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Roman Chmel, Marta Nováčková, Tomáš Fait, Libor Zámečník, Lucie Krejčová, Zlatko Pastor
BACKGROUND: Surgery is the optimal treatment for a severe form of clitoral phimosis (CP) that is initiated by lichen sclerosus (LS) and causes female sexual dysfunction. AIM: We aimed to determine the etiology of clitoral phimosis, its influence on sexual function, and outcomes after surgical treatment. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we observed the occurrence of clitoral phimosis and related changes in a group of 3,650 sexually active heterosexual women with a mean age of 34...
February 2019: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Brian J Morris, Catherine A Hankins, Joya Banerjee, Eugenie R Lumbers, Adrian Mindel, Jeffrey D Klausner, John N Krieger
Background: Male circumcision (MC) is proven to substantially reduce men's risk of a number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a detailed systematic review of the scientific literature to determine the relationship between MC and risk of STIs and associated conditions in women. Methods: Database searches by "circumcision women" and "circumcision female" identified 68 relevant articles for inclusion. Examination of bibliographies of these yielded 14 further publications...
2019: Frontiers in Public Health
Michał Ciebiera, Małgorzata Wrzosek, Cezary Wojtyła, Tomasz Łoziński, Grażyna Nowicka, Grzegorz Jakiel, Marek Głowala, Marta Włodarczyk
Introduction: Uterine fibroids (UFs) are benign, monoclonal tumours of the female genital tract that originate from the myometrium. They may be diagnosed in as many as 80% of women depending on the selected population. UFs depend mostly on steroid hormones. Elevated levels of oestrogens and progesterone are believed to be among the most important factors inducing their formation and growth. These facts suggest that oestrogen (ESR) and progesterone receptors are crucial in UF pathophysiology as well...
December 2018: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
Andrew Aldersley, Lauren J Cator
Despite the importance of mosquito mating biology to reproductive control strategies, a mechanistic understanding of individual mating interactions is currently lacking. Using synchronised high-speed video and audio recordings, we quantified behavioural and acoustic features of mating attempts between tethered female and free-flying male Aedes aegypti. In most couplings, males were actively displaced by female kicks in the early phases of the interaction, while flight cessation prior to adoption of the pre-copulatory mating pose also inhibited copulation...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Christine K Tarr-Attia, Grace Hawa Boiwu, Guillermo Martínez-Pérez
BACKGROUND: In Liberia, approximately 70% of the women of the North-Central and North-Western regions could have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) in their childhood during a traditional ceremony marking their entrance into Sande, a secret female society. Little is known about FGM/C from Liberian women's perspective. This study aimed to understand the health implications of FGM/C as perceived by qualified female midwives. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted in 2017 in Monrovia, Liberia's capital...
February 14, 2019: Reproductive Health
Peter J O'Shaughnessy, Jean Philippe Antignac, Bruno Le Bizec, Marie-Line Morvan, Konstantin Svechnikov, Olle Söder, Iuliia Savchuk, Ana Monteiro, Ugo Soffientini, Zoe C Johnston, Michelle Bellingham, Denise Hough, Natasha Walker, Panagiotis Filis, Paul A Fowler
Masculinization of the external genitalia in humans is dependent on formation of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) through both the canonical androgenic pathway and an alternative (backdoor) pathway. The fetal testes are essential for canonical androgen production, but little is known about the synthesis of backdoor androgens, despite their known critical role in masculinization. In this study, we have measured plasma and tissue levels of endogenous steroids in second trimester human fetuses using multidimensional and high-resolution mass spectrometry...
February 2019: PLoS Biology
Mahlape P Mahlangu, Etienne E Müller, Johanna Me Venter, Dumisile V Maseko, Ranmini S Kularatne
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with genital discharge syndrome, but limited prevalence data is available in South Africa. The prevalence rates of M. genitalium infection and HIV co-infection were determined in urogenital specimens collected from male and female patients presenting with genital discharge syndrome to a primary health care centre in Johannesburg, South Africa from 2007 through 2014. METHODS: Genital specimens from 4731 patients were tested by a validated in-house multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and M...
