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Catabolism

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/32219416/therapeutic-potential-of-microrna-in-tendon-injuries
#1
Lorenzo Giordano, Giovanna Della Porta, Giuseppe M Peretti, Nicola Maffulli
INTRODUCTION: The regulatory role of microRNA (miRNA) in several conditions has been studied, but their function in tendon healing remains elusive. This review summarizes how miRNAs are related to the pathogenesis of tendon injuries and highlights their clinical potential, focusing on the issues related to their delivery for clinical purposes. SOURCES OF DATA: We searched multiple databases to perform a systematic review on miRNA in relation to tendon injuries. We included in the present work a total of 15 articles...
March 27, 2020: British Medical Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32218467/transformation-foci-in-idh1-mutated-gliomas-show-stat3-phosphorylation-and-downregulate-the-metabolic-enzyme-etnppl-a-negative-regulator-of-glioma-growth
#2
N Leventoux, M Augustus, S Azar, S Riquier, J P Villemin, S Guelfi, L Falha, L Bauchet, C Gozé, W Ritchie, T Commes, H Duffau, V Rigau, J P Hugnot
IDH1-mutated gliomas are slow-growing brain tumours which progress into high-grade gliomas. The early molecular events causing this progression are ill-defined. Previous studies revealed that 20% of these tumours already have transformation foci. These foci offer opportunities to better understand malignant progression. We used immunohistochemistry and high throughput RNA profiling to characterize foci cells. These have higher pSTAT3 staining revealing activation of JAK/STAT signaling. They downregulate RNAs involved in Wnt signaling (DAAM2, SFRP2), EGFR signaling (MLC1), cytoskeleton and cell-cell communication (EZR, GJA1)...
March 26, 2020: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32216867/genetic-regulation-biochemical-properties-and-physiological-importance-of-arginase-from-sinorhizobium-meliloti
#3
Alejandra Arteaga Ide, Victor M Hernández, Liliana Medina-Aparicio, Edson Carcamo-Noriega, Lourdes Girard, Ismael Hernández-Lucas, Michael F Dunn
In bacteria, l-arginine is a precursor of various metabolites and can serve as a source of carbon and/or nitrogen. Arginine catabolism by arginase, which hydrolyzes arginine to l-ornithine and urea, is common in nature but has not been studied in symbiotic nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. The genome of the alfalfa microsymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 has two genes annotated as arginases, argI1 ( smc03091 ) and argI2 ( sma1711 ). Biochemical assays with purified ArgI1 and ArgI2 (as 6His-Sumo-tagged proteins) showed that only ArgI1 had detectable arginase activity...
March 27, 2020: Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32215253/synthetic-control-of-plasmid-replication-enables-target-and-self-curing-of-vectors-and-expedites-genome-engineering-of-pseudomonas-putida
#4
Daniel C Volke, Laura Friis, Nicolas T Wirth, Justine Turlin, Pablo I Nikel
Genome engineering of non-conventional microorganisms calls for the development of dedicated synthetic biology tools. Pseudomonas putida is a Gram-negative, non-pathogenic soil bacterium widely used for metabolic engineering owing to its versatile metabolism and high levels of tolerance to different types of stress. Genome editing of P . putida largely relies on homologous recombination events, assisted by helper plasmid-based expression of genes encoding DNA modifying enzymes. Plasmid curing from selected isolates is the most tedious and time-consuming step of this procedure, and implementing commonly used methods to this end in P ...
