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colitis actinic

J Ge, Y J Li, A Q Liu, W Y Huang, F Yang, L Ma, H H Zhai
Objective: To study the damage and mechanism of intestinal mucosal barrier function in mice with ulcerative colitis induced by Dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Methods: Mice models of chronic ulcerative colitis induced by DSS were established. The mice were completely randomized into normal control group and DSS group, 25 mice in each group. The body weight and colon length of the mice were monitored. The pathological examination of colon tissue was confirmed the success of the model and assessed the integrity of the colonic mucosal barrier; Evan's Blue's intestinal permeability analysis assessed the function of colon mucosal barrier; immunofluorescence staining and Western blot were used to evaluate the expression of intestinal mucosal barrier integrity-related proteins...
December 25, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Kristina Scheibe, Christina Kersten, Anabel Schmied, Michael Vieth, Tatiana Primbs, Birgitta Carlé, Ferdinand Knieling, Jing Claussen, Alexander C Klimowicz, Jie Zheng, Patrick Baum, Sebastian Meyer, Sebastian Schürmann, Oliver Friedrich, Maximilian J Waldner, Timo Rath, Stefan Wirtz, George Kollias, Arif B Ekici, Raja Atreya, Ernest L Raymond, M Lamine Mbow, Markus F Neurath, Clemens Neufert
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal fibrosis is a long-term complication in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) frequently resulting in functional damage, bowel obstruction, and surgery. Interleukin 36 (IL36) is a group of cytokines in the IL1 family with inflammatory effects. We studied expression of IL36 and its receptor, interleukin 1 receptor like 2 (IL1RL2 or IL36R) in development of intestinal fibrosis in human tissues and mice. METHODS: We obtained intestinal tissues from 92 patients with Crohn´s disease (CD), 48 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 26 patients without inflammatory bowel diseases (controls)...
November 16, 2018: Gastroenterology
Shi-Qing Zhang, Wen-Kai Ni, Ming-Bing Xiao, Feng Jiang, Cui-Hua Lu, Rui-Hua Wang, Run-Zhou Ni
Apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) promotes the development of ulcerative colitis (UC), a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells is essential for tissue homeostasis in metazoans. Actin related protein 3 (ARP3) promotes endothelial dysfunction. The expression and function of ARP3 in UC remains unclear. In this study, the expression of apoptotic markers as p53, Bax, Cleaved-Caspease9 and Cleaved-Caspease3 were proved to be increased in the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) of UC patients and in a mouse disuccinimidyl suberate(DSS)-induced colitis model; meanwhile, ARP3 expression was elevated...
October 24, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Keizo Hiraishi, Lin-Hai Kurahara, Miho Sumiyoshi, Yao-Peng Hu, Kaori Koga, Miki Onitsuka, Daibo Kojima, Lixia Yue, Hidetoshi Takedatsu, Yu-Wen Jian, Ryuji Inoue
AIM: To investigate the anti-fibrotic effects of the traditional oriental herbal medicine Daikenchuto (DKT) associated with transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels in intestinal myofibroblasts. METHODS: Inflammatory and fibrotic changes were detected in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) chronic colitis model of wild-type and TRPA1-knockout (TRPA1-KO) mice via pathological staining and immunoblotting analysis. Ca2+ imaging experiments examined the effects of DKT and its components/ingredients on intestinal myofibroblast (InMyoFib) cell TRPA1 channel function...
September 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Xiao-Bin Zheng, Hua-Shan Liu, Long-Juan Zhang, Xuan-Hui Liu, Xiao-Li Zhong, Chi Zhou, Tuo Hu, Xian-Rui Wu, Jian-Cong Hu, Lei Lian, Qi-Ling Deng, Yu-Feng Chen, Jia Ke, Xiao-Jian Wu, Xiao-Sheng He, Ping Lan
Background and aims: Mucosal healing is an emerging therapeutic goal that could result in clinical remission of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We sought to determine the role of engulfment and cell motility protein 1 (ELMO1) in wound healing in vitro and in vivo and to investigate the underlying pathways. Methods: RNA transcriptome sequencing was performed to detect the expression profiles of mRNA between inflamed tissues and corresponding non-inflamed tissues of IBD patients, followed by GEO datasets and western blot analysis...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Gang Yuan, Tingjia Chen, Haiqing Zhang, Qinghua Cao, Yun Qiu, Biao Que, Sui Peng, Minhu Chen, Weidong Ji
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have received increasing attention for their involvement in the pathogenesis of cancer; however, the characterization and function of circRNAs in colitis-induced colon carcinoma remains largely unknown. A colitis-induced colon carcinoma model was established in mice treated with azoxymethane-dextran sodium sulfate (AOM-DSS), and the circRNA profile was screened by next generation sequencing. Bioinformatic tools, including Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, and network analysis were used to predict the functions of differentially expressed circRNAs and potentially coexpressed target genes...
