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Death sudden

Lukas Chmielewski, Michael Bietenbeck, Alexandru Patrascu, Sabine Rösch, Udo Sechtem, Ali Yilmaz, Anca-Rezeda Florian
BACKGROUND: Cardiac involvement in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1) includes conduction disease, arrhythmias, and left-ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction leading to an increased sudden cardiac death risk. An understanding of the interplay between electrical and structural myocardial changes could improve the prediction of adverse cardiac events. We aimed to explore the relationship between signs of cardiomyopathy by conventional and advanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), and electrical abnormalities in MD1...
February 14, 2019: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Johnette A Peñas, Vikki Carr de Los Reyes, Ma Nemia L Sucaldito, Julius Erving D Ballera, Herdie L Hizon, Rio L Magpantay, Vicente Y Belizario, Kenneth Hartigan-Go
Introduction: In July 2015, the Philippines conducted a school-based mass drug administration using albendazole for soil-transmitted helminths infection. Reports of adverse events were subsequently made through the event-based surveillance system, mostly from the Zamboanga Peninsula on the island of Mindanao. A team from the Epidemiology Bureau investigated the reports of adverse events following mass drug administration (AEFMDA). Methods: Five schools were identified for the investigation which comprised an unmatched case-control study, key informant interviews and laboratory examinations...
October 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Marwan M Refaat, Sylvana Hassanieh, Jad A Ballout, Patrick Zakka, Mostafa Hotait, Athar Khalil, Fadi Bitar, Mariam Arabi, Samir Arnaout, Hadi Skouri, Antoine Abchee, Bernard Abi-Saleh, Maurice Khoury, Andreas Massouras, Georges Nemer
BACKGROUND: Cardiomyopathies affect more than 0.5% of the general population. They are associated with high risk of sudden cardiac death, which can result from either heart failure or electrical abnormalities. Although different mechanisms underlie the various types of cardiomyopathies, a principal pathology is common to all and is usually at the level of the cardiac muscle. With a relatively high incidence rate in most countries, and a subsequent major health burden on both the families and governments, cardiomyopathies are gaining more attention by researchers and pharmaceutical companies as well as health government bodies...
February 14, 2019: BMC Medical Genomics
Edward T O'Leary, Elizabeth S Dewitt, Douglas Y Mah, Kimberlee Gauvreau, Edward P Walsh, Vassilios J Bezzerides
BACKGROUND: Fasciculoventricular fibers (FVFs) are responsible for 1-5% of cases of asymptomatic pre-excitation on surface electrocardiogram (ECG). Unlike ventricular pre-excitation seen in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, FVFs are not associated with sudden cardiac death from pre-excited atrial fibrillation. OBJECTIVE: To identify surface ECG variables that differentiate FVFs from true WPW syndrome. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study comparing surface ECG characteristics in patients diagnosed with a FVF (cases) to WPW patients with anteroseptal accessory pathways (APs; controls) via intracardiac electrophysiology (EP) testing at a single institution from 2005-2017...
February 11, 2019: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Yao Xiong, Kenneth C Bedi, Simon Berritt, Thomas G Brooks, Bennette K Attipoe, Kevin Wang, Kenneth B Margulies, Jeffrey Field
About one-third of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cases are caused by mutations in sarcomere or cytoskeletal proteins. Yet treating the cytoskeleton directly is not possible because drugs that bind to actin are not well tolerated. Mutations in the actin binding protein CAP2 can cause DCM and knockout mice, either whole body (CAP2 KO) or cardiomyocyte-specific knockouts (CAP2 CKO), develop DCM with cardiac conduction disease. RNA-seq analysis of CAP2 KO hearts and isolated cardiomyocytes revealed over-activation of fetal genes including serum response factor (SRF) regulated genes such as Myl9 and Acta2 prior to the emergence of cardiac disease...