June 2020: Metabolic Engineering Communications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32214220/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-alpha-maintains-mouse-articular-cartilage-through-suppression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#5
Keita Okada, Daisuke Mori, Yuma Makii, Hideki Nakamoto, Yasutaka Murahashi, Fumiko Yano, Song Ho Chang, Yuki Taniguchi, Hiroshi Kobayashi, Hiroaki Semba, Norihiko Takeda, Wen Piao, Kenjiro Hanaoka, Tetsuo Nagano, Sakae Tanaka, Taku Saito
HIF-1α, an essential transcription factor under hypoxic condition, is indispensable for chondrocytes during skeletal development but its expression and roles in articular chondrocytes are yet to be revealed. We examined HIF-1α protein expression and the hypoxic condition during mouse osteoarthritis (OA) development using state of the art hypoxic probes and found that its expression decreased as OA progressed, coinciding with the change in hypoxic conditions in articular cartilage. Gain- and loss-of-function of HIF-1α in cell culture experiments showed that HIF-1α suppressed catabolic genes such as Mmp13 and Hif2a...
March 25, 2020: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32214182/dietary-intake-of-bioactive-ingredients-impacts-liver-and-adipose-tissue-transcriptomes-in-a-porcine-model-of-prepubertal-early-obesity
#6
Maria Ballester, Raquel Quintanilla, Francisco J Ortega, José C E Serrano, Anna Cassanyé, Maria Rodríguez-Palmero, José A Moreno-Muñoz, Manuel Portero-Otin, Joan Tibau
Global prevalence of obesity has increased to epidemic proportions over the past 40 years, with childhood obesity reaching alarming rates. In this study, we determined changes in liver and adipose tissue transcriptomes of a porcine model for prepubertal early obesity induced by a high-calorie diet and supplemented with bioactive ingredients. A total of 43 nine-weeks-old animals distributed in four pens were fed with four different dietary treatments for 10 weeks: a conventional diet; a western-type diet; and a western-type diet with Bifidobacterium breve and rice hydrolysate, either adding or not omega-3 fatty acids...
March 25, 2020: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32213662/role-of-mitochondrial-quality-control-in-the-pathogenesis-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
Ruibing Li, Sam Toan, Hao Zhou
Nutrient oversupply and mitochondrial dysfunction play central roles in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The mitochondria are the major sites of β-oxidation, a catabolic process by which fatty acids are broken down. The mitochondrial quality control (MQC) system includes mitochondrial fission, fusion, mitophagy and mitochondrial redox regulation, and is essential for the maintenance of the functionality and structural integrity of the mitochondria. Excessive and uncontrolled production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondria damages mitochondrial components, including membranes, proteins and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and triggers the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis...
March 26, 2020: Aging
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32213384/microbial-degradation-of-two-highly-persistent-fluorinated-fungicides-epoxiconazole-and-fludioxonil
#8
Diogo A M Alexandrino, Ana P Mucha, C Marisa R Almeida, Maria F Carvalho
Biodegradation of two highly persistent fluorinated fungicides, epoxiconazole (EPO) and fludioxonil (FLU), by microbial consortia enriched from estuarine sediment and agricultural soil is reported. After an enrichment period of 6 months, four microbial consortia were able to completely remove and defluorinate the fungicides in co-metabolic conditions. Defluorination was biologically mediated and results suggest it is not a primary catabolic step, as fungicide removal was always faster than its defluorination...
March 18, 2020: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32212824/muscle-disuse-atrophy-caused-by-discord-of-intracellular-signaling
#9
LiLi Ji, Dongwook Yeo, Chounghun Kang
SIGNIFICANCE: Regular contractile activity plays a critical role in maintaining skeletal muscle morphological integrity and physiological function. If the muscle is forced to stop contraction, such as during limb immobilization (IM), the IGF/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway that normally stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits proteolysis will be suppressed, whereas the FoxO-controlled catabolic pathways such as ubiquitin-proteolysis and autophagy/mitophagy will be activated and dominate, resulting in muscle fiber atrophy...
March 25, 2020: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32211593/autophagy-and-mtor-signaling-during-intervertebral-disc-aging-and-degeneration
#10
REVIEW
Takashi Yurube, Masaaki Ito, Yuji Kakiuchi, Ryosuke Kuroda, Kenichiro Kakutani
Degenerative disc disease is a highly prevalent, global health problem that represents the primary cause of back pain and is associated with neurological disorders, including radiculopathy, myelopathy, and paralysis, resulting in worker disability and socioeconomic burdens. The intervertebral disc is the largest avascular organ in the body, and degeneration is suspected to be linked to nutritional deficiencies. Autophagy, the process through which cells self-digest and recycle damaged components, is an important cell survival mechanism under stress conditions, especially nutrient deprivation...
