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Diabetes gut

Nima H Jazani, Javad Savoj, Michael Lustgarten, Wei Ling Lau, Nosratola D Vaziri
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide major health problem. Traditional risk factors for CKD are hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have identified gut dysbiosis as a novel risk factor for the progression CKD and its complications. Dysbiosis can worsen systemic inflammation, which plays an important role in the progression of CKD and its complications such as cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we discuss the beneficial effects of the normal gut microbiota, and then elaborate on how alterations in the biochemical environment of the gastrointestinal tract in CKD can affect gut microbiota...
February 13, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Yvonne Nyavor, Rachel Estill, Hannah Edwards, Hailey Ogden, Kaila Heideman, Kiefer Starks, Christopher Miller, George May, Lance Flesch, John McMillan, Martin Gericke, Larry Forney, Onesmo Balemba
Diabetic patients suffer from gastrointestinal disorders associated with dysmotility, enteric neuropathy and dysbiosis of gut microbiota; however, gender differences are not fully known. Previous studies have shown that a high-fat diet (HFD) causes type two diabetes (T2D) in male mice after 4-8 weeks but only does so in female mice after 16 weeks. This study seeks to determine whether sex influences the development of intestinal dysmotility, enteric neuropathy and dysbiosis in mice fed HFD. We fed 8-week-old C57BL6 male and female mice a standard chow diet (SCD) or a 72% kcal HFD for 8 weeks...
February 18, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Serena Sanna, Natalie R van Zuydam, Anubha Mahajan, Alexander Kurilshikov, Arnau Vich Vila, Urmo Võsa, Zlatan Mujagic, Ad A M Masclee, Daisy M A E Jonkers, Marije Oosting, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, Lude Franke, Alexandra Zhernakova, Jingyuan Fu, Cisca Wijmenga, Mark I McCarthy
Microbiome-wide association studies on large population cohorts have highlighted associations between the gut microbiome and complex traits, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity1 . However, the causal relationships remain largely unresolved. We leveraged information from 952 normoglycemic individuals for whom genome-wide genotyping, gut metagenomic sequence and fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels were available2 , then combined this information with genome-wide-association summary statistics for 17 metabolic and anthropometric traits...
February 18, 2019: Nature Genetics
Yixuan Liang, Xiaoke Wang, Dongmei He, Qi You, Tingting Zhang, Wanfa Dong, Jingjin Fei, Yun Xing, Jie Wu
AIMS: Recent studies have revealed that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) provide negative feedback in the progression to chronic inflammation and contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes (T1D). In addition, accumulating evidences suggest that gut immunity play a key role in T1D pathogenesis. Our study aimed to evaluate whether staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) targeting intestinal NETs can ameliorate the intestinal inflammatory environment and protect against T1D development in non-obese diabetic(NOD) mice...
February 15, 2019: Life Sciences
Wensong Li, Manli Chang, Mingli Qiu, Yangli Chen, Xiaochen Zhang, Qiang Li, Can Cui
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by progressive decrease of islet cell function. Delaying the process of islet failure remains a challenging goal in diabetes care. Previous studies have confirmed the role of obestatin, a gut peptide that belongs to ghrelin family, in the mediation of glucose metabolism. This study aimed to observe the long term effects of exogenous obestatin on glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes rat model. Type 2 diabetic rat model was set up by high-fat diet (60%) followed by a low dose of streptozotocin intra-peritoneal injection...
February 15, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Marzieh Salehi, Amalia Gastaldelli, David A D'Alessio
OBJECTIVE: Postprandial hyperinsulinaemia after Roux-en Y gastric bypass (GB) has been attributed to rapid nutrient flux from the gut, and an enhanced incretin effect. However, it is unclear whether surgery changes islet cell responsiveness to regulatory factors. This study tested the hypothesis that β-cell sensitivity to glucagon like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) is attenuated after GB. DESIGN: Ten non-diabetic subjects with GB, and 9 body mass index (BMI)-matched and age-matched non-surgical controls (CN) with normal glucose tolerance had blood glucose clamped at ~7...