February 14, 2019: JCI Insight
Iyo Ikeda-Yorifuji, Takahisa Yamada, Shunsuke Tamaki, Takashi Morita, Yoshio Furukawa, Yusuke Iwasaki, Masato Kawasaki, Atsushi Kikuchi, Tsutomu Kawai, Masahiro Seo, Eiji Fukuhara, Makoto Abe, Jun Nakamura, Masatake Fukunami
BACKGROUND: AdreView myocardial imaging for risk evaluation in heart failure (ADMIRE-HF) risk score is a novel risk score to predict serious arrhythmic risk in chronic heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Moreover, early repolarization pattern (ERP) has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in HFrEF patients. We sought to investigate the prognostic value of combining ADMIRE-HF risk score and ERP to predict SCD in HFrEF patients...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Karlene T Barrett, Shabih U Hasan, Morris H Scantlebury, Richard J A Wilson
The stress peptide, PACAP, and its specific receptor, PAC1, have been implicated in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). PACAP is also critical to the neonatal cardiorespiratory response to homeostatic stressors identified in SIDS, including hypoxia. However, which of PACAP's three receptors, PAC1, VPAC1 and/or VPAC2, are involved is unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that PAC1, but not VPAC2, is involved in mediating the cardiorespiratory response to hypoxia during neonatal development. To test this hypothesis, head-out plethysmography and surface ECG electrodes were used to assess the cardiorespiratory variables of unanesthetized postnatal day 4 PAC1 and VPAC2 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice in response to a 10% hypoxic challenge...
February 13, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Robyn Whitney, Elizabeth J Donner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: People with epilepsy have an increased risk of mortality when compared to the general population. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most common cause of epilepsy-related death in children and adults. The purpose of this review is to discuss SUDEP, with an emphasis on SUDEP risk factors, their mitigation and prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: SUDEP affects approximately 1 in 1000 people with epilepsy each year. Recent studies suggest that the incidence in children is similar to that of adults...
February 13, 2019: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Ikaro Soares Santos Breder, Andrei C Sposito
Diabetes is one of the most common chronic pathologies around the world, involving treatment with general clinicians, endocrinologists, cardiologists, ophthalmologists, nephrologists and a multidisciplinary team. Patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) can be affected by cardiac autonomic neuropathy, leading to increased mortality and morbidity. In this review, we will present current concepts, clinical features, diagnosis, prognosis, and possible treatment. New drugs recently developed to reduce glycemic level presented a pleiotropic effect of reducing sudden death, suggesting a potential use in patients at risk...
January 2019: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Jing Zhang, Jia Liu, Dan Li, Canfei Zhang, Ming Liu
BACKGROUND: The sudden loss of blood supply in ischemic stroke is associated with an increase of calcium ions within neurons. Inhibiting this increase could protect neurons and might reduce neurological impairment, disability, and handicap after stroke. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of calcium antagonists for reducing the risk of death or dependency after acute ischemic stroke. We investigated the influence of different drugs, dosages, routes of administration, time intervals after stroke, and trial design on the outcomes...
February 13, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Rup K Sainju, Deidre N Dragon, Harold B Winnike, Marcus B Nashelsky, Mark A Granner, Brian K Gehlbach, George B Richerson
OBJECTIVE: Severe periictal respiratory depression is thought to be linked to risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) but its determinants are largely unknown. Interindividual differences in the interictal ventilatory response to CO2 (hypercapnic ventilatory response [HCVR] or central respiratory CO2 chemosensitivity) may identify patients who are at increased risk for severe periictal hypoventilation. HCVR has not been studied previously in patients with epilepsy; therefore we evaluated a method to measure it at bedside in an epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) and examined its relationship to postictal hypercapnia following generalized convulsive seizures (GCSs)...
February 12, 2019: Epilepsia
Stephan Gerling, Oliver Loose, Robert Zant, Holger Michel, Michael Melter, Christian Gündisch, Volker Krutsch, Werner Krutsch
BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in children and adolescents is rare. Several studies have reported a higher risk of SCD during athletic competition. High risk congenital coronary artery abnormalities are the second leading cause of SCD in young athletes in the USA. Echocardiographic assessment of coronary arteries has not been routinely used in screening programmes for junior athletes so far. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in 1045 consecutive adolescent elite football players...
February 12, 2019: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Michele Orini, Joseph Yanni, Peter Taggart, Ben Hanson, Martin Hayward, Andrew Smith, Henggui Zhang, Michael Colman, Gareth Jones, Xiao Jie, Halina Dobrzynski, Mark R Boyett, Pier D Lambiase
Aims: Action potential duration (APD) alternans is an established precursor or arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Important differences in fundamental electrophysiological properties relevant to arrhythmia exist between experimental models and the diseased in vivo human heart. To investigate mechanisms of APD alternans using a novel approach combining intact heart and cellular cardiac electrophysiology in human in vivo. Methods and results: We developed a novel approach combining intact heart electrophysiological mapping during cardiac surgery with rapid on-site data analysis to guide myocardial biopsies for laboratory analysis, thereby linking repolarization dynamics observed at the organ level with underlying ion channel expression...
