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Intermittant fasting

Martin M Grajower, Benjamin D Horne
Intermittent fasting is increasing in popularity as a means of losing weight and controlling chronic illness. Patients with diabetes mellitus, both types 1 and 2, comprise about 10% of the population in the United States and would likely be attracted to follow one of the many methods of intermittent fasting. Studies on the safety and benefits of intermittent fasting with diabetes are very limited though, and health recommendations unfortunately today arise primarily from weight loss gurus and animal studies...
April 18, 2019: Nutrients
Sophie Höhn, Blandine Dozières-Puyravel, Stéphane Auvin
We analyzed the article of Guelpa & Marie, published in 1911 and often quoted in the history of dietary treatment, as the basis for the use of ketogenic diet to mimic fasting. In this paper, the authors treated 21 patients with a diet consisting of daily administration of 30 g of sodium sulphate for 4 days, with unlimited aqueous beverage and no food, followed by a vegetarian diet restricted to half of the ordinary intake. This is the first report of intermittent fasting as treatment strategy for epilepsy...
April 15, 2019: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Marc Jon Booysen, Philippe Jean-Luc Gradidge, Demitri Constantinou
Data regarding anthropometric and motor characteristics of elite national level female soccer players are scarce. Determining these characteristics may likely assist in evaluating the specificity of current training programmes, identify players who might lack specific qualities deemed critical for the successful execution of their tactical roles, and benchmark norms for developing future playing talent. Therefore, the aims of this study were to describe anthropometric and motor characteristics of South African national level female soccer players (n = 37) and determine possible differences with regard to their playing position...
March 2019: Journal of Human Kinetics
Yiming Zhang, Cassandra B Higgins, Hannah M Fortune, Phillip Chen, Alicyn I Stothard, Allyson L Mayer, Benjamin M Swarts, Brian J DeBosch
Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting are emerging therapeutic strategies against obesity, insulin resistance and their complications. However, the effectors that drive this response are not completely defined. Here we identify arginase 2 (Arg2) as a fasting-induced hepatocyte factor that protects against hepatic and peripheral fat accumulation, hepatic inflammatory responses, and insulin and glucose intolerance in obese murine models. Arg2 is upregulated in fasting conditions and upon treatment with the hepatocyte glucose transporter inhibitor trehalose...
April 8, 2019: Nature Communications
Chih-Yuan Ko, Ji-Mim Fan, An-Ke Hu, Huan-Zhang Su, Jiao-Hong Yang, Li-Mei Huang, Fu-Rong Yan, Hua-Ping Zhang, Yi-Ming Zeng
INTRODUCTION: Intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation are critical pathophysiological processes involved in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Those manifestations independently affect similar brain regions and contribute to OSAHS-related comorbidities that are known to be related to the host gut alteration microbiota. We hypothesized that gut microbiota disruption may cross talk the brain function via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Thus, we aim to survey enterotypes and polysomnographic data of patients with OSAHS...
April 8, 2019: Brain and Behavior
Chih-Yuan Ko, Qing-Quan Liu, Huan-Zhang Su, Hua-Ping Zhang, Ji-Mim Fan, Jiao-Hong Yang, An-Ke Hu, Yu-Qi Liu, Dylan Chou, Yi-Ming Zeng
Gut microbiota alterations manifest as intermittent hypoxia and fragmented sleep, thereby mimicking obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Here, we sought to perform the first direct survey of gut microbial dysbiosis over a range of apnea-hypopnea indices (AHI) among patients with OSAHS. We obtained fecal samples from 93 patients with OSAHS [5 < AHI ≤ 15 ( n = 40), 15 < AHI ≤ 30 ( n = 23), and AHI ≥ 30 ( n = 30)] and 20 controls (AHI ≤ 5) and determined the microbiome composition via 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and bioinformatic analysis of variable regions 3-4...
April 2, 2019: Clinical Science (1979-)
D Papamichou, D B Panagiotakos, C Itsiopoulos
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of the present review is to examine evidence from published studies on the effectiveness of six or more months of low carbohydrate, macrobiotic, vegan, vegetarian, Mediterranean and intermittent fasting (IF) diets compared to low fat diets on diabetes control and management. METHODS AND RESULTS: In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, Cochrane CENTRAL, PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched for relevant studies. Twenty randomised controlled trials (RCTs) > 6 months that investigated the effectiveness of various dietary patterns on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were included...