February 16, 2019: Gut
Chrissa Petersen, Umesh D Wankhade, Divya Bharat, Kiana Wong, Jennifer Ellen Mueller, Sree V Chintapalli, Brian D Piccolo, Thunder Jalili, Zhenquan Jia, J David Symons, Kartik Shankar, Pon Velayutham Anandh Babu
Gut microbiota contributes to the biological activities of berry anthocyanins by transforming them into bioactive metabolites, and anthocyanins support the growth of specific bacteria, indicating a two-way relationship between anthocyanins and microbiota. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that strawberry supplementation alters gut microbial ecology in diabetic db/db mice. Control (db/+) and diabetic (db/db) mice (7 weeks old) consumed standard diet or diet supplemented with 2.35% freeze-dried strawberry (db/db+SB) for 10 weeks...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Megha Singhal, Benjamin A Turturice, Christopher R Manzella, Ravi Ranjan, Ahmed A Metwally, Juliana Theorell, Yue Huang, Waddah A Alrefai, Pradeep K Dudeja, Patricia W Finn, David L Perkins, Ravinder K Gill
Serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating extracellular availability of serotonin (5-HT) in the gut and brain. Mice with deletion of SERT develop metabolic syndrome as they age. Changes in the gut microbiota are being increasingly implicated in Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes. To investigate the relationship between the gut microbiome and SERT, this study assessed the fecal and cecal microbiome profile of 11 to 12 week-old SERT+/+ and SERT-/- mice. Microbial DNA was isolated, processed for metagenomics shotgun sequencing, and taxonomic and functional profiles were assessed...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Xiang Zhang, Richard L Young, Michelle Bound, Sanyuan Hu, Karen L Jones, Michael Horowitz, Christopher K Rayner, Tongzhi Wu
OBJECTIVE: Cells releasing glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are distributed predominately in the proximal and distal gut, respectively. Hence, the region of gut exposed to nutrients may influence GIP and GLP-1 secretion and impact on the incretin effect and gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal (GIGD). We evaluated glycemic and incretin responses to glucose administered into the proximal or distal small intestine and quantified the corresponding incretin effect and GIGD in health and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
February 14, 2019: Diabetes Care
Steven K Malin, Emily L Kullman, Amanda R Scelsi, Jean-Philippe Godin, Alastair B Ross, John P Kirwan
INTRODUCTION: Few data exist examining the effects of whole grain (WG) versus refined grain (RG) diets on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and β-cell function. METHODS: In a double-blind crossover randomized controlled trial, 13 sedentary prediabetic adults (37.2±1.8 y, BMI: 33.6±1.4 kg/m2 , 2h glucose: 146.9±11.6 mg/dl) were provided isocaloric-matched WG and RG diets for 8-weeks each, with an 8-10 week washout between diets. Glucose, insulin and C-peptide metabolism was studied over 240 min following a 75g OGTT...
February 14, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Céline Gérard, Hubert Vidal
Given that obesity and associated disorder type II diabetes mellitus have reached epidemic proportions worldwide, the development of efficient prevention and therapeutic interventions is a global public health interest. There is now a large body of evidence suggesting that the micro-organisms colonizing the human gut, known as gut microbiota, play a central role in human physiology and metabolism. Understanding how gut microbiota affects and regulates key metabolic functions such as glucose regulation and insulin resistance is an important health issue...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
Gut hormones have many key roles in the control of metabolism, as they target diverse tissues involved in the control of intestinal function, insulin secretion, nutrient assimilation and food intake. Produced by scattered cells found along the length of the intestinal epithelium, gut hormones generate signals related to the rate of nutrient absorption, the composition of the luminal milieu and the integrity of the epithelial barrier. Gut hormones already form the basis for existing and developing therapeutics for type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity, exemplified by the licensed glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) mimetics and dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors that enhance GLP1 receptor activation...
February 13, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Emily W Sun, Alyce M Martin, David A Wattchow, Dayan deFontgalland, Philippa Rabbitt, Paul Hollington, Richard L Young, Damien J Keating
Context: The anti-diabetic drug Metformin causes weight loss, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Recent clinical studies show that metformin increases plasma levels of the anorectic gut hormone, PYY, but whether this is through a direct effect on the gut is unknown. Objective: We hypothesised that exposure of human gut mucosal tissue to metformin would acutely trigger PYY secretion. Design, Setting, Participants, and Interventions: Mucosal tissue was prepared from 46 human colonic and 9 ileal samples obtained after surgical resection and ex vivo secretion assays performed...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Laura J den Hartigh
Obesity and its comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, are straining our healthcare system, necessitating the development of novel strategies for weight loss. Lifestyle modifications, such as exercise and caloric restriction, have proven effective against obesity in the short term, yet obesity persists because of the high predilection for weight regain. Therefore, alternative approaches to achieve long term sustainable weight loss are urgently needed. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid found naturally in ruminant animal food products, has been identified as a potential anti-obesogenic agent, with substantial efficacy in mice, and modest efficacy in obese human populations...