March 2020: JOR Spine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32211535/amino-acids-regulate-energy-utilization-through-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-and-adenosine-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-pathway-in-porcine-enterocytes
#11
Hao Xiao, Cuifang Zha, Fangyuan Shao, Li Wang, Bi'e Tan
As major fuels for the small intestinal mucosa, dietary amino acids (AA) are catabolized in the mitochondria and serve as sources of energy production. The present study was conducted to investigate AA metabolism that supply cell energy and the underlying signaling pathways in porcine enterocytes. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) were treated with different concentrations of AA, inhibitor, or agonist of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mitochondrial respiration was monitored...
March 2020: Animal Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32211262/hemodynamic-collapse-following-therapeutic-plasma-exchange-in-a-patient-receiving-an-angiotensin-receptor-blocker
#12
Prashanth Ashok Kumar, Shweta Paulraj, Adaora Udekwu
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is a procedure for removal of plasma and its components while leaving behind cellular elements via an apheresis device. It is used in multiple conditions one among which is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Adverse reactions from TPE range from mild hypotension and fever to life-threatening cardiovascular compromise. We report the case of sudden hemodynamic collapse following TPE for a neuropsychiatric lupus flare in a patient on losartan. A 62-year-old Caucasian female with a history of drug-induced lupus presented to the hospital with symptoms of a neuropsychiatric lupus flare...
February 18, 2020: Curēus
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32210738/urolithin-a-attenuates-il-1%C3%AE-induced-inflammatory-responses-and-cartilage-degradation-via-inhibiting-the-mapk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways-in-rat-articular-chondrocytes
#13
Sheng-Long Ding, Zhi-Ying Pang, Xue-Mei Chen, Zheng Li, Xin-Xin Liu, Qi-Lin Zhai, Jun-Ming Huang, Zhi-Yong Ruan
Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and is one of the most common chronic degenerative joint diseases that causes pain and disability in adults. Urolithin A (UA) has been widely reported for its anti-inflammatory properties in several chronic diseases. However, the effects of UA on OA remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of UA in interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced chondrocytes...
2020: Journal of Inflammation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32210717/global-analysis-of-mirna-signature-differentially-expressed-in-insulin-resistant-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-line
#14
Linjing Li, Yan Cheng, Li Lin, Zhuan Liu, Shengfang Du, Li Ma, Jing Li, Zhiheng Peng, Jing Yan
Chemoresistance mediated by insulin resistance (IR) in HCC has already been validated. However, the underlying mechanism, especially the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) was unelucidated. In this study, miRNA microarrays and bioinformatics methods were employed to determine the dysregulation of miRNA by IR in HCC cells, and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was applied to valid the miRNA array data. Of all the 2006 miRNAs screened, 32 miRNAs were found up or down regulated between the HepG2/IR cells and its parental cells...
2020: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32210132/functional-analysis-of-rice-long-chain-acyl-coa-synthetase-9-oslacs9-in-the-chloroplast-envelope-membrane
#15
Aya Kitajima-Koga, Marouane Baslam, Yuuki Hamada, Namiko Ito, Tomoko Taniuchi, Takeshi Takamatsu, Kazusato Oikawa, Kentaro Kaneko, Toshiaki Mitsui
The long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (LACSs) are involved in lipid synthesis, fatty acid catabolism, and the transport of fatty acids between subcellular compartments. These enzymes catalyze the critical reaction of fatty acyl chains to fatty acyl-CoAs for the triacylglycerol biosynthesis used as carbon and energy reserves. In Arabidopsis , LACSs are encoded by a family of nine genes, with LACS9 being the only member located in the chloroplast envelope membrane. However, the comprehensive role of LACS9 and its contribution to plant metabolism have not been explored thoroughly...
