalian health remains unclear. We noted an induction of host immunity when experimentally treating bacterially driven cancer, leading us to test whether bacteriophages alter immune responses. Treating germ-free mice with bacteriophages leads to immune cell expansion in the gut. Lactobacillus, Escherichia, and Bacteroides bacteriophages and phage DNA stimulated IFN-γ via the nucleotide-sensing receptor TLR9...
February 13, 2019: Cell Host & Microbe
Matteo Basilissi, Camilla Tincati, Esther Merlini, Giuseppe Ancona, Elisa Borghi, Francesca Borgo, Alessandra Barassi, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Giulia Marchetti
HIV infection causes the progressive depletion of CD4+ T-lymphocytes and profound modifications of T-cell homeostasis, which persist despite virologically-suppressive treatment and have been linked to a worse clinical outcome. Enduring alterations of the gastrointestinal tract may represent the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of these phenomena. Twenty-six HIV-infected subjects were assessed over a 12-month period following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. 18 uninfected individuals were enrolled as controls...
2019: PloS One
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