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Melissa Dipp-Álvarez, Alfredo Cruz-Ramírez
Comparative genomics has revealed that members of early divergent lineages of land plants share a set of highly conserved transcription factors (TFs) with flowering plants. While gene copy numbers have expanded through time, it has been predicted that diversification, co-option, and reassembly of gene regulatory networks implicated in development are directly related to morphological innovations that led to more complex land plant bodies. Examples of key networks have been deeply studied in Arabidopsis thaliana , such as those involving the AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) gene family that encodes AP2-type TFs...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Chieh-Ming Wu, Anna Adetona, Chi Chuck Song, Luke Naeher, Olorunfemi Adetona
Wildland firefighters are directly exposed to elevated levels of wildland fire (WF) smoke. Although studies demonstrate WF smoke exposure is associated with lung function changes, few studies that use invasive sample collection methods have been conducted to investigate underlying biochemical changes. These methods are also either unrepresentative of the deeper airways or capable of inducing inflammation. In the present study, levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) and pro-inflammatory response (interleukin-6 [IL-6], interleukin-8 [IL-8], C-reactive protein [CRP], and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [sICAM-1]) were determined in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples that were collected from firefighters before, after, and next morning following prescribed burn and regular work shifts...
January 22, 2019: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
Karin Gardner Johnson, Douglas Clark Johnson, Robert Joseph Thomas, Edward Feldmann, Peter K Lindenauer, Paul Visintainer, Meir H Kryger
OBJECTIVE: Apnea/hypopnea index (AHI), especially without arousal criteria, does not adequately risk stratify patients with mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We describe and test scoring reliability of an event, Flow Limitation/Obstruction With recovery breath (FLOW), representing obstructive airflow disruptions using only pressure transducer and snore signals available without electroencephalography. METHODS: The following process was used (i) Development of FLOW event definition, (ii) Training period and definition refinement, and (iii) Reliability testing on 10 100-epoch polysomnography (PSG) samples and two 100-sample tests...
November 30, 2018: Sleep Medicine
M Raateoja, P Kauppila
A long-term trophic development of three geographical transects-including a river mouth, an estuary, and an archipelago-were studied in the southern Finnish coast in the Baltic Sea. Each transect was studied to clarify how far off the coast the land-based nutrient sources (catchment factor, CF) had a decisive role in shaping the wintertime regimes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved inorganic phosphorus and where the marine processes (marine factor, MF) start to play a major role. Generally, CF controlled the nutrient regime from the coast to the outer brink of the inner coastal area, after which MF started to dominate...
December 19, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Michael G Cooper, David J Wilkinson
Dr. Richard Gill published a textbook in London in 1906 titled The CHCl3 - Problem. Gill was the Chief Chloroformist at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, and was recognized as an excellent clinical anesthetist and was of an intelligent but reclusive and eccentric personality. This textbook is rarely found and has not been appreciated in the history of anesthesia for several reasons including that it was generally ignored at publication and few copies exist in libraries around the world. The CHCl3 Problem is written in a verbose, archaic, and convoluted fashion and is rarely quoted...
October 2018: Journal of Anesthesia History
Makoto Kubo, Keiko Yamamoto, Toshimasa Itoh
Selective cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1 inhibition has potential as an anticancer strategy that is unrepresented in the current clinical arena. For development of a selective inhibitor, we focused on the complexity caused by sp3 -hybridized carbons and synthesized a series of benzo[h]chromone derivatives linked to a non-aromatic B-ring using α-naphthoflavone (ANF) as the lead compound. Ring structure comparison suggested compound 37 as a suitable cyclohexyl-core with improved solubility. Structural evolution of 37 produced the azide-containing cis-49a, which had good properties in three important respects: (1) selectivity for CYP1B1 over CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 (120-times and 150-times, respectively), (2) greater inhibitory potency of >2 times that of ANF, and (3) improved solubility...
