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NadPH AND Parkinsons

Dong-Hee Choi, In-Ae Choi, Cheol Soon Lee, Ji Hee Yun, Jongmin Lee
The neuropathology of Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) has been reported to involve heterogeneous and various disease mechanisms. Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) and amyloid beta (Aβ) pathology are associated with the cognitive status of PDD, and NADPH oxidase (NOX) is known to affect a variety of cognitive functions. We investigated the effects of NOX on cognitive impairment and on α-syn and Aβ expression and aggregation in PDD. In the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-injected mouse model, cognitive and motor function, and the levels of α-syn, Aβ, and oligomer A11 after inhibition of NOX4 expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) were measured by the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, rotation, and rotarod tests, as well as immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry...
February 6, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Richard L Veech, Michael Todd King, Robert Pawlosky, Yoshihiro Kashiwaya, Patrick C Bradshaw, William Curtis
Nucleotide coenzymes dot the map of metabolic pathways providing energy to drive the reactions of the pathway and play an important role in regulating and controlling energy metabolism through their shared potential energy, which is widely unobserved due to the paradox that the energy in the coenzyme pools cannot be determined from the concentration of the coenzyme couples. The potential energy of the nucleotide couples in the mitochondria or the cytoplasm is expressed in the enzyme reactions in which they take part...
January 9, 2019: IUBMB Life
Yanwei Cheng, Tony N Marion, Xue Cao, Wanting Wang, Yu Cao
Sepsis remains a serious and life-threatening condition with high morbidity and mortality due to uncontrolled inflammation together with immunosuppression with few therapeutic options. Macrophages are recognized to play essential roles throughout all phases of sepsis and affect both immune homeostasis and inflammatory processes, and macrophage dysfunction is considered to be one of the major causes for sepsis-induced immunosuppression. Currently, Parkinson disease protein 7 (Park 7) is known to play an important role in regulating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through interaction with p47phox , a subunit of NADPH oxidase...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Anuradha Tarafdar, Giordano Pula
For a number of years, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (NOX) was synonymous with NOX2/gp91phox and was considered to be a peculiarity of professional phagocytic cells. Over the last decade, several more homologs have been identified and based on current research, the NOX family consists of NOX1, NOX2, NOX3, NOX4, NOX5, DUOX1 and DUOX2 enzymes. NOXs are electron transporting membrane proteins that are responsible for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation-primarily superoxide anion (O₂●- ), although hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) can also be generated...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zacharias E Suntres
Paraquat dichloride, a herbicide used for weed and grass control, is extremely toxic to humans and animals. The mechanisms of toxicity involve the redox cycling of paraquat resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species and the depletion of the cellular NADPH. The major cause of death in paraquat poisoning is respiratory failure due to its specific uptake by and oxidative insult to the alveolar epithelial cells and inflammation with subsequent obliterating fibrosis. Paraquat also causes selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, reproducing an important pathological feature of Parkinson disease...
October 23, 2018: Fitoterapia
Juan A Parga, Ana I Rodriguez-Perez, Maria Garcia-Garrote, Jannette Rodriguez-Pallares, Jose L Labandeira-Garcia
Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a transcription factor that activates the antioxidant cellular defense in response to oxidative stress, leading to neuroprotective effects in Parkinson's disease (PD) models. We have previously shown that Angiotensin II (AngII) induces an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) via AngII receptor type 1 and NADPH oxidase (NOX), which may activate the NRF2 pathway. However, controversial data suggest that AngII induces a decrease in NRF2 signaling leading to an increase in oxidative stress...
October 11, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Heera Sharma, Aaron C Hirko, Michael A King, Bin Liu
Environmental exposure to the highly persistent chlorinated pesticides including dieldrin and lindane is postulated to be a risk factor to the development of Parkinson's disease, a devastating movement disorder. We have previously reported that the combined treatment with dieldrin and lindane induces a cooperative toxicity in the rat N27 dopaminergic neuronal cells through increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the involvement of NADPH oxidase (NOX) proteins in the combined treatment with dieldrin and lindane-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity...
December 15, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Hwei-Hsien Chen, Pei-Chi Chang, Shiaw-Pyng Wey, Pei-Mei Chen, Chinpiao Chen, Ming-Huan Chan
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a profound neurodegenerative disorder with gradual loss of dopamine nigrostriatal neurons linked to serious behavioral symptoms. While the current treatment strategies present limitations on halting the progression of PD, this study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of honokiol, as a partial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) mimic, on the proceeding behavioral and biochemical alterations in hemiparkinsonian mice. Results showed that unilateral striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned mice exhibited motor impairment, reflecting the contralateral rotation induced by apomorphine at 1-3 weeks post-lesion...
December 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ying Zhou, Junchao Wu, Rui Sheng, Mei Li, Yan Wang, Rong Han, Feng Han, Zhong Chen, Zheng-Hong Qin
It is generally believed that oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) has been demonstrated to have potent neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress. In the present research, we investigated if NADPH could offer neuroprotection by inhibiting glia-mediated neuroinflammation induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a mechanism contributing to PD pathogenesis...
November 1, 2018: Neuroscience
Li Cheng, Lin Chen, Xinbing Wei, Yimeng Wang, Zhiping Ren, Shenglan Zeng, Xiumei Zhang, Haitao Wen, Chengjiang Gao, Huiqing Liu
BACKGROUND: In Parkinson's disease (PD), loss of striatal dopaminergic (DA) terminals and degeneration of DA neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) are associated with inflammation. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein (NOD)2, one of the first discovered NOD-like receptors, plays an important role in inflammation. However, the role of NOD2 has not been elucidated in PD. METHODS: NOD2 mRNA and protein expression in the SN and the striatum of C57BL/6 mice treated with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was measured...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Shahnawaz Ali Bhat, Anika Sood, Rakesh Shukla, Kashif Hanif
Microglia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inflammation play an imperative role in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). It has been established that angiotensin II type-2 receptor (AT2R) activation is neuroprotective in central nervous system diseases like stroke and AD. However, the involvement of AT2R in NADPH oxidase (NOX)-mediated microglia activation is still elusive. Therefore, the present study investigated the role of AT2R in angiotensin II (Ang II) or Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced microglia activation in BV2 cells, primary microglia, p47phox knockout (p47KO) microglia, and in vivo...
