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Intrauterine obesity

Jordi Martorell-Marugán, Víctor González-Rumayor, Pedro Carmona-Sáez
Motivation: The identification of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) among phenotypes is one of the main goals of epigenetic analysis. Although there are several methods developed to detect DMRs, most of them are focused on detecting relatively large differences in methylation levels and fail to detect moderate, but consistent, methylation changes that might be associated to complex disorders. Results: We present mCSEA, an R package that implements a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis method to identify differentially methylated regions from Illumina450K and EPIC array data...
February 12, 2019: Bioinformatics
Yeukai Tm Mangwiro, James Sm Cuffe, Dayana Mahizir, Kristina Anevska, Sogand Gravina, Tania Romano, Karen M Moritz, Jessica F Briffa, Mary E Wlodek
KEY POINTS: Fetal growth is dependent on effective placental nutrient transportation, which is regulated by mTORC1 modulation of nutrient transporter expression. These transporters are dysregulated in pregnancies affected by uteroplacental insufficiency and maternal obesity. Nutrient transporters and mTOR were altered in placentae of mothers born growth restricted compared to normal birth weight dams, with maternal diet- and fetal sex-specific responses. Exercise initiated during pregnancy (PregEx) downregulated MTOR protein expression, despite an increase in mTOR activation in male associated placentae, and reduced nutrient transporter gene abundance, which was also dependent on maternal diet and fetal sex...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Marcia A Ciccone, Stephanie A Whitman, Charlotte L Conturie, Niquelle Brown, Christina E Dancz, Begum Özel, Koji Matsuo
OBJECTIVE: While progestins can effectively treat women with complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH), the impact of body habitus on treatment outcome is not well studied. We examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and progestin treatment outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with hyperplasia between 2003 and 2011. Demographics, past medical history, BMI, hormonal therapy, and histologic treatment response were abstracted...
January 31, 2019: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch, Antonio E Nardi
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by disconnectivity due to disordered neuronal migration, and by neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction. Different pathways involved in neuronal migration are affected by intrauterine hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, while prolonged neonatal hypoglycemia may cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Our hypothesis was that conditions leading to intrauterine hyperglycemia or neonatal hypoglycemia would influence ASD pathogenesis. In this study, we identified risk factors for ASD by searching PubMed with the MeSH terms "autism spectrum disorder" and "risk factors"...
January 31, 2019: Translational Psychiatry
Liv Guro Engen Hanem, Øyvind Salvesen, Petur B Juliusson, Sven M Carlsen, Marit Cecilie Fonn Nossum, Marte Øye Vaage, Rønnaug Ødegård, Eszter Vanky
BACKGROUND: Metformin is increasingly used to treat gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes in pregnancy, and in attempts to improve pregnancy outcomes in polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity. It passes across the placenta with possible long-term consequences for the offspring. We previously explored the effect of metformin, given to women with polycystic ovary syndrome during pregnancy, on children's growth up to 4 years of age. In this 5-10 year follow-up, we examined the cardiometabolic risk factors in these children...
January 28, 2019: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Bernard Portha, Valérie Grandjean, Jamileh Movassat
Extensive epidemiological and experimental evidence have shown that exposure to an adverse intrauterine environment as observed in offspring of pregnancies complicated by obesity or diabetes, can program susceptibility to metabolic, endocrine and cardiovascular disorders later in life. Although most studies have concentrated on the maternal environment, it is also becoming evident that paternal exposure to obesity or diabetes can result in the later development of metabolic disorders in the offspring. Such programmed effects might not be limited to the first directly exposed generation, but could be transmitted to subsequent generations...
January 22, 2019: Nutrients
Yeukai Tm Mangwiro, Jessica F Briffa, Sogand Gravina, Dayana Mahizir, Kristina Anevska, Tania Romano, Karen M Moritz, James Sm Cuffe, Mary E Wlodek
Fetal growth and development are dependent on adequate placental nutrient transfer. The surface area of the placental villous network is a key determinant of nutrient exchange, which is regulated by vasculogenic and angiogenic factors. These factors are altered by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and maternal obesity in both the first (F1) and second (F2) generations. We investigated the impact of endurance exercise in IUGR dams fed a High-fat diet on placental vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Uteroplacental insufficiency (Restricted) or sham (Control) surgery was induced on embryonic day (E) 18 in Wistar-Kyoto rats...