December 3, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Robert J Asaro, Qiang Zhu, Pedro Cabrales
We demonstrate that erythrocyte deformations, specifically of a type as occur in splenic flow (Zhu et al., 2017), and of the type that promote vesiculation can be caused by simple, yet tailored, oscillatory shear flow. We show that such oscillatory shear flow provides an ideal environment to explore a wide variety of metabolic and biochemical effects that promote erythrocyte vesiculation. Deformation details, typical of splenic flow, such as in-folding and implications for membrane/skeleton interaction are demonstrated and quantitatively analyzed...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Louise J Carden, Pooja Saini, Claire Seddon, Megan Watkins, Peter James Taylor
OBJECTIVES: Shame is increasingly implicated in the development and maintenance of several psychological problems including psychosis. The aim of the current paper was to review the research literature concerning the relationship between shame and the psychosis continuum, examining the nature and direction of this relationship. METHOD: Systematic searches of databases PsycINFO, Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science (from the earliest available database date until November 2016) were undertaken to identify papers that examined the relationship between shame and psychosis or psychotic experiences...
November 14, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Pandora Pound, Merel Ritskes-Hoitinga
BACKGROUND: The pharmaceutical industry is in the midst of a productivity crisis and rates of translation from bench to bedside are dismal. Patients are being let down by the current system of drug discovery; of the several 1000 diseases that affect humans, only a minority have any approved treatments and many of these cause adverse reactions in humans. A predominant reason for the poor rate of translation from bench to bedside is generally held to be the failure of preclinical animal models to predict clinical efficacy and safety...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Kevin P Blaine, Irene Cortés-Puch, Junfeng Sun, Dong Wang, Steven B Solomon, Jing Feng, Mark T Gladwin, Daniel B Kim-Shapiro, Swati Basu, Andreas Perlegas, Kamille West, Harvey G Klein, Charles Natanson
BACKGROUND: Storage temperature is a critical factor for maintaining red-blood cell (RBC) viability, especially during prolonged cold storage. The target range of 1 to 6°C was established decades ago and may no longer be optimal for current blood-banking practices. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Human and canine RBCs were collected under standard conditions and stored in precision-controlled refrigerators at 2°C, 4°C, or 6°C. RESULTS: During 42-day storage, human and canine RBCs showed progressive increases in supernatant non-transferrin-bound iron, cell-free hemoglobin, base deficit, and lactate levels that were overall greater at 6°C and 4°C than at 2°C...
November 1, 2018: Transfusion
Christopher W Drapeau, Jennifer D Lockman, Melinda M Moore, Julie Cerel
BACKGROUND: Although suicide loss has been associated with several negative outcomes, numerous studies have shown that loss survivors can experience posttraumatic growth (PTG) following the suicide loss of a significant other. However, few studies have explored the mechanisms of such growth. AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of PTG among a sample of adult suicide loss survivors and to explore whether the amount of time since the suicide loss moderated the relation between self-reported coping and PTG...
October 30, 2018: Crisis
Aravind Ganesh, Ramon Luengo-Fernandez, Rose M Wharton, Peter M Rothwell
OBJECTIVE: To compare how 3 common representations (ordinal vs dichotomized as 0-1/2-6 or 0-2/3-6) of the modified Rankin Scale (mRS)-a commonly used trial outcome measure-relate to long-term outcomes, and quantify trial ineligibility rates based on premorbid mRS. METHODS: In consecutive patients with ischemic stroke in a population-based, prospective, cohort study (Oxford Vascular Study; 2002-2014), we related 3-month mRS to 1-year and 5-year disability and death (logistic regressions), and health/social care costs (generalized linear model), adjusted for age/sex, and compared goodness-of-fit values (C statistic, mean absolute error)...
November 20, 2018: Neurology
Nicholas Kavish, Q John Fu, Michael G Vaughn, Zhengmin Qian, Brian B Boutwell
Despite the prior linkages of low resting heart rate to antisocial behavior broadly defined, less work has been done examining possible associations between heart rate to psychopathic traits. The small body of research on the topic that has been conducted so far seems to suggest an inverse relationship between the two constructs. A smaller number of studies has found the opposite result, however, and some of the previous studies have been limited by small sample sizes and unrepresentative samples. The current study attempts to help clarify the relationship between resting heart rate and psychopathic traits in a large, nationally representative sample (analytical N ranged from 14,173-14,220) using an alternative measure of psychopathic traits that is less focused on antisocial processes, and rooted in personality traits...