August 3, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Sheng Song, Lulu Jiang, Esteban A Oyarzabal, Belinda Wilson, Zibo Li, Yen-Yu Ian Shih, Qingshan Wang, Jau-Shyong Hong
Environmental toxicant exposure has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Clinical manifestations of non-motor and motor symptoms in PD stem from decades of progressive neurodegeneration selectively afflicting discrete neuronal populations along a caudo-rostral axis. However, recapitulating this spatiotemporal neurodegenerative pattern in rodents has been unsuccessful. The purpose of this study was to generate such animal PD models and delineate mechanism underlying the ascending neurodegeneration...
July 27, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Ana I Rodriguez-Perez, Diego Sucunza, Maria A Pedrosa, Pablo Garrido-Gil, Jaime Kulisevsky, Jose L Lanciego, Jose L Labandeira-Garcia
The loss of dopaminergic neurons and α-synuclein accumulation are major hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), and it has been suggested that a major mechanism of α-synuclein toxicity is microglial activation. The lack of animal models that properly reproduce PD, and particularly the underlying synucleinopathy, has hampered the clarification of PD mechanisms and the development of effective therapies. Here, we used neurospecific adeno-associated viral vectors serotype 9 coding for either the wild-type or mutated forms of human alpha-synuclein (WT and SynA53T, respectively) under the control of a synapsin promoter to further induce a marked dopaminergic neuron loss together with an important microglial neuroinflammatory response...
July 9, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Huichun Tong, Xiuping Zhang, Xingjun Meng, Lingli Lu, Dongmei Mai, Shaogang Qu
Evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Simvastatin has been suggested to protect against oxidative stress in several diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms by which simvastatin protects against neuropathology and oxidative damage in PD are poorly elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of simvastatin owing to its anti-oxidative properties in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-treated SH-SY5Y cells and mice...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Jing-Si Zhou, Zhou Zhu, Feng Wu, Ying Zhou, Rui Sheng, Jun-Chao Wu, Zheng-Hong Qin
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Although the pathogenic mechanism underlying PD remains largely unknown, decreased nigral glutathione (GSH) in postmortem brains of PD patients supports the presence of oxidative stress in PD. We found that Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), which is important for maintaining the level of GSH, protected dopaminergic (DA) neurons from neurotoxicity of MPTP/MPP+ ...
May 16, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Yong Zhou, Min Li, Dong-Lin Zhu, Teng Jiang, Qing Gao, Xiao-Hong Tang, Shu-Gang Zhang, Jie Lu, Ying-Dong Zhang
There is evidence to support that ROSs are increased in Parkinson's disease (PD). Our recent research showed that angiotensin II (Ang II) participated in the pathogenesis of PD by triggering oxidative stress. Angiotensin-(1-7)[Ang-(1-7)] has been shown to moderate the adverse effects of the Ang II in many diseases. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the Ang-(1-7) could have similar effects in CATH.a neurons. We used rotenone-induced neuron injury models to evaluate changes in cultured CATH...
August 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Yuning Che, Liyan Hou, Fuqiang Sun, Cong Zhang, Xiaofang Liu, Fengyuan Piao, Dan Zhang, Huihua Li, Qingshan Wang
Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is implicated in multiple neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Hence, the modulatioein of sustained microglial activation may have therapeutic potential. This study is designed to test the neuroprotective efficacy of taurine, a major intracellular free β-amino acid in mammalian tissues, by using paraquat and maneb-induced PD model. Results showed that mice intoxicated with paraquat and maneb displayed progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration and motor deficits, which was significantly ameliorated by taurine...
April 1, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Liyan Hou, Yuning Che, Fuqiang Sun, Qingshan Wang
Beyond nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC/NE) neurons are also degenerated in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. We previously reported that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation contributes to LC/NE neurodegeneration. The purpose of this study is aimed to test whether taurine, an endogenous amino acid, could be able to protect LC/NE neurons through inhibition of microglial activation using paraquat and maneb-induced mouse PD model...
May 2018: Amino Acids
Mostafa A Rabie, Mai A Abd El Fattah, Noha N Nassar, Hanan S El-Abhar, Dalaal M Abdallah
MAS receptor (MASR), expressed in several brain areas, conferred neuroprotection against neurodegenerative disorders when activated by angiotensin (Ang) 1-7; however, its role in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains elusive. Intra-striatal post-administration of Ang1-7, using a 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA) PD model, improved motor performance and muscle coordination. On the molecular level, Ang1-7 upregulated the striatal expression of MASR and caused upsurge in its downstream targets (p-PI3K/p-Akt/p-CREB/BDNF) to phosphorylate TrKB, which in a positive feedback upregulates MASR...
May 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Cong Zhang, Liyan Hou, Jie Yang, Yuning Che, Fuqiang Sun, Huihua Li, Qingshan Wang
Recent study demonstrated that chronic exposure to solvents increases the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra (SN). n-Hexane, a widely used organic solvent, displays central-peripheral neurotoxicity, which is mainly mediated by its active metabolite, 2,5-hexanedione (HD). However, whether HD exposure contributes to PD remains unclear. In this study, we found that rats exposed to HD displayed progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal system...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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