December 15, 2018: Placenta
D P Laureano, M B Alves, P M Miguel, T D Machado, A R Reis, A B Mucellini, F S Cunha, C Lampert, A P A Salvador, R Dalle Molle, P R Mosca, I Pokhvisneva, M Desai, M G Ross, P P Silveira
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) associates with increased preference for palatable foods and altered insulin sensitivity. Insulin modulates the central dopaminergic response and changes behavioral responses to reward. We measured the release of dopamine in the accumbens during palatable food intake in IUGR rats both at baseline and in response to insulin. From pregnancy day 10 until birth, gestating Sprague-Dawley rats received either an ad libitum (Control), or a 50% food restricted (FR) diet. In adulthood, palatable food consumption and feeding behavior entropy was assessed using an electronic food intake monitor (BioDAQ®), and dopamine response to palatable food was measured by chronoamperometry recordings in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc)...
December 30, 2018: Neuroscience
Andrew J Szabo
The prevalence of adult and childhood obesity are increasing. Most of the human newborn's body fat accumulates in the last half of intrauterine life. Fat in the fetus was thought to be mostly synthesized from glucose, but now it is commonly accepted that the bulk of it is the product of placental transfer of maternal fatty acids. Transported fatty acids originate in maternal plasma "free" fatty acids, fatty acids hydrolyzed from maternal plasma triglycerides, and the poly-unsaturated fatty acid component of maternal phospholipids...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Helen M Shields, Hasrat Sidhu
Levonorgestrel uterine implants are accepted as a safe and efficacious method of contraception. One of the two major health side effects in a large controlled study of subcutaneous hormonal implants with levonorgestrel was a significant increase in gallbladder disease. Gallbladder hypomotility is recognized as a side effect of the levonorgestrel (progesterone). We recently saw on a Gastroenterology Consult Service, two women under 40-years-of-age who had been transferred from outside hospitals with acute cholecystitis with symptomatic choledocholithiasis...
2018: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
Maya Frank Wolf, Yael Bar-Zeev, Ido Solt
Smoking during pregnancy is a public health problem because of the many adverse effects associated with it. These include intrauterine growth restriction, placenta previa, abruptio placentae, decreased maternal thyroid function, preterm premature rupture of membranes, low birth weight, perinatal mortality, and ectopic pregnancy. An estimated 5-8% of pre-term deliveries, 13-19% of term deliveries of infants with low birth weight, 23-34% cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and 5-7% of preterm-related infant deaths can be attributed to prenatal maternal smoking...
December 2018: Harefuah
László Kardos, Gabriella Magyar, Eszter Schváb, Eva Luczai
OBJECTIVES: Emergency contraception (EC) provides an opportunity to avoid an unwanted pregnancy following unprotected sexual intercourse (UPSI), failure of a regular contraceptive method or after sexual assault. Two main methods are currently available: oral pills or the copper-T intrauterine device. In recent years there has been some debate regarding the efficacy of oral therapy in obese women. In this brief commentary we review new evidence, published after the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) referral of 2014, relating to the effect of obesity on the pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of levonorgestrel EC in light of some of the concerns that have been raised...
December 20, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Prabha H Andraweera, Gus Dekker, Shalem Leemaqz, Lesley McCowan, Jenny Myers, Louise Kenny, James Walker, Lucilla Poston, Claire T Roberts
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the influence of birth weight on the risk of pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia (PE), gestational hypertension (GH), small for gestational age (SGA) pregnancy, spontaneous preterm birth, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and assessed the effect of early pregnancy BMI on the this relationship. METHODS: A total of 5,336 nulliparous women from the SCreening fOr Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study were included. Women's birth weights were self-reported and confirmed via medical records when possible...
