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Obesity gut

Paul L Bollyky, Patrick R Secor
Perturbation of the gut microbiota is associated with inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and even cancer. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Gogokhia et al. 2019 sought to kill cancer-causing bacteria with bacteriophages. However, the bacteriophages themselves directly stimulated an immune response, which worsened inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis.
February 13, 2019: Cell Host & Microbe
Jialin Xu, Tingting Liu, Yuanyuan Li, Wei Liu, Zhanjun Ding, Hang Ma, Navindra P Seeram, Yu Mu, Xueshi Huang, Liya Li
SCOPE: Published data support that gut microbiota play an important role in the pathological process of obesity and related metabolic disorders. In the current study, we investigated whether a standardized extract from Jamun (Eugenia jambolana), a widely consumed tropical fruit, could alleviate obesity and alter gut microbial community in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet (SD) or HFD with or without Jamun fruit extract (JFE; 100 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage for 8 weeks...
February 14, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Céline Gérard, Hubert Vidal
Given that obesity and associated disorder type II diabetes mellitus have reached epidemic proportions worldwide, the development of efficient prevention and therapeutic interventions is a global public health interest. There is now a large body of evidence suggesting that the micro-organisms colonizing the human gut, known as gut microbiota, play a central role in human physiology and metabolism. Understanding how gut microbiota affects and regulates key metabolic functions such as glucose regulation and insulin resistance is an important health issue...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
Gut hormones have many key roles in the control of metabolism, as they target diverse tissues involved in the control of intestinal function, insulin secretion, nutrient assimilation and food intake. Produced by scattered cells found along the length of the intestinal epithelium, gut hormones generate signals related to the rate of nutrient absorption, the composition of the luminal milieu and the integrity of the epithelial barrier. Gut hormones already form the basis for existing and developing therapeutics for type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity, exemplified by the licensed glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) mimetics and dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors that enhance GLP1 receptor activation...
February 13, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Nature
Maggie A Stanislawski, Dana Dabelea, Brandie D Wagner, Nina Iszatt, Cecilie Dahl, Marci K Sontag, Rob Knight, Catherine A Lozupone, Merete Eggesbø
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2019: MBio
Laura J den Hartigh
Obesity and its comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, are straining our healthcare system, necessitating the development of novel strategies for weight loss. Lifestyle modifications, such as exercise and caloric restriction, have proven effective against obesity in the short term, yet obesity persists because of the high predilection for weight regain. Therefore, alternative approaches to achieve long term sustainable weight loss are urgently needed. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid found naturally in ruminant animal food products, has been identified as a potential anti-obesogenic agent, with substantial efficacy in mice, and modest efficacy in obese human populations...
February 11, 2019: Nutrients
Anne-Charlotte Jarry, Nadir Merah, Fanta Cisse, Florence Cayetanot, Marie-Noëlle Fiamma, Alexandra Willemetz, Dalale Gueddouri, Besma Barka, Philippe Valet, Sandra Guilmeau, André Bado, Johanne Le Beyec, Laurence Bodineau, Maude Le Gall
The gut-brain peptide neuromedin U (NMU) decreases food intake and body weight and improves glucose tolerance. Here, we characterized NMU as an enteropeptide and determined how it impacts glucose excursion. NMU was expressed predominantly in the proximal small intestine, and its secretion was triggered by ingestion of a mixed meal. Although a single peripheral injection of NMU in C57BL/6NRj mice prevented the rise of glycemia upon an oral but not an intraperitoneal load of glucose, it unexpectedly prevented insulin secretion, only slightly improved peripheral insulin sensitivity, and barely reduced intestinal glucose absorption...
February 12, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
N Beghdadi, A Soprani, A Kraemer, P Bucur, C Barrat, L Genser
BACKGROUND: Severe post-operative malnutrition (SM) is a dreaded complication after gastric bypass often related to the short bowel syndrome consecutive limb length mismeasurement or intestinal resections. Patients with rapid weight loss or malnutrition can experience liver failure with cirrhosis and require liver transplantation (LT). Malnutrition can constitute a contraindication to LT since it negatively impacts on postoperative morbidity. RYGB reversal is an effective option to consider when nutritional support has failed...
February 11, 2019: Obesity Surgery
John O'Grady, Eibhlís M O'Connor, Fergus Shanahan
BACKGROUND: Explanations for the health benefits of dietary fibre have, in the past, been inconsistent and studies of the physiological effects of dietary fibre were, perhaps, directed at the wrong read-outs. Confounding factors included a failure to appreciate the molecular diversity and varied properties of fibre-types and the role of fibre as a substrate for microbial metabolism in the gut. AIM: To present a modern perspective on fibre science and to encourage clinicians to re-consider the health impact of dietary fibre and how best to approach adjustments in dietary consumption...
March 2019: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Yiran Liang, Jing Zhan, Donghui Liu, Mai Luo, Jiajun Han, Xueke Liu, Chang Liu, Zheng Cheng, Zhiqiang Zhou, Peng Wang
BACKGROUND: Disruption of the gut microbiota homeostasis may induce low-grade inflammation leading to obesity-associated diseases. A major protective mechanism is to use the multi-layered mucus structures to keep a safe distance between gut epithelial cells and microbiota. To investigate whether pesticides would induce insulin resistance/obesity through interfering with mucus-bacterial interactions, we conducted a study to determine how long-term exposure to chlorpyrifos affected C57Bl/6 and CD-1 (ICR) mice fed high- or normal-fat diets...