February 11, 2019: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
P R Singh, M Couvreur, W Decraemer, W Bert
A survey for slug-associated nematodes in five locations of East and West Flanders in Belgium revealed the presence of one new and six known slug-parasitic nematodes, Agfa flexilis (Dujardin, 1845), Alloionema appendiculatum (Schneider, 1859), Angiostoma dentiferum (Mengert, 1953), Angiostoma limacis (Dujardin, 1845), Angiostoma norvegicum (Ross et al., 2017) and Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Schneider, 1859). Angiostoma norvegicum and P. hermaphrodita are recorded for the first time in Belgium. The six known species are documented by light microscopy (LM) microphotographs and informative DNA sequences...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Helminthology
María Paula Caruso, Juliana Falivene, María Pía Holgado, Diego Hernán Zurita, Natalia Laufer, Carina Castro, Ángeles Nico, Cynthia Maeto, Jimena Salido, Héctor Pérez, Horacio Salomón, Pedro Cahn, Omar Sued, Valeria Fink, Gabriela Turk, María Magdalena Gherardi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment (ART) on the proportion and functions of Th17 and Treg cells in peripheral blood and female genital tract (FGT) respectively. To this aim, samples from 41 HIV-neg, 33 HIV+ ART-naïve and 32 HIV+ ART+ subjects were obtained. In peripheral blood, altered Th17 and Th17/Treg proportions were normalized in HIV+ ART+, but certain abnormal Treg and activated T-cell proportions were still observed. In FGT, abnormal patterns of secretion for Th17-related cytokines were observed in cervical mononuclear cells (CMCs) from HIV+ women, even in those from HIV+ ART+, compared to the HIV-neg group...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Kathryn B McNamara, Liam R Dougherty, Nina Wedell, Leigh W Simmons
The rapid evolutionary divergence of male genital structures under sexual selection is well documented. However, variation in female genital traits and the potential for sexual conflict to drive the coevolution between male and female traits has only recently received attention. In many lepidopterans females possess genital teeth (collectively, signa). Comparative studies suggest these teeth, involved in the deflation of spermatophores, may have coevolved with male spermatophore thickness via sexually antagonistic coevolution in a contest over the rate of deflation of spermatophores within the reproductive tract...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
María Milagros Otero-García, Alicia Mesa-Álvarez, Olivera Nikolic, Patricia Blanco-Lobato, Marijana Basta-Nikolic, Rafael Menéndez de Llano-Ortega, Laura Paredes-Velázquez, Nikola Nikolic, Magda Szewczyk-Bieda
MRI plays important roles in endometrial and cervical cancer assessment, from detection to recurrent disease evaluation. Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common malignant tumor of the female genital tract in Western countries. EC patients are divided into risk categories based on histopathological tumor type, grade, and myometrial invasion depth. EC is surgically staged using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) system. Since FIGO (2009) stage correlates with prognosis, preoperative staging is essential for tailored treatment...
February 13, 2019: Insights Into Imaging
A Ernst, L L B Lauridsen, N Brix, O A Arah, J Olsen, L H Olsen, C H Ramlau-Hansen
STUDY QUESTION: Does parental fertility, measured by time to pregnancy (TTP), or use of medically assisted reproduction (MAR) affect pubertal development in the offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: Neither TTP nor type of MAR treatment had clinically relevant implications for mean age at achieving individual pubertal milestones or overall timing of puberty in boys and girls. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Parental TTP and MAR have been associated with impaired semen quality in adult sons...
February 12, 2019: Human Reproduction
Madina Agénor, Jaquelyn L Jahn, Eriko Kay, Rachel A Bishop, Sarah M Peitzmeier, Jennifer Potter, S Bryn Austin
CONTEXT: Some sexual minority women may be less likely than other women to engage in human papillomavirus (HPV) prevention behaviors. Although risk perceptions have been found to be associated with health behaviors, HPV risk perceptions among U.S. sexual minority women have not been examined. METHODS: In 2016-2017, in-depth interviews were conducted in Boston with 29 sexual minority individuals aged 18-36 who were assigned female at birth (AFAB) and identified as women or nonbinary...