February 25, 2019: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Xiaolin Xu, Jianyang Ding, Xiuhua Wu, Zucheng Huang, Ganggang Kong, Qi Liu, Zhou Yang, Zhiping Huang, Qingan Zhu
Ketogenic diet (KD) has been used in epilepsy for decades, but previous studies found it may cause severe bone loss. Every-other-day ketogenic diet (EODKD), the combination of KD with intermittent fasting, showed better potential for seizure control recently, while its effects on bone remain unknown. This study aims to establish different ketogenic rat models and compare the influence of EODKD with KD on bone microstructure and metabolism. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into Control, KD and EODKD groups, fed with standard diet, continuous and intermittent ketogenic diet respectively...
April 3, 2019: Experimental Animals
Steven P Hirsh, Marianne Pons, Steven V Joyal, Andrew G Swick
This pilot randomised controlled study evaluated the effects of a nutrient-supported intermittent energy restriction nutrition programme to prevent weight gain in healthy overweight adults during the 6-week winter holiday period between Thanksgiving and New Year. For 52 d, twenty-two overweight adults (mean age 41·0 years, BMI 27·3 kg/m2 ) were assigned to either the nutrition programme ( n 10; two fasting days of 730 kcal/d (3050 kJ/d) of balanced shake and dietary supplements to support weight management efforts, followed by 5 d of habitual diet) or a control group ( n 12; habitual diet)...
2019: Journal of Nutritional Science
Kentaro Kodama, Kazuhiro Yasuda, Nikita A Kuznetsov, Yuki Hayashi, Hiroyasu Iwata
Haptic-based vibrotactile biofeedback (BF) is a promising technique to improve rehabilitation of balance in stroke patients. However, the extent to which BF training changes temporal structure of the center of pressure (CoP) trajectories remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of vibrotactile BF training on the temporal structure of CoP during quiet stance in chronic stroke patients using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Nine chronic stroke patients (age; 81.56 ± 44 months post-stroke) received a balance training regimen using a vibrotactile BF system twice a week over 4 weeks...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Nicola Veronese, Jean-Yves Reginster
Uncountable health care organizations, clinicians, and individuals are striving to prevent obesity and the many chronic medical conditions linked to it by advocating a healthy lifestyle that includes measures such as reducing dietary calorie intake (i.e., calorie restriction = CR and intermittent fasting = IF) or limiting/abolishing animal source foods (i.e., practices termed vegetarianism and veganism). Although these regimens are traditionally considered healthy, their real impact on bone health has yet to be established, and some studies have reported that they have negative effects on bone outcomes...
March 22, 2019: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
S Carter, P M Clifton, J B Keogh
AIMS: We investigated the effects of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Adults (N=137) with type 2 diabetes (mean [SD] HbA1c level, 7.3% (56mmol/mol) [1.3%] [14.2mmol/mol]) were randomised to one of two diets for 12 months. The intermittent group (n=70) followed a 2100-2500kJ (500-600kcal) diet 2 non-consecutive days/week and their usual diet for 5 days/week. The continuous group (n=67) followed a 5000-6300kJ (1200-1500kcal) diet for 7 days/week...
March 19, 2019: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Bartosz Malinowski, Klaudia Zalewska, Anna Węsierska, Maya M Sokołowska, Maciej Socha, Grzegorz Liczner, Katarzyna Pawlak-Osińska, Michał Wiciński
Intermittent fasting is a form of time restricted eating (typically 16 h fasting and 8 h eating), which has gained popularity in recent years and shows promise as a possible new paradigm in the approach to weight loss and the reduction of inflammation, and has many potential long term health benefits. In this review, the authors will incorporate many aspects of fasting, mainly focusing on its effects on the cardiovascular system, involving atherosclerosis progression, benefits for diabetes mellitus type 2, lowering of blood pressure, and exploring other cardiovascular risk factors (such as lipid profile and inflammation)...
