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Cardiac mapping

WeiChao Li, Hong Gao, Ju Gao, ZiJun Wang
BACKGROUND: Although the importance of the potential mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis, including cardiac electrophysiology dysfunction and gap junction electrical uncoupling by Cx43 degradation under pathological conditions, has been widely and thoroughly established, the correlations between these mechanisms and biomarkers of cold ischemic insult have not yet been confirmed. Limited evidence suggests that these biomarkers are significantly associated with cardiac dysrhythmia. Thus, in this study, we analyzed such correlations in denervated transplanted hearts...
February 20, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Carlos Galán-Arriola, Manuel Lobo, Jean Paul Vílchez-Tschischke, Gonzalo J López, Antonio de Molina-Iracheta, Claudia Pérez-Martínez, Jaume Agüero, Rodrigo Fernández-Jiménez, Ana Martín-García, Eduardo Oliver, Rocío Villena-Gutierrez, Gonzalo Pizarro, Pedro L Sánchez, Valentin Fuster, Javier Sánchez-González, Borja Ibanez
BACKGROUND: Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity is a major clinical problem, and early cardiotoxicity markers are needed. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify early doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by serial multiparametric cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and its pathological correlates in a large animal model. METHODS: Twenty pigs were included. Of these, 5 received 5 biweekly intracoronary doxorubicin doses (0.45 mg/kg/injection) and were followed until sacrifice at 16 weeks...
February 26, 2019: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Tania Deis, Louise Balling, Søren Boesgaard, Kasper Rossing, Morten Schou, Peter Oturai, Emil Wolsk, Finn Gustafsson
The interaction between hemodynamics and kidney function in heart failure (HF) is incompletely understood. We investigated the association between invasive hemodynamic parameters and measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) by plasma clearance of 51-chromium-labeled ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (51 Cr-EDTA) in patients with advanced HF and tested the hypothesis that patients with reduced mGFR have lower cardiac index (CI) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) as well as higher central venous pressure (CVP) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP)...
February 20, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Neha A John-Henderson, Cory J Counts, Courtney S Sanders, Annie T Ginty
Diminished cardiac reactions to acute psychological stress are associated with adverse behavioral and health-relevant outcomes. It has been proposed that diminished cardiac reactivity may be a marker for deficits in motivational functioning both at the biological and behavioral levels. Social participation reflects the frequency with which individuals participate in social events and has motivational components. As such, it is a distinct construct from other constructs such as social integration, which measures the number of social roles an individual has...
March 2019: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Mirian A Silva-Cutini, Simone A Almeida, Andrews M Nascimento, Gláucia R Abreu, Nazaré S Bissoli, Dominik Lenz, Denise C Endringer, Girlandia A Brasil, Ewelyne M Lima, Vinicia C Biancardi, Tadeu U Andrade
This work evaluated the effects of long-term kefir treatment in cardiac function (cardiac contractility and calcium-handling proteins) and the central nervous system (CNS) control of the sympathetic signaling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Male normotensive rats [Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs)] and SHRs were divided into three groups: WKYs and SHRs treated with vehicle, and SHRs treated with milk fermented by the grains of kefir (5%; SHR-Kefir; oral gavage, 0.3 ml/100 g daily/9 weeks). At the end of treatment, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by direct arterial catheterization...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Janet R Manning, Dharendra Thapa, Manling Zhang, Michael W Stoner, Javier Traba, Charles F McTiernan, Catherine Corey, Sruti Shiva, Michael N Sack, Iain Scott
GCN5L1 regulates mitochondrial protein acetylation, cellular bioenergetics, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and organelle positioning in a number of diverse cell types. However, the functional role of GCN5L1 in the heart is currently unknown. As many of the factors regulated by GCN5L1 play a major role in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, we sought to determine if GCN5L1 is an important nexus in the response to cardiac ischemic stress. Deletion of GCN5L1 in cardiomyocytes resulted in impaired myocardial post-ischemic function and increased infarct development in isolated work-performing hearts...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Mareike Gastl, Alexander Gotschy, Jochen von Spiczak, Malgorzata Polacin, Florian Bönner, Christiane Gruner, Malte Kelm, Frank Ruschitzka, Hatem Alkadhi, Sebastian Kozerke, Robert Manka
Purpose: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by a heterogeneous morphology and variable prognosis. A mismatch between left ventricular mass (LVM) and microvascular circulation with corresponding relative ischemia has been implicated to cause myocardial replacement fibrosis that deteriorates prognosis. Besides parametric T1 mapping, Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) T2* mapping is able to identify ischemia as well as fibrosis in cardiac and extracardiac diseases. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the value of T2* mapping to characterize structural alterations in patients with HCM...