December 19, 2018: Obesity
Anura W G Ratnasiri, Steven S Parry, Vivi N Arief, Ian H DeLacy, Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Laura A Halliday, Ralph J DiLibero, Kaye E Basford
Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is associated with increased infant mortality, and neurodevelopmental abnormalities among survivors. The aim of this study is to investigate temporal trends, patterns, and predictors of PTB in California from 2007 to 2016, based on the obstetric estimate of gestational age (OA). Methods: A retrospective cohort study evaluated 435,280 PTBs from the 5,137,376 resident live births (8.5%) documented in the California Birth Statistical Master Files (BSMF) from 2007 to 2016...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Ketrell L McWhorter, Katherine Bowers, Lawrence Dolan, Ranjan Deka, Chandra L Jackson, Jane C Khoury
Aims/hypothesis: We sought to determine the impact of intrauterine exposure to excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) on overweight/obesity in adolescent/young adult offspring of women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM). Methods: In 2008, a pilot study was conducted among 19 randomly-selected adolescent and adult offspring of mothers with TIDM who participated in the Diabetes in Pregnancy Program Project (DiP) between 1978 and 1995. Body mass index (BMI)-specific Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain (GWG) were defined as: 12...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Stefania Ronzoni, Valerie Steckle, Rohan D'Souza, Kellie E Murphy, Stephen Lye, Oksana Shynlova
Premature prelabor rupture of the membranes (PPROM) causes one-third of preterm births worldwide and is most likely caused by subclinical intrauterine infection and/or inflammation. We proposed that women with systemic inflammation at the time of PPROM would have shorter latency. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 20 singleton pregnant women with PPROM between 23 ± 1 and 33 ± 6 weeks. The first sample was drawn within 48 hours of admission, followed by weekly blood draws until delivery. Pregnancies complicated with acute chorioamnionitis, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, obesity, substance abuse, and chronic maternal disease were excluded...
December 12, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Sarah Appel, Jon Grothe, Sarah Storck, Ruth Janoschek, Inga Bae-Gartz, Maria Wohlfarth, Marion Handwerk, Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother, Alexandra Gellhaus, Jörg Dötsch
Obesity and an unhealthy nutrition are on the rise and affect also women in childbearing age and hence, during pregnancy. Despite normal or even high birth weight the offspring suffers from long term metabolic risks. We hypothesized that fetal growth is disturbed during different intrauterine phases. Underlying molecular events remain elusive. Female mice were fed either a control diet (SD) or a high fat diet (HFD) after weaning until mating and during pregnancy. Pregnant mice were sacrificed at gestational time points G15...
December 10, 2018: Endocrinology
Marina Vargas-Terrones, Taniya S Nagpal, Ruben Barakat
OBJECTIVE: This article presents the state of knowledge related to the impact of exercise on gestational weight gain and birth weight. TRANSCENDENCE OF BABY WEIGHT: Birth weight is an important indicator of intrauterine environment and maternal and newborn health. There are several factors that can affect birth weight including mother's pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI), gestational weight gain, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), chronic diabetes and gestational age at birth...
November 22, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Barbara Carpita, Dario Muti, Liliana Dell'Osso
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of early-onset neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by alterations in brain connectivity with cascading effects on neuropsychological functions. To date, in the framework of an increasing interest about environmental conditions which could interact with genetic factors in ASD pathogenesis, many authors have stressed that changes in the intrauterine environment at different stages of pregnancy, such as those linked to maternal metabolic pathologies, may lead to long-term conditions in the newborn...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Zhuangli Zhu, Xiongfeng Chen, Yiqing Xiao, Junping Wen, Jinyan Chen, Kun Wang, Gang Chen
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which has an increasing global prevalence, contributes to the susceptibility to metabolic dysregulation and obesity in the offspring via epigenetic modifications. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely obscure. The current study established a GDM mice model to investigate the alternations in the metabolic phenotypes and genomic DNA methylation in the pancreas of the offspring. We found that in the GDM offspring, intrauterine hyperglycemia induced dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
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