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birth ball

Mrutyunjaya Parida, Kyle A Nilson, Ming Li, Christopher B Ball, Harrison A Fuchs, Christine K Lawson, Donal S Luse, Jeffery L Meier, David H Price
The large genome of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is transcribed by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). However, it is not known how closely this betaherpesvirus follows host transcriptional paradigms. We applied PRO-Seq and PRO-Cap methods to profile and quantify transcription initiation and productive elongation across the host and virus genomes in late infection. A major similarity between host transcription and viral transcription is that treatment of cells with the P-TEFb inhibitor flavopiridol preempts virtually all productive elongation, which otherwise covers most of the HCMV genome...
February 12, 2019: MBio
M Luke Marinovich, Annette K Regan, Mika Gissler, Maria C Magnus, Siri Eldevik Håberg, Amy M Padula, Jonathan A Mayo, Gary M Shaw, Stephen Ball, Eva Malacova, Amanuel T Gebremedhin, Natasha Nassar, Cicely Marston, Nick de Klerk, Ana Pilar Betran, Gavin F Pereira
INTRODUCTION: Short interpregnancy interval (IPI) has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. WHO recommends waiting at least 2 years after a live birth and 6 months after miscarriage or induced termination before conception of another pregnancy. The evidence underpinning these recommendations largely relies on data from low/middle-income countries. Furthermore, recent epidemiological investigations have suggested that these studies may overestimate the effects of IPI due to residual confounding...
January 29, 2019: BMJ Open
Allison L Naleway, Sarah Ball, Jeffrey C Kwong, Brandy E Wyant, Mark A Katz, Annette K Regan, Margaret L Russell, Nicola P Klein, Hannah Chung, Kimberley A Simmonds, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Becca S Feldman, Avram Levy, Deshayne B Fell, Steven J Drews, Shikha Garg, Paul Effler, Noam Barda, Stephanie A Irving, Patricia Shifflett, Michael L Jackson, Mark G Thompson
BACKGROUND: Although pregnant women are believed to have elevated risks of severe influenza infection and are targeted for influenza vaccination, no study to date has examined influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations during pregnancy, primarily because this outcome poses many methodological challenges. OBJECTIVE: The Pregnancy Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (PREVENT) was formed in 2016 as an international collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Abt Associates; and study sites in Australia, Canada, Israel, and the United States...
January 21, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
G Ball, M L Seal
Quantifying individual variation in postnatal brain development can provide insight into cognitive diversity within a population and the aetiology of common neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Non-invasive studies of the non-human primate can aid understanding of human brain development, facilitating longitudinal analysis during early postnatal development when comparative human populations are difficult to sample. In this study, we perform analysis of a longitudinal MRI dataset of 32 macaques, each with up to five magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans acquired between 3 and 36 months of age...
January 14, 2019: Brain Structure & Function
J Graham Ruby, Kevin M Wright, Kristin A Rand, Amir Kermany, Keith Noto, Don Curtis, Neal Varner, Daniel Garrigan, Dmitri Slinkov, Ilya Dorfman, Julie M Granka, Jake Byrnes, Natalie Myres, Catherine Ball
Human life span is a phenotype that integrates many aspects of health and environment into a single ultimate quantity: the elapsed time between birth and death. Though it is widely believed that long life runs in families for genetic reasons, estimates of life span "heritability" are consistently low (∼15-30%). Here, we used pedigree data from Ancestry public trees, including hundreds of millions of historical persons, to estimate the heritability of human longevity. Although "nominal heritability" estimates based on correlations among genetic relatives agreed with prior literature, the majority of that correlation was also captured by correlations among nongenetic (in-law) relatives, suggestive of highly assortative mating around life span-influencing factors (genetic and/or environmental)...
November 2018: Genetics
Virginia Stulz, David Campbell, Biing Yin, Wafa Al Omari, Robin Burr, Heather Reilly, Kenny Lawson
Background: The peanut ball has only been recently used as a support for women labouring with epidurals. The peanut ball is shaped like a peanut and fits snugly between the woman's legs so that both legs are maintained as opening the pelvic outlet to increase the progress of labour and facilitate descent of the fetal head. Using position changes during labour to enhance widening of the pelvic outlet can be beneficial but a woman who has an epidural is limited in the number of positions she can adopt...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Katherine E Kahn, Carla L Black, Helen Ding, Walter W Williams, Peng-Jun Lu, Amy Parker Fiebelkorn, Fiona Havers, Denise V D'Angelo, Sarah Ball, Rebecca V Fink, Rebecca Devlin
Vaccinating pregnant women with influenza and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines can reduce the risk for influenza and pertussis for themselves and their infants. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all women who are or might be pregnant during the influenza season receive influenza vaccine, which can be administered any time during pregnancy (1). The ACIP also recommends that women receive Tdap during each pregnancy, preferably from 27 through 36 weeks' gestation (2)...