February 11, 2019: Microbiome
Sarah Milliken, Ruridh M Allen, Ronald F Lamont
The use of antibiotics prenatally, during pregnancy, or neonatally may have adverse effects on the neonatal gut microbiome, and adversely affect the development of the infant immune system, leading to the development of childhood atopy, asthma, allergy and obesity. Areas covered: We reviewed new evidence about vaginal eubiosis and dysbiosis from molecular-based, cultivation-independent techniques, and how this affects the neonatal gut microbiome and early development of the immune system in infants. We have considered the association between maternal use of antibiotics and the potentially beneficial role of vitamin D in the development of atopy, asthma, allergy and obesity...
February 11, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Antonio García-Ríos, Antonio Camargo Garcia, Francisco Perez-Jimenez, Pablo Perez-Martinez
Cardiovascular disease remains the first cause of mortality in Western countries. New strategies for prevention and control of cardiovascular disease are needed. At the same time, the incidence of risk factors that lead to the development of this disease, such as obesity, hypertension and diabetes, continues to rise. Therefore, the search for new markers or mediators is a priority in most cardiovascular prevention programs. The study of the intestinal microbiota is emerging because it is known that intestinal microorganisms act collectively as an integrated organ, regulating multiple biological functions that can modulate cardiovascular risk factors and the pathogenic mechanisms of this process...
February 5, 2019: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
Ni Cheng, Sinan Chen, Xinyan Liu, Haoan Zhao, Wei Cao
Schisandrachinensis bee pollen has been used as a health food in China for centuries; however, its bioactive constituents and functions are not very clear. In this study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of Schisandrachinensis bee pollen extract (SCPE) by UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS/HPLC-DAD-ECD and its prevention from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and modulation of gut microbiota in high fat diet induced obese C57BL/6 mice. The results showed that 12 phenolic compounds were identified in SCPE, and naringenin, rutin and chrysin were the main constituents...
February 6, 2019: Nutrients
Jacob J Patz, Melissa C Helm, Rana M Higgins, Matthew I Goldblatt, Jon C Gould, Tammy L Kindel
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that potential aberrant alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiome contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease, specifically hypertension. Bariatric surgery produces significant sustained weight loss and hypertension resolution likely through multiple mechanisms which includes beneficial changes in the gut microbiome. We hypothesized that the type of prophylactic antibiotic given for bariatric surgery could impact the resolution rate of hypertension by altering the post-operative gastrointestinal microflora...
February 7, 2019: Surgical Endoscopy
Geoffrey P Roberts, Pierre Larraufie, Paul Richards, Richard G Kay, Sam G Galvin, Emily L Miedzybrodzka, Andrew Leiter, H Joyce Li, Leslie L Glass, Marcella K L Ma, Brian Lam, Giles S H Yeo, Raphaël Scharfmann, Davide Chiarugi, Richard H Hardwick, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble
Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) produce hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY that regulate food absorption, insulin secretion, and appetite. Based on the success of glucagon-like peptide 1-based therapies for type 2 diabetes and obesity, EECs are themselves the focus of drug discovery programs to enhance gut hormone secretion. The aim of this study was to identify the transcriptome and peptidome of human EECs and to provide a cross-species comparison between humans and mice. By RNA sequencing of human EECs purified by flow cytometry after cell fixation and staining, we present a first transcriptomic analysis of human EEC populations and demonstrate a strong correlation with murine counterparts...
February 7, 2019: Diabetes
Emer Fitzpatrick
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of paediatric liver disease, affecting 10% of school-aged children and 44-70% of obese children and young people (CYP) in the western world. Encompassing a spectrum from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis and progressive fibrosis, the disease is rapidly becoming the most common indication for liver transplantation. The molecular pathogenesis of NAFLD remains only partially understood. Development and progression of NAFLD is influenced by genetic and nutritional factors, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, gut microbiome, bile acid metabolism and lipid/glucose handling and is closely associated with overweight and obesity...
February 8, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Elisa Morales, Jun Chen, K Leigh Greathouse
Gut microbial composition has shown to be associated with obesity, diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, colitis, autoimmune disorders, and cancer, among other diseases. Microbiome research has significantly evolved through the years and continues to advance as we develop new and better strategies to more accurately measure its composition and function. Careful selection of study design, inclusion and exclusion criteria of participants, and methodology are paramount to accurately analyze microbial structure...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Y L He, W Haynes, C D Meyers, A Amer, Y Zhang, P Chen, A E Mendonza, S Ma, W Chutkow, E Bachman
BACKGROUND: There is an unmet need for a safer and more effective treatment for obesity. This study assessed the effects of licogliflozin, a dual inhibitor of sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 1/2, on body weight, metabolic parameters and incretin hormones in patients with T2DM and/or obesity. METHODS: Patients with obesity (BMI 35-50kg/m2 ) were enrolled into a 12-week study (N=88; licogliflozin 150 mg q.d.). Patients with type-2 diabetes-mellitus (T2DM) were enrolled into a second, two-part study, comprising a single-dose cross-over (N=12; 2...
February 5, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Amanda Cuevas-Sierra, Omar Ramos-Lopez, Jose I Riezu-Boj, Fermin I Milagro, J Alfredo Martinez
Diverse evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is involved in the development of obesity and associated comorbidities. It has been reported that the composition of the gut microbiota differs in obese and lean subjects, suggesting that microbiota dysbiosis can contribute to changes in body weight. However, the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota participates in energy homeostasis are unclear. Gut microbiota can be modulated positively or negatively by different lifestyle and dietary factors. Interestingly, complex interactions between genetic background, gut microbiota, and diet have also been reported concerning the risk of developing obesity and metabolic syndrome features...
January 1, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
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