February 12, 2019: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Talía Malagón, Karolina Louvanto, Michel Wissing, Ann N Burchell, Pierre-Paul Tellier, Mariam El-Zein, François Coutlée, Eduardo L Franco
BACKGROUND: Hand-to-genital contact is hypothesised to be a transmission mode of human papillomavirus (HPV) of the Alphapapillomavirus genus. We compared the relative importance of hand-to-genital and genital-to-genital HPV transmission between sexual partners. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we recruited and followed up female university students aged 18-24 years and their male sexual partners in Montreal, QC, Canada (2005-11). Participants were eligible if they had initiated sexual activity within the past 6 months...
February 8, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Anna Strandqvist, Lisa Örtqvist, Louise Frisén, Agneta Nordenskjöld, Agneta Herlitz, Anna Nordenström
BACKGROUND: Hypospadias is a common malformation of the male external genitalia that results in urethral displacement with different levels of severity. Male genital development during the fetal period is dependent on androgen function, while the etiology of hypospadias differs and can be multifactorial. The psychosocial outcome is sometimes affected, but according to several studies acceptable. The question of whether hypospadias is associated with differences in psychosexual development has been investigated previously, with mixed results...
February 8, 2019: Hormones and Behavior
Mariela A Oviedo-Diego, Camilo I Mattoni, Alfredo V Peretti
Immune defense is a key feature in the life history of organisms, expensive to maintain, highly regulated by individuals and exposed to physiological and evolutionary trade-offs. In chelicerates, relatively scarce are the studies that relate postcopulatory mechanisms and immune response parameters. This work makes an approximation to the female's immunological consequences produced after the placement of a foreign body in the genitalia of three scorpions species, two species that normally receive genital plugs during mating (Urophonius brachycentrus and U...
2019: PloS One
Sakolwan Suchartlikitwong, Rahul Jasti, Joaquin Lado-Abeal, Ana Marcella Rivas Mejia
Adrenal myelolipomas are relatively rare tumours composed of adipocytes and myeloid cells that arise in response to chronic adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation. We present the case of bilateral adrenal myelolipomas in a 39-year-old man with untreated congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) presenting with acute adrenal insufficiency and severe virilisation. Phenotypically, he is a man of short stature and has hyperpigmentation of the skin, gingiva and nail beds. Genital examination revealed micropenis and no palpable testes...
February 9, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
Georgina Davis, Jessica Jellins
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation (FGM) and its impact on women's health are becoming relevant in Australia due to increases in numbers of refugees and migrants from affected countries. Notwithstanding the psychological trauma from FGM, there is a broad range of sequelae relevant to obstetrics and gynaecology, particularly related to maternal morbidity from labour and delivery. AIMS: To assess the prevalence of FGM in our unit and document its effect on maternal and neonatal outcomes...
February 7, 2019: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Claudia Cappa, Luk Van Baelen, Els Leye
While Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) has been in existence for centuries, the rigorous and systematic documentation of the extent of the practice is a recent undertaking. This paper discusses data availability related to the practice of FGM and reviews the methods used to generate prevalence estimates. The aim is to illustrate strengths and limitations of the available data. The review is organised around two main categories of countries: FGM countries of origin, where representative prevalence data exist, and countries of migration for women and girls who have undergone FGM, for which representative prevalence data are lacking...
February 6, 2019: Global Public Health
Shelley S Langton-Myers, Gregory I Holwell, Thomas R Buckley
Documenting natural hybrid systems builds our understanding of mate choice, reproductive isolation, and speciation. The stick insect species Clitarchus hookeri and C. tepaki differ in their genital morphology and hybridize along a narrow peninsula in northern New Zealand. We utilize three lines of evidence to understand the role of premating isolation and species boundaries: (1) genetic differentiation using microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA; (2) variation in 3D surface topology of male claspers and 2D morphometrics of female opercular organs; and (3) behavioral reproductive isolation among parental and hybrid populations through mating crosses...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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