December 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Bernardo Oldak, Mayra Cruz-Rivera, Ana Flisser, Fela Mendlovic
The dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of colitis is widely used as a result of its simplicity and reproducibility and because it mimics clinicopathological disease features. Its effectiveness depends on the mouse strain, DSS MW, and brand. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is highly sensitive for analyzing cytokine mRNA expression. We analyzed an acute model of DSS treatment in Balb/c mice for the onset of colitis using qRT-PCR for the quantification of a mouse cytokine transcript. We compared differences among 1--and 2-step qRT-PCR for transcript quantification, the effect of multiple concentrations of DSS, and the use of 2 reference genes in 3 portions of the colon...
September 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Techniques: JBT
Hossein Esmaeilzadeh, Mohammad Reza Bordbar, Hassan Dastsooz, Mohammad Silawi, Mohammad Ali Farazi Fard, Ali Adib, Ali Kafashan, Zahra Tabatabaei, Forough Sadeghipour, Mohammad Ali Faghihi
BACKGROUND: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is an X-linked recessive immunodeficiency due to mutations in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) gene. WAS gene is encoded for a multifunctional protein with key roles in actin polymerization, signaling pathways, and cytoskeletal rearrangement. Therefore, the impaired protein or its absence cause phenotypic spectrum of the disease. Since identification of novel mutations in WAS gene can help uncover the exact pathogenesis of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, the purpose of this study was to investigate disease causing-mutation in an Iranian male infant suspicious of this disorder...
July 20, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
Bruce Weder, Céline Mamie, Gerhard Rogler, Stephen Clarke, Bradford McRae, Pedro A Ruiz, Martin Hausmann
Background: Fibrosis in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) results from an imbalance toward excessive fibrous tissue formation driven by fibroblasts. Activation of fibroblasts is linked to the B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family, which is involved in the induction of apoptosis. We investigated the impact of BCL2 repression on fibrogenesis. Methods: The model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced chronic colitis and the heterotopic transplantation model of fibrosis were used...
May 22, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Takashi Ikeda, Takafusa Hikichi, Hisashi Miura, Hirofumi Shibata, Kanae Mitsunaga, Yosuke Yamada, Knut Woltjen, Kei Miyamoto, Ichiro Hiratani, Yasuhiro Yamada, Akitsu Hotta, Takuya Yamamoto, Keisuke Okita, Shinji Masui
Multicellular organisms consist of multiple cell types. The identity of these cells is primarily maintained by cell-type-specific gene expression programs; however, mechanisms that suppress these programs are poorly defined. Here we show that serum response factor (Srf), a transcription factor that is activated by various extracellular stimuli, can repress cell-type-specific genes and promote cellular reprogramming to pluripotency. Manipulations that decrease β-actin monomer quantity result in the nuclear accumulation of Mkl1 and the activation of Srf, which downregulate cell-type-specific genes and alter the epigenetics of regulatory regions and chromatin organization...
April 11, 2018: Nature Communications
Lin Hai Kurahara, Keizo Hiraishi, Yaopeng Hu, Kaori Koga, Miki Onitsuka, Mayumi Doi, Kunihiko Aoyagi, Hidetoshi Takedatsu, Daibo Kojima, Yoshitaka Fujihara, Yuwen Jian, Ryuji Inoue
Background & Aims: The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel is highly expressed in the intestinal lamina propria, but its contribution to gut physiology/pathophysiology is unclear. Here, we evaluated the function of myofibroblast TRPA1 channels in intestinal remodeling. Methods: An intestinal myofibroblast cell line (InMyoFibs) was stimulated by transforming growth factor-β1 to induce in vitro fibrosis. Trpa1 knockout mice were generated using the Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Klaus Aktories, Panagiotis Papatheodorou, Carsten Schwan
Clostridium difficile infection causes antibiotics-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Major virulence factors of C. difficile are the Rho-glucosylating toxins TcdA and TcdB. In addition, many, so-called hypervirulent C. difficile strains produce the binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin CDT. CDT causes depolymerization of F-actin and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Thereby, many cellular functions, which depend on actin, are altered. CDT disturbs the dynamic balance between actin and microtubules in target cells...