February 11, 2019: Nutrients
Anne-Charlotte Jarry, Nadir Merah, Fanta Cisse, Florence Cayetanot, Marie-Noëlle Fiamma, Alexandra Willemetz, Dalale Gueddouri, Besma Barka, Philippe Valet, Sandra Guilmeau, André Bado, Johanne Le Beyec, Laurence Bodineau, Maude Le Gall
The gut-brain peptide neuromedin U (NMU) decreases food intake and body weight and improves glucose tolerance. Here, we characterized NMU as an enteropeptide and determined how it impacts glucose excursion. NMU was expressed predominantly in the proximal small intestine, and its secretion was triggered by ingestion of a mixed meal. Although a single peripheral injection of NMU in C57BL/6NRj mice prevented the rise of glycemia upon an oral but not an intraperitoneal load of glucose, it unexpectedly prevented insulin secretion, only slightly improved peripheral insulin sensitivity, and barely reduced intestinal glucose absorption...
February 12, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
César G Fraga, Kevin D Croft, David O Kennedy, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán
Although deficiencies in polyphenol intake do not result in specific deficiency diseases, adequate intake of polyphenols could confer health benefits, especially with regard to chronic diseases. Tea, cocoa, fruits, and berries, as well as vegetables, are rich in polyphenols. Flavan-3-ols from cocoa have been found to be associated with a reduced risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, and diabetes, as well as improvements in lipids, endothelial-dependent blood flow and blood pressure, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation...
February 12, 2019: Food & Function
Ki Wook Kim, Jessica L Horton, Chi Nam Ignatius Pang, Komal Jain, Preston Leung, Sonia R Isaacs, Rowena A Bull, Fabio Luciani, Marc R Wilkins, Jacki Catteau, W Ian Lipkin, William D Rawlinson, Thomas Briese, Maria E Craig
Enteroviruses (EVs) are prime candidate environmental triggers of islet autoimmunity (IA), with potential as vaccine targets for type 1 diabetes prevention. However, the use of targeted virus detection methods and the selective focus on EVs by most studies increases the risk for substantial investigation bias and an overestimated association between EV and type 1 diabetes. Here we performed comprehensive virome-capture sequencing to examine all known vertebrate-infecting viruses without bias in 182 specimens (faeces and plasma) collected before or at seroconversion from 45 case children with IA and 48 matched controls...
February 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Antonio García-Ríos, Antonio Camargo Garcia, Francisco Perez-Jimenez, Pablo Perez-Martinez
Cardiovascular disease remains the first cause of mortality in Western countries. New strategies for prevention and control of cardiovascular disease are needed. At the same time, the incidence of risk factors that lead to the development of this disease, such as obesity, hypertension and diabetes, continues to rise. Therefore, the search for new markers or mediators is a priority in most cardiovascular prevention programs. The study of the intestinal microbiota is emerging because it is known that intestinal microorganisms act collectively as an integrated organ, regulating multiple biological functions that can modulate cardiovascular risk factors and the pathogenic mechanisms of this process...
February 5, 2019: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
Helena Mendes-Soares, Tali Raveh-Sadka, Shahar Azulay, Kim Edens, Yatir Ben-Shlomo, Yossi Cohen, Tal Ofek, Davidi Bachrach, Josh Stevens, Dorin Colibaseanu, Lihi Segal, Purna Kashyap, Heidi Nelson
Importance: Emerging evidence suggests that postprandial glycemic responses (PPGRs) to food may be influenced by and predicted according to characteristics unique to each individual, including anthropometric and microbiome variables. Interindividual diversity in PPGRs to food requires a personalized approach for the maintenance of healthy glycemic levels. Objectives: To describe and predict the glycemic responses of individuals to a diverse array of foods using a model that considers the physiology and microbiome of the individual in addition to the characteristics of the foods consumed...
February 1, 2019: JAMA network open
Alla Keselman, Catherine Arnott Smith, Anita C Murcko, David R Kaufman
BACKGROUND: Critical evaluation of online health information has always been central to consumer health informatics. However, with the emergence of new Web media platforms and the ubiquity of social media, the issue has taken on a new dimension and urgency. At the same time, many established existing information quality evaluation guidelines address information characteristics other than the content (eg, authority and currency), target information creators rather than users as their main audience, or do not address information presented via novel Web technologies...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Medical Internet Research
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