September 28, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Annette K Regan, Stephen J Ball, Joshua L Warren, Eva Malacova, Amy Padula, Cicely Marston, Natasha Nassar, Fiona Stanley, Helen Leonard, Nicholas de Klerk, Gavin Pereira
The association between a single interpregnancy interval (IPI) on birth outcomes has not yet been explored using matched methods. We modelled the odds of preterm birth, small-for-gestational age and low birthweight in a second, liveborn infant in a cohort of 192,041 sibling pairs born in Western Australia between 1980 and 2010. The association between IPI and birth outcomes was estimated from the interaction between birth order and IPI (with 18-23 months as the reference category), using conditional logistic regression...
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Shohei Matsubayashi, Ritsu Tsujimoto, Makoto Osaki
Introduction: The most cases of excessive femoral anteversion may be asymptomatic, because the he hip joint is a ball joint. However, when the hip, knee, or ankle joint is in a pathological state, excessive femoral anteversion may not be compensated for and induce symptoms. Case report: A 16-year-old female with achondroplasia. Medullary compression by the odontoid process caused right hemiplegia at 10 months after birth and equinus foot concomitantly developed...
October 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Sietske A Berghuis, Koenraad N J A Van Braeckel, Pieter J J Sauer, Arend F Bos
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was found to be associated with poorer neurological development in children. Knowledge about the effects on outcomes until adolescence is limited. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether prenatal exposure to POPs, particularly hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs), is associated with cognitive and motor development in 13- to 15-year-old children. METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study is part of the Development at Adolescence and Chemical Exposure (DACE)-study, a follow-up of two Dutch birth cohorts...
December 2018: Environment International
Amanuel Tesfay Gebremedhin, Annette K Regan, Eva Malacova, M Luke Marinovich, Stephen Ball, Damien Foo, Gavin Pereira
INTRODUCTION: Interpregnancy interval (IPI) is the length of time between a birth and conception of the next pregnancy. Evidence suggests that both short and long IPIs are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. Relatively less attention has been directed towards investigating the effect of IPI on pregnancy complications, and the studies that have been conducted have shown mixed results.This systematic review will aim to provide an update to the most recent available evidence on the effect of IPI on pregnancy complications...
August 6, 2018: BMJ Open
Cheng-Wei Chen, Chyong-Hsin Hsu, Jin-Cherng Sheu, Hsin Chi, Jui-Hsing Chang, Chun-Chen Lin, Jeng-Daw Tsai
Invasive candidiasis is a serious pathogen of late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight infants. Kidney is the most common organ involved, and it causes morbidity and mortality, especially when fungal balls are formed. We report a 34-day-old female infant (born at 28 weeks' gestation, 1152 g) with systemic fungal infection complicated obstructive uropathy. On sonography, the fungal balls filled the entire pelvis without hydronephrosis. Percutaneous nephrostomy was not feasible. In addition to systemic antifungals, we successfully performed cystoscopy-assisted retrograde ureteral catheterization to decompress the pelvis, which also provided a route for local amphotericin B irrigation to achieve therapeutic concentration without nephrotoxicity...
October 2018: Urology
Caroline M Taylor, Alan M Emond, Raghu Lingam, Jean Golding
BACKGROUND: Lead and mercury are freely transferred across the placenta, while cadmium tends to accumulate in the placenta. Each contributes to adverse neurological outcomes for the child. Although prenatal heavy metal exposure has been linked with an array of neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood, its association with the development of motor skills in children has not been robustly studied. AIMS/OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury, measured as maternal blood concentrations during pregnancy, and motor skills, measured as subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC) at age 7 years in a large sample of mother-child pairs enrolled in a UK observational birth cohort study (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, ALSPAC)...