2019: European Journal of Radiology Open
Erik Willemen, Rick Schreurs, Peter R Huntjens, Marc Strik, Gernot Plank, Edward Vigmond, John Walmsley, Kevin Vernooy, Tammo Delhaas, Frits W Prinzen, Joost Lumens
Introduction: Timing of atrial, right (RV), and left ventricular (LV) stimulation in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is known to affect electrical activation and pump function of the LV. In this study, we used computer simulations, with input from animal experiments, to investigate the effect of varying pacing delays on both LV and RV electrical dyssynchrony and contractile function. Methods: A pacing protocol was performed in dogs with atrioventricular block ( N = 6), using 100 different combinations of atrial (A)-LV and A-RV pacing delays...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Prathap Kanagala, Adrian S H Cheng, Anvesha Singh, Jamal N Khan, Gaurav S Gulsin, Prashanth Patel, Pankaj Gupta, Jayanth R Arnold, Iain B Squire, Leong L Ng, Gerry P McCann
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the presence and extent of focal and diffuse fibrosis in heart failure in patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) compared to asymptomatic control subjects, and the relationship of fibrosis to clinical outcome. BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis has been implicated in the pathophysiology of HFpEF. METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, 140 subjects of similar age and sex (HFpEF: n = 96; control subjects: n = 44; 73 ± 8 years of age; 49% males) underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging...
February 11, 2019: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Aniela Petrescu, Pedro Santos, Marta Orlowska, João Pedrosa, Stéphanie Bézy, Bidisha Chakraborty, Marta Cvijic, Monica Dobrovie, Michel Delforge, Jan D'hooge, Jens-Uwe Voigt
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate whether velocity of naturally occurring myocardial shear waves (SW) could relate to myocardial stiffness (MS) in vivo. BACKGROUND: Cardiac SW imaging has been proposed as a noninvasive tool to assess MS. SWs occur after mechanical excitation of the myocardium (e.g., mitral valve closure [MVC] and aortic valve closure [AVC]), and their propagation velocity is theoretically related to MS, thus providing an opportunity to assess stiffness at end-diastole (ED) and end-systole...
February 11, 2019: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Shanna Hamilton, Iuliia Polina, Radmila Terentyeva, Peter Bronk, Tae Yun Kim, Karim Roder, Richard T Clements, Gideon Koren, Bum-Rak Choi, Dmitry Terentyev
KEY POINTS SUMMARY: Small-conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ (SK) channels expressed in ventricular myocytes are dormant in health yet become functional in cardiac disease. SK channels are voltage independent and their gating is controlled by intracellular [Ca2+ ] in a biphasic manner. Submicromolar [Ca2+ ] activates the channel via constitutively-bound calmodulin, while higher [Ca2+ ] exerts inhibitory effect during depolarization. Using a rat model of cardiac hypertrophy induced by thoracic aortic banding, we found that functional upregulation of SK2 channels in hypertrophic rat ventricular cardiomyocytes is driven by PKA phosphorylation...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Lukas Chmielewski, Michael Bietenbeck, Alexandru Patrascu, Sabine Rösch, Udo Sechtem, Ali Yilmaz, Anca-Rezeda Florian
BACKGROUND: Cardiac involvement in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1) includes conduction disease, arrhythmias, and left-ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction leading to an increased sudden cardiac death risk. An understanding of the interplay between electrical and structural myocardial changes could improve the prediction of adverse cardiac events. We aimed to explore the relationship between signs of cardiomyopathy by conventional and advanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), and electrical abnormalities in MD1...
February 14, 2019: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Julio A Chirinos, Priyanka Bhattacharya, Anupam Kumar, Elizabeth Proto, Prasad Konda, Patrick Segers, Scott R Akers, Raymond R Townsend, Payman Zamani
Background Heterogeneity in the underlying processes that contribute to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction ( HF p EF ) is increasingly recognized. Diabetes mellitus is a frequent comorbidity in HF p EF , but its impact on left ventricular and arterial structure and function in HF p EF is unknown. Methods and Results We assessed the impact of diabetes mellitus on left ventricular cellular and interstitial hypertrophy (assessed with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, including T1 mapping pregadolinium and postgadolinium administration), arterial stiffness (assessed with arterial tonometry), and pulsatile arterial hemodynamics (assessed with in-office pressure-flow analyses and 24-hour ambulatory monitoring) among 53 subjects with HF p EF (32 diabetic and 21 nondiabetic subjects)...