March 20, 2019: Nutrients
Dylan J Harney, Amy T Hutchison, Luke Hatchwell, Sean J Humphrey, David E James, Samantha Hocking, Leonie K Heilbronn, Mark Larance
Intermittent fasting (IF) increases lifespan and decreases metabolic disease phenotypes and cancer risk in model organisms, but the health benefits of IF in humans are less clear. Human plasma derived from clinical trials is one of the most difficult sample sets to analyze using mass spectrometry-based proteomics due to the extensive sample preparation required and the need to process many samples to achieve statistical significance. Here, we describe an optimized and accessible device (Spin96) to accommodate up to 96 StageTips, a widely used sample preparation medium enabling efficient and consistent processing of samples prior to LC-MS/MS...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Proteome Research
Helmy Gueldich, Firas Zghal, Rihab Borji, Hamdi Chtourou, Sonia Sahli, Haithem Rebai
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) on the underlying mechanisms of force production capacity during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) using the superimposed twitch technique. Ten healthy male physical education students performed three MVIC of the knee extensor superimposed with nerve electrical stimulation during four testing phases: one week before Ramadan (BR), at the end of the first week of Ramadan (R-1), during the fourth week of Ramadan (R-4) and two weeks after Ramadan (AR)...
March 20, 2019: Chronobiology International
João Brito, Luís Fernandes, António Rebelo, Peter Krustrup, Gustavo Silva, José Oliveira
This study analyzed heart rate (HR) kinetics during the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1) in children. At the middle of the school year, 107 boys (7⁻10 years old) performed the Yo-Yo IE1. Individual HR curves during the Yo-Yo IE1 were analyzed to detect an inflection point between an initial phase of fast rise in HR, and a second phase in which the rise of HR is slower. The 7th shuttle of the test was established as the inflection point. Engagement with extra-school sports practice was identified...
March 15, 2019: Sports
Jason Friedman, Maria Korman
We tested how observation of a skilled pattern of planar movements can assist in the learning of a new motor skill, which otherwise requires rigorous long-term practice to achieve fast and smooth performance. Sixty participants performed a sequence of planar hand movements on pre-test, acquisition, post-test and 24 h post-training blocks, under 1 of 4 conditions: an observation group (OG), a slowed observation group (SOG), a random motion control group (RMCG) and a double physical training control group (DPTCG)...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Mohammad Adawi, Giovanni Damiani, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Charlie Bridgewood, Alessia Pacifico, Rosalynn R Z Conic, Aldo Morrone, Piergiorgio Malagoli, Paolo Daniele Maria Pigatto, Howard Amital, Dennis McGonagle, Abdulla Watad
Intermittent circadian fasting, namely Ramadan, is a common worldwide practice. Such fasting has a positive impact on psoriasis, but no data exist on its role in psoriatic arthritis (PsA)-a disease that is clearly linked to body mass index. We enrolled 37 patients (23 females and 14 males) with a mean age 43.32 ± 7.81 and they fasted for 17 h for one month in 2016. The baseline PsA characteristics were collected and 12 (32.4%) patients had peripheral arthritis, 13 (35.1%) had axial involvement, 24 (64.9%) had enthesitis, and 13 (35...
March 12, 2019: Nutrients
Sebastian Brandhorst, Valter D Longo
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in many developed countries and remains one of the major diseases strongly affected by the diet. Nutrition can affect CVD directly by contributing to the accumulation of vascular plaques and also indirectly by regulating the rate of aging. This review summarizes research on nutrition and CVD incidence based on a multipillar system that includes basic research focused on aging, epidemiological studies, clinical studies, and studies of centenarians. The relevant research linking nutrition and CVD with focus on macronutrients and aging will be highlighted...
March 15, 2019: Circulation Research
Lin-Qin Ma, Jing-Chun Zhang, Yue Liu, Yu Qiao, Xin-Li Sun, Shu-Yan Lei, Qiao-Xian Zheng, Ting Mao
This study aims to observe the intervention effects of Chinese herbal medicine of supplementing Qi and activating blood circulation on chronic intermittent hypoxia(CIH) composite insulin resistance(IR) mediated atherosclerosis(AS) mice model,and to observe the mechanism of SREBP-1 c signaling molecule.IR Apo E-/-mice model was induced by high-fat diet combined with STZ injection.Then the mice were treated with hypoxic animal incubator for 8 h per day and 8 weeks to establish a CIH+IR-ApoE-/-mouse model.Model mice were randomly and averagely divided into normoxic control group(NC),model group(CIH) and SREBPs inhibitor group(betulin),atorvastatin group(WM),TCM low-dose group(TCM-L),TCM middle-dose group(TCM-M) and TCM high-dose group(TCM-H) group...
January 2019: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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