March 23, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32209679/dimethylsulfoniopropionate-sulfur-and-methyl-carbon-assimilation-in-ruegeria-species
#16
Joseph S Wirth, Tao Wang, Qiuyuan Huang, Robert H White, William B Whitman
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is abundant in marine environments and an important source of reduced carbon and sulfur for marine bacteria. While both Ruegeria pomeroyi and Ruegeria lacuscaerulensis possessed genes encoding the DMSP demethylation and cleavage pathways, their responses to DMSP differed. A glucose-fed, chemostat culture of R. pomeroyi consumed 99% of the DMSP even when fed a high concentration of 5 mM. At the same time, cultures released 19% and 7.1% of the DMSP as dimethylsulfide (DMS) and methanethiol, respectively...
March 24, 2020: MBio
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32209654/catabolic-degradation-of-endothelial-vegfa-via-autophagy
#17
Thomas Neill, Carolyn G Chen, Simone Buraschi, Renato V Iozzo
Extracellular matrix-evoked angiostasis and autophagy within the tumor microenvironment represent two critical, but unconnected, functions of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan, decorin. Acting as a partial agonist of vascular endothelial growth factor 2 (VEGFR2), soluble decorin signals via the energy sensing protein, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), in the autophagic degradation of intracellular vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). Here, we discovered that soluble decorin evokes intracellular catabolism of endothelial VEGFA that is mechanistically independent of mTOR, but requires an autophagic regulator, paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3)...
March 24, 2020: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32208989/the-kynurenine-connection-how-exercise-shifts-muscle-tryptophan-metabolism-and-affects-energy-homeostasis-the-immune-system-and-the-brain
#18
Kyle Martin, Michele Azzolini, Jorge L Ruas
Tryptophan catabolism through the kynurenine pathway generates a variety of bioactive metabolites. Physical exercise can modulate kynurenine pathway metabolism in skeletal muscle, and thus change the concentrations of select compounds in peripheral tissues and in the central nervous system. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of how exercise alters tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism in muscle and its subsequent local and distal effects. We propose that the effects of kynurenine pathway metabolites on skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, immune system, and the brain, suggest that some of these compounds could qualify as exercise-induced myokines...
March 25, 2020: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32208322/blue-light-postpones-senescence-of-carnation-flowers-through-regulation-of-ethylene-and-abscisic-acid-pathway-related-genes
#19
Mostafa Aalifar, Sasan Aliniaeifard, Mostafa Arab, Mahboobeh Zare Mehrjerdi, Margrethe Serek
Endogenous signals in response to exogenous factors determine the senescence of flowers. Interactions among phytohormones especially abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene are the major determinant of the senescence. In the present study, complex expression patterns of the genes related to ABA and ethylene as endogenous signals were investigated on cut carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) that were exposed to different light spectra. Expression of ethylene biosynthetic (DcACS and DcACO), and signaling (DcETR and DcEin2) genes and also genes involved in ABA biosynthesis (DcZEP1 and DcNCED1), transport (DcABCG25 and DcABCG40) and catabolism (DcCYP707A1) were evaluated in petals of carnations exposed to three light spectra [white, blue and red]...
March 18, 2020: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32207025/arctigenin-suppresses-cell-proliferation-via-autophagy-inhibition-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#20
Shinya Okubo, Tomoe Ohta, Yukihiro Shoyama, Takuhiro Uto
Autophagy is a catabolic process that degrades dysfunctional proteins and organelles and plays critical roles in cancer development. Our preliminary screening identified that extracts of the fruits of Arctium lappa and the fruits of Forsythia suspensa notably suppressed the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and downregulated the autophagy. In this study, we explored the effect of arctigenin (ARG), a bioactive lignan in both extracts, on cell proliferation and autophagy-related proteins in HepG2 cells...
March 23, 2020: Journal of Natural Medicines
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