February 19, 2019: Journal of the American Heart Association
René P Andrié, Thomas Beiert, Vincent Knappe, Markus Linhart, Florian Stöckigt, Alexandra M Klein, Alexander Ghanem, Indra Lübkemeier, Wilhelm Röll, Georg Nickenig, Bernd K Fleischmann, Jan W Schrickel
BACKGROUND: Clinical and experimental data give evidence that transplantation of stem and progenitor cells in myocardial infarction could be beneficial, although the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. Ventricular tachyarrhythmia is the most frequent and potentially lethal complication of myocardial infarction, but the impact of mono nuclear cells on the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia is still not clear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize the influence of splenic mononuclear cell populations on ventricular arrhythmia after myocardial infarction...
2019: PloS One
Sukhi Singh, Tor Damén, Mikael Dellborg, Anders Jeppsson, Andreas Nygren
BACKGROUND: New approaches to prevent bleeding complications during cardiac surgery are needed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if noradrenaline (NA) enhances platelet aggregation in CABG patients. PATIENTS/METHODS: Twenty-four CABG patients were included in a prospective parallel-group randomized study. All patients but one, were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). In the treatment group (n=12), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was maintained at pre-induction levels by NA infusion...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Megan Schmidt, Mark A Benscoter, Paul Anthony Iaizzo
OBJECTIVE: The ability to monitor catheter contact force (CF) plays a major role in assessing radiofrequency ablation, impacting lesion size and arrhythmia recurrence, and dictating ablation duration and/or overall patient safety. Our study sought to determine the relative CFs required to elicit reproducible monophasic action potential (MAP) recordings. METHODS: The study utilized 4 swine in which: 1) median sternotomies were performed and MAPs were collected from 7 ventricular locations on the epicardial surface of each heart, and 2) a subset of endocardial signals was recorded from a reanimated heart...
February 14, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Yueli Cui, Yuxuan Zheng, Xixi Liu, Liying Yan, Xiaoying Fan, Jun Yong, Yuqiong Hu, Ji Dong, Qingqing Li, Xinglong Wu, Shuai Gao, Jingyun Li, Lu Wen, Jie Qiao, Fuchou Tang
The heart is the central organ of the circulatory system, and its proper development is vital for maintaining human life. Here, we used single-cell RNA sequencing to profile the gene expression landscapes of ∼4,000 cardiac cells from human embryos and identified four major types of cells: cardiomyocytes (CMs), cardiac fibroblasts, endothelial cells (ECs), and valvar interstitial cells (VICs). Atrial and ventricular CMs acquired distinct features early in heart development. Furthermore, both CMs and fibroblasts show stepwise changes in gene expression...
February 12, 2019: Cell Reports
Christoph Gräni, Loïc Bière, Christian Eichhorn, Kyoichi Kaneko, Vikram Agarwal, Ayaz Aghayev, Michael Steigner, Ron Blankstein, Michael Jerosch-Herold, Raymond Y Kwong
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has become a key investigative tool in patients with suspected myocarditis. However, the prognostic implications of T1 mapping, including extracellular volume (ECV) calculation, is less clear. Patients with suspected myocarditis who underwent CMR evaluation, including T1 mapping at our institution were included. CMR findings including late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), native T1 mapping, and ECV calculation were associated with first major adverse cardiac events (MACE)...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Fritz Christian Roller, Sven Fuest, Marco Meyer, Sebastian Harth, Dursun Gündüz, Pascal Bauer, Christian Schneider, Arndt Rolfs, Gabriele Anja Krombach, Christian Tanislav
PURPOSE:  Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked multi-organ disorder of lysosomal metabolism with cardiac disease being the leading cause of death. Identifying early FD-specific pathologies is important in the context of maximum therapeutic benefit in these stages. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the value of quantitative cardiac T1 mapping as a potential disease-specific surrogate. METHODS:  16 consecutive FD patients (9 female, 7 male; median age: 54 years, IQR 17) and 16 control patients (9 female, 7 male; median age: 52 years, IQR 20) were investigated at 1...
February 12, 2019: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Michele Orini, Joseph Yanni, Peter Taggart, Ben Hanson, Martin Hayward, Andrew Smith, Henggui Zhang, Michael Colman, Gareth Jones, Xiao Jie, Halina Dobrzynski, Mark R Boyett, Pier D Lambiase
Aims: Action potential duration (APD) alternans is an established precursor or arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Important differences in fundamental electrophysiological properties relevant to arrhythmia exist between experimental models and the diseased in vivo human heart. To investigate mechanisms of APD alternans using a novel approach combining intact heart and cellular cardiac electrophysiology in human in vivo. Methods and results: We developed a novel approach combining intact heart electrophysiological mapping during cardiac surgery with rapid on-site data analysis to guide myocardial biopsies for laboratory analysis, thereby linking repolarization dynamics observed at the organ level with underlying ion channel expression...
February 8, 2019: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
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