October 19, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Brandy M Mechling, Nancy R Ahern, Ruthanne Palumbo
PROBLEM: Opioid use disorder (OUD) has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Children of parents with OUD are an unrepresented population, who often suffer consequences from their parent's substance abuse disorder. Such children may incur numerous psychosocial and physical losses. Without intervention, they are more likely to be diagnosed with a mental illness and/or substance use disorder (SUD). METHODS: This paper examines the experiences of children of parents with OUD using Boss's theory of ambiguous loss (AL) as a lens...
October 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing
Claire Easthall, Natalie Taylor, Debi Bhattacharya
OBJECTIVES: To identify barriers to medication adherence in patients prescribed medicines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and map these to the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), to produce a conceptual framework for developing a questionnaire-based medication adherence tool. METHODS: A scoping review of barriers to medication adherence in long-term conditions was conducted to generate an initial pool of barriers. After preliminary mapping to the TDF, these barriers were presented to two focus groups of patients prescribed medicines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (n = 14) to stimulate discussion...
October 3, 2018: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Brian H Willis, Dyuti Coomar, Mohammed Baragilly
BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis may produce estimates that are unrepresentative of a test's performance in practice. Tailored meta-analysis (TMA) circumvents this by deriving an applicable region for the practice and selecting the studies compatible with the region. It requires the test positive rate, r and prevalence, p being estimated for the setting but previous studies have assumed their independence. The aim is to investigate the effects a correlation between r and p has on estimating the applicable region and how this affects TMA...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
David C Reardon
The abortion advocacy group Advancing New Standards in Reproductive Health (ANSIRH) has published over twenty papers based on a case series of women taking part in their Turnaway Study. Following the lead of ANSIRH news releases, major media outlets have described these results as proof that (a) most women who have abortions are glad they did, (b) there is no evidence of negative mental health effects following abortion, and (c) the only women really suffering are those who are being denied late-term abortions due to legal restrictions based on gestational age...
August 2018: Linacre Quarterly
Aaron J Wirsing, Thomas P Quinn, Curry J Cunningham, Jennifer R Adams, Apryle D Craig, Lisette P Waits
The interaction between brown bears ( Ursus arctos ) and Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.) is important to the population dynamics of both species and a celebrated example of consumer-mediated nutrient transport. Yet, much of the site-specific information we have about the bears in this relationship comes from observations at a few highly visible but unrepresentative locations and a small number of radio-telemetry studies. Consequently, our understanding of brown bear abundance and behavior at more cryptic locations where they commonly feed on salmon, including small spawning streams, remains limited...
September 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Christian Füllgrabe, Brian C J Moore
The ability to process binaural temporal fine structure (TFS) information, which influences the perception of speech in spatially distributed soundscapes, declines with increasing hearing loss and age. Because of the relatively small sample sizes used in previous studies, and the population-unrepresentative distribution of hearing loss and ages within study samples, it has been difficult to determine the relative and combined contributions of hearing loss and age. The aim of this study was to survey published and unpublished studies that assessed binaural TFS sensitivity using the TFS-low frequency (LF) test...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
Steven H Cooper
Play in the context of the patient's sense of absence, loss, and compromised capacities for symbolization can be a link between unsymbolized experience and greater capacities for representation. Winnicott's concepts of play evolved as one of the ways that analysts translate unconscious and unrepresented experience. For many patients who have experienced absence, the analyst and the analytic setting are subjected to the patient's unconscious efforts to destroy and negate meaning and relatedness. For the analyst to be "used" as an object to be destroyed and to survive destruction, he must become a subject in the mind of the patient and in his own mind as analyst within the intersubjective field...
August 2018: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
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