March 7, 2018: Anaerobe
J Scott Lee, Ruth X Wang, Erica E Alexeev, Jordi M Lanis, Kayla D Battista, Louise E Glover, Sean P Colgan
Intestinal epithelial cells form a selectively permeable barrier to protect colon tissues from luminal microbiota and antigens and to mediate nutrient, fluid, and waste flux in the intestinal tract. Dysregulation of the epithelial cell barrier coincides with profound shifts in metabolic energy, especially in the colon, which exists in an energetically depleting state of physiological hypoxia. However, studies that systematically examine energy flux and adenylate metabolism during intestinal epithelial barrier development and restoration after disruption are lacking...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jin-Sil Park, JeongWon Choi, Ji Ye Kwon, Kyung-Ah Jung, Chul Woo Yang, Sung-Hwan Park, Mi-La Cho
BACKGROUND: An altered gut microbiota balance is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and several probiotic strains are used as dietary supplements to improve intestinal health. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of 12 probiotics in combination with prebiotics, rosavin, and zinc in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. METHODS: The probiotic complex or the combination drug was administered orally to mice with DSS-induced colitis, and the body weight, disease activity index, colon length, and histopathological parameters were evaluated...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Jin-Sil Park, Jeong Won Choi, JooYeon Jhun, Ji Ye Kwon, Bo-In Lee, Chul Woo Yang, Sung-Hwan Park, Mi-La Cho
Disruption of the balance among the microbiota, epithelial cells, and resident immune cells in the intestine is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Probiotics exert protective effects against IBD, and probiotic commensal Lactobacillus species are common inhabitants of the natural microbiota, especially in the gut. To investigate the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the development of IBD, L. acidophilus was administered orally in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis...
March 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
B Florien Westendorp, Nikè V J A Büller, Olga N Karpus, Willemijn A van Dop, Jan Koster, Rogier Versteeg, Pim J Koelink, Clinton Y Snel, Sander Meisner, Joris J T H Roelofs, Anja Uhmann, Emiel Ver Loren van Themaat, Jarom Heijmans, Heidi Hahn, Vanesa Muncan, Manon E Wildenberg, Gijs R van den Brink
Background & Aims: Upon intestinal epithelial damage a complex wound healing response is initiated to restore epithelial integrity and defend against pathogenic invasion. Epithelium-derived Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) functions as a critical sensor in this process. Signaling occurs in a paracrine manner because the receptor for Ihh is expressed only in the mesenchyme, but the exact Hedgehog target cell has remained elusive. The aim of this study was to elucidate further the nature of this target cell in the context of intestinal inflammation...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Tamas Tornai, Eszter Palyu, Zsuzsanna Vitalis, Istvan Tornai, David Tornai, Peter Antal-Szalmas, Gary L Norman, Zakera Shums, Gabor Veres, Antal Dezsofi, Gabriella Par, Alajos Par, Peter Orosz, Ferenc Szalay, Peter Laszlo Lakatos, Maria Papp
AIM: To assess the prevalence of a panel of serologic markers that reflect gut barrier dysfunction in a mixed cohort of pediatric and adult primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients. METHODS: Sera of 67 PSC patients [median age (range): 32 (5-79) years, concomitant IBD: 67% and cirrhosis: 20%] were assayed for the presence of antibodies against to F-actin (AAA IgA/IgG) and gliadin (AGA IgA/IgG)] and for serum level of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) by ELISA...
August 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Yadi Guan, Yue Tan, Weiyu Liu, Jun Yang, Dongxu Wang, Di Pan, Yan Sun, Changqing Zheng
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the antifibrotic effects of NF-E2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2) on intestinal fibrosis. Intestinal fibrosis is a common complication of Crohn's disease; however, its mechanism of intestinal fibrosis is largely unclear. METHODS: BALB/c mice received 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid weekly via intrarectal injections to induce chronic fibrotic colitis. They also diet containing received 1% (w/w) tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), which is an agonist of Nrf2...
February 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Klaus Aktories, Carsten Schwan, Thomas Jank
Clostridium difficile is the cause of antibiotics-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. The pathogen produces three protein toxins: C. difficile toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), and C. difficile transferase toxin (CDT). The single-chain toxins TcdA and TcdB are the main virulence factors. They bind to cell membrane receptors and are internalized. The N-terminal glucosyltransferase and autoprotease domains of the toxins translocate from low-pH endosomes into the cytosol. After activation by inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6), the autoprotease cleaves and releases the glucosyltransferase domain into the cytosol, where GTP-binding proteins of the Rho/Ras family are mono-O-glucosylated and, thereby, inactivated...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
Jun Bon Koo, Myeong-Ok Nam, Younshin Jung, Jongman Yoo, Duk Hwan Kim, Gwangil Kim, Sung Jae Shin, Kee Myung Lee, Ki Baik Hahm, Jong Woo Kim, Sung Pyo Hong, Kwang Jae Lee, Jun Hwan Yoo
BACKGROUND: Intestinal fibrosis is a serious complication of inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. There is no specific treatment for intestinal fibrosis. Studies have indicated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- γ (PPAR-γ) agonists have anti-fibrogenic properties in organs besides the gut; however, their effects on human intestinal fibrosis are poorly understood. This study investigated the anti-fibrogenic properties and mechanisms of PPAR-γ agonists on human primary intestinal myofibroblasts (HIFs)...
June 7, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
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