February 8, 2019: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Barbara J Zarowitz, James E Tisdale
BACKGROUND: The exponential increase in the number of medications associated with clinically important prolongation of the heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) places older adults at increased risk of arrhythmias including life-threatening torsade de pointes (TdP) and sudden death. Risk factors, other than age older than 65 years and female sex, include multiple concurrent drugs that prolong QTc and a variety of underlying predisposing conditions. Although electronic medical records and pharmacy dispensing systems can alert clinicians to the risk of QTc-prolonging therapy, more than 95% of safety alerts are overridden, and many systems have deactivated QTc drug interaction alerts...
February 12, 2019: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Harel Gilutz, Sevatlana Shindel, Ilana Shoham-Vardi
BACKGROUND: Adherence to guidelines for the initial treatment of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction has been thoroughly studied, whereas the study of emergency department (ED) adherence to guidelines for Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction-Acute Coronary Syndrome (NSTEMI-ACS) has been much scarcer. The recommended guidelines for the initial prompt workup and treatment of NSTEMI-ACS remains a challenge. AIM: We studied adherence to guidelines for NSTEMI in the ED...
March 2019: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Kim M Nielsen, Ann-Dorthe Zwisler, Rod S Taylor, Jesper H Svendsen, Jane Lindschou, Lindsey Anderson, Janus C Jakobsen, Selina K Berg
BACKGROUND: An effective way of preventing sudden cardiac death is the use of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). In spite of the potential mortality benefits of receiving an ICD device, psychological problems experienced by patients after receiving an ICD may negatively impact their health-related quality of life, and lead to increased readmission to hospital and healthcare needs, loss of productivity and employment earnings, and increased morbidity and mortality. Evidence from other heart conditions suggests that cardiac rehabilitation should consist of both exercise training and psychoeducational interventions; such rehabilitation may benefit patients with an ICD...
February 12, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Andreina Carbone, Antonello D'Andrea, Giancarlo Scognamiglio, Raffaella Scarafile, Gianpaolo Tocci, Simona Sperlongano, Francesca Martone, Juri Radmilovic, Marianna D'Amato, Biagio Liccardo, Marino Scherillo, Maurizio Galderisi, Paolo Golino
Mitral valve prolapse is generally a benign condition characterized by fibromyxomatous changes of the mitral leaflet with displacement into the left atrium and late-systolic regurgitation. Although it is an old clinical entity, it still arouses perplexity in diagnosis and clinical management. Complications, such as mitral regurgitation (MR), atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, endocarditis, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death (SCD), have been reported. A large proportion of the overall causes of SCD in young competitive athletes is explained by mitral valve prolapse...
October 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Echography
Bhargavi Dhulipudi, Shweta Bhakru, Saileela Rajan, Vinoth Doraiswamy, Nageswara Rao Koneti
Background: Cardiac rhabdomyoma (CR) often shows spontaneous regression and needs close follow-up. These tumors may be associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), caused by the disinhibition of m-TOR protein. Objective: The aim of the study is to observe the efficacy of everolimus in infants with significant CR. Materials and Methods: This is a single-center prospective observational study including infants with significant CR causing either clinical symptoms or obstruction to the blood flow...
January 2019: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
Masaru Yamamoto, Katsunori Okajima, Akira Shimane, Tomoya Ozawa, Itsuro Morishima, Toru Asai, Masahiko Takagi, Atsunobu Kasai, Eitaro Fujii, Ken Kiyono, Eiichi Watanabe, Yukio Ozaki
Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) improve survival in patients who are at risk of sudden death. However, inappropriate therapy is commonly given to ICD recipients, and this situation may be associated with an increased risk of death. This study aimed to construct a risk stratification scheme by using decision tree analysis in patients who received inappropriate ICD therapy.Mortality was calculated from a retrospective data analysis of a multicenter cohort involving 417 ICD recipients. Inappropriate therapy was defined as therapy for nonventricular arrhythmias, including sinus tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation/flutter, oversensing, and lead failure...
February 8, 2019: International Heart Journal
Hirofumi Yasue, Yuji Mizuno, Eisaku Harada
Coronary artery spasm (CAS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease, including angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and sudden death, occurring most often from midnight to early morning. CAS is prevalent among East Asians and is associated with an aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2)-deficient genotype (ALDH2*2) and alcohol flushing, which is prevalent among East Asians but is virtually non-existent in other populations. ALDH2 eliminates not only acetaldehyde but also other toxic aldehydes from lipid peroxidation and tobacco smoking, thereby protecting tissues and cells from oxidative damage...
2019: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
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