August 2018: Environment International
Ravichandra Vemuri, Rohit Gundamaraju, Madhur D Shastri, Shakti Dhar Shukla, Krishnakumar Kalpurath, Madeleine Ball, Stephen Tristram, Esaki M Shankar, Kiran Ahuja, Rajaraman Eri
Gut microbiota is established during birth and evolves with age, mostly maintaining the commensal relationship with the host. A growing body of clinical evidence suggests an intricate relationship between the gut microbiota and the immune system. With ageing, the gut microbiota develops significant imbalances in the major phyla such as the anaerobic Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as well as a diverse range of facultative organisms, resulting in impaired immune responses. Antimicrobial therapy is commonly used for the treatment of infections; however, this may also result in the loss of normal gut flora...
2018: BioMed Research International
Angelita José Henrique, Maria Cristina Gabrielloni, Patricia Rodney, Márcia Barbieri
AIM: This study aimed to investigate the effect of warm shower hydrotherapy and perineal exercises with a ball on pain, anxiety, and neuroendocrine stress parameters during childbirth. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was conducted with 128 women during childbirth, admitted for hospital birth in São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2013 to February 2014. The participants were randomly assigned into one of the following intervention groups: received warm shower hydrotherapy (GA); performed perineal exercises with a ball (GB); and combined intervention group, which received warm shower hydrotherapy and perineal exercises with a ball (GC) (n = 39)...
June 2018: International Journal of Nursing Practice
Stacy S Habroun, Andrew A Schaffner, Emily N Taylor, Christine R Strand
Pythons are model organisms for investigating physiological responses to food intake. While systemic growth in response to food consumption is well documented, what occurs in the brain is currently unexplored. In this study, male ball pythons ( Python regius ) were used to test the hypothesis that food consumption stimulates cell proliferation in the brain. We used 5-bromo-12'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) as a cell-birth marker to quantify and compare cell proliferation in the brain of fasted snakes and those at 2 and 6 days after a meal...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Peter Walker, James Gavin Bremner, Marco Lunghi, Sarah Dolscheid, Beatrice D Barba, Francesca Simion
Amodal (redundant) and arbitrary cross-sensory feature associations involve the context-insensitive mapping of absolute feature values across sensory domains. Cross-sensory associations of a different kind, known as correspondences, involve the context-sensitive mapping of relative feature values. Are such correspondences in place at birth (like amodal associations), or are they learned from subsequently experiencing relevant feature co-occurrences in the world (like arbitrary associations)? To decide between these two possibilities, human newborns (median age = 44 hr) watched animations in which two balls alternately rose and fell together in space...
March 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Rubneide Barreto Silva Gallo, Licia Santos Santana, Alessandra Cristina Marcolin, Geraldo Duarte, Silvana Maria Quintana
QUESTION: Among women in labour, does sequential application of non-pharmacological interventions relieve labour pain, shorten labour, and delay pharmacological analgesia use? DESIGN: Randomised trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding, and intention-to-treat analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty women admitted in labour at the end of a low-risk pregnancy. INTERVENTION: Participants in the experimental group received three interventions for up to 40minutes each in particular stages of labour: exercise on a Swiss ball at 4 to 5cm of cervical dilation; lumbosacral massage at 5 to 6cm dilation; and a warm shower at >7cm dilation...
January 2018: Journal of Physiotherapy
Madeleine L Barnett, Nora Tusor, Gareth Ball, Andrew Chew, Shona Falconer, Paul Aljabar, Jessica A Kimpton, Nigel Kennea, Mary Rutherford, A David Edwards, Serena J Counsell
Background: Preterm infants are at high risk of diffuse white matter injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. The multiple hit hypothesis suggests that the risk of white matter injury increases with cumulative exposure to multiple perinatal risk factors. Our aim was to test this hypothesis in a large cohort of preterm infants using diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). Methods: We studied 491 infants (52% male) without focal destructive brain lesions born at < 34 weeks, who underwent structural and dMRI at a specialist Neonatal Imaging Centre...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Michelle L Krishnan, Zi Wang, Paul Aljabar, Gareth Ball, Ghazala Mirza, Alka Saxena, Serena J Counsell, Joseph V Hajnal, Giovanni Montana, A David Edwards
Preterm infants show abnormal structural and functional brain development, and have a high risk of long-term neurocognitive problems. The molecular and cellular mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but novel methods now make it possible to address them by examining the relationship between common genetic variability and brain endophenotype. We addressed the hypothesis that variability in the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR) pathway would be related to brain development. We employed machine learning in an unsupervised, unbiased, combined analysis of whole-brain diffusion tractography together with genomewide, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genotypes from a cohort of 272 preterm infants, using Sparse Reduced Rank Regression (sRRR) and correcting for ethnicity and age at birth and imaging...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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