Read by QxMD icon Read

Human exposure

Hyojin Ko, Kasinan Suthiwanich, Héloïse Mary, Somayeh Zanganeh, Shu-Kai Hu, Samad Ahadian, Yunzhi Peter Yang, Goro Choi, Kirsten Fetah, Yuting Niu, Jeremy Mao, Ali Khademhosseini
Physicochemical and biological gradients are desirable features for hydrogels to enhance their relevance to biological environments for three-dimensional (3D) cell culture. Therefore, simple and efficient techniques to generate chemical, physical and biological gradients within hydrogels are highly desirable. This work demonstrates a technique to generate biomolecular and mechanical gradients in photocrosslinkable hydrogels by stacking and crosslinking prehydrogel solution in a layer by layer manner. Partial crosslinking of the hydrogel allows mixing of prehydrogel solution with the previous hydrogel layer, which makes a smooth gradient profile, rather than discrete layers...
February 20, 2019: Biofabrication
Sara Post, Henry A Spiller, Thitphalak Chounthirath, Gary A Smith
CONTEXT: Kratom, or Mitragyna speciosa, is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia that has gained national attention in the United States for its increased use in the self-management of opioid withdrawal and pain, as well as for concerns about its safety. METHODS: This study analyzes exposures to kratom reported to poison control centers (PCCs) in the United States during 2011-2017 from the National Poison Data System (NPDS). DISCUSSION: From 2011 through 2017, 1807 kratom exposures were reported to United States PCCs...
February 20, 2019: Clinical Toxicology
Doyoung Kwon, Yeon-Mi Lim, Jung-Taek Kwon, Ilseob Shim, Eunji Kim, Doo-Hee Lee, Byung-Il Yoon, Pilje Kim, Hyun-Mi Kim
Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a widely used disinfectant/preservative, and respiratory exposure to this compound has been reported to be highly toxic. Spray-form household products have been known to contain BAC together with triethylene glycol (TEG) in their solutions. The purpose of this study was to estimate the toxicity of BAC and TEG mixtures to pulmonary organs using in vitro and in vivo experiments. Human alveolar epithelial (A549) cells incubated with BAC (1-10 μg/mL) for 24 hours showed significant cytotoxicity, while TEG (up to 1000 μg/mL) did not affect cell viability...
February 20, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Elyce Cardonick, Robert Broadrup, Peining Xu, Mary T Doan, Helen Jiang, Nathaniel W Snyder
OBJECTIVE: Cancer diagnosis during pregnancy occurs in 1 out of 1000 pregnancies with common malignancies including breast and hematological cancers. Fetal exposure to currently utilized agents is poorly described. We directly assessed fetal exposure by screening meconium from 23 newborns whose mothers had undergone treatment for cancer during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Meconium was collected from newborns whose mothers were diagnosed with cancer during pregnancy and underwent chemotherapy in the second or third trimester as part of the Cancer and Pregnancy Registry...
2019: PloS One
Chuan-Hai Li, Xiao-Min Ren, Liang-Hong Guo
Hexafluoropropylene oxide trimer acid (HFPO-TA) and hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA) have been used as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) alternatives in the fluoropolymer industry for years. Their widespread environmental distribution, high bioaccumulation capability and human exposure have caused great concern. Nevertheless, their potential toxicity and health risk remain largely unknown. In the present study, we compared potential disruption effects of HFPO-TA, HFPO-DA and PFOA on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) via the investigation of receptor binding, receptor activity and cell adipogenesis effects...
February 20, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Tom Vardy, Quentin D Atkinson
The persistent threat of natural disasters and their attendant resource shocks has likely shaped our prosocial drives throughout human evolution. However, it remains unclear how specific experiences during these events might impact cooperative decision making. We conducted two waves of four modified dictator-game experiments with the same individuals in Vanuatu ( N = 164), before and after Cyclone Pam in 2015. After the cyclone, participants were generally less likely to show prosocial motives toward both in-group and out-group members and more likely to show parochialism when sharing between groups...
February 20, 2019: Psychological Science
Olga Bondareva, Roman Tsaryk, Vesna Bojovic, Maria Odenthal-Schnittler, Arndt F Siekmann, Hans-J Schnittler
AIM: Oscillatory shear stress (OSS) is an atheroprone hemodynamic force that occurs in areas of vessel irregularities and is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Changes in signaling and transcriptional program in response to OSS have been vigorously studied, however, the underlying changes in the chromatin landscape controlling transcription remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the changes in the regulatory element (RE) landscape of endothelial cells under atheroprone OSS conditions in an in vitro model...
February 20, 2019: Cardiovascular Research
Shuyun Liu, Meng Zhao, Yijie Zhou, Chengshi Wang, Yujia Yuan, Lan Li, William Bresette, Younan Chen, Jingqiu Cheng, Yanrong Lu, Jingping Liu
BACKGROUND: Renal fibrosis is the pathological feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD) which leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and renal failure. Resveratrol [3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene (RSV)] has shown benefits for metabolic diseases and anti-cancer therapy, but its potential risk on renal health has not been fully evaluated. PURPOSE: To investigate the global effects of RSV on renal fibrosis in human tubular epithelial cell (TEC) line HK-2, and in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)...
December 17, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Tuong-Vi Nguyen, Benoît Jutras, Patricia Monnier, Gina Muckle, Maria Velez, Tye E Arbuckle, Dave Saint-Amour
Sex differences in inner-ear function are detectable in infants, notably through the measurement of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Prevailing theories posit that prenatal exposure to high levels of androgens in boys may weaken OAEs, and that this phenomenon may predominantly affect the right ear/left hemisphere (Geschwind-Galaburda (GG) hypothesis). Yet, actual tests of these models have been difficult to implement in humans. Here we examined the relationship between markers of fetal androgen exposure collected at birth (anogenital distances (AGD); penile length/width, areolar/scrotal/vulvar pigmentation) and at 6 months of age (2nd to 4th digit ratio (2D:4D)) with two types of OAEs, click-evoked OAEs (CEOAEs) and distortion-product OAEs (DPOAEs) (n = 49; 25 boys; 24 girls)...
February 14, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Yan Zhang, Bin Xu, Zifang Guo, Jichang Han, Huanhuan Li, Lan Jin, Feng Chen, Yuqing Xiong
The groundwater is an important route of human exposure to kinds of contaminants. This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence and spatial distribution of groundwater arsenic in the Jinghui irrigation district in Shaanxi Province, China. The water contamination was assessed for drinking purposes by comparing it to national guidelines, and the impacts of arsenic on human health were quantified using the health risk assessment model recommended by the USEPA. The results show that the concentration of groundwater arsenic ranges from 0...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Patrick Ssebugere, Mika Sillanpää, Henry Matovu, Edward Mubiru
This paper reviews literature for the last two decades with emphasis on levels, toxic equivalencies and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in Africa. Further, we comprehensively analysed data, interpret differences and identify existing gaps with those from other continents. We observed that high levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were reported in environmental and biological samples near densely populated urban and industrialised areas compared to those in rural settings...
February 13, 2019: Chemosphere
Ruixia Wang, Rui Chen, Youfeng Wang, Lan Chen, Jiyan Qiao, Ru Bai, Guanglu Ge, Guohua Qin, Chunying Chen
Particulate matter (PM) exposure poses many adverse effects on human health. However, it is challenging to clearly differentiate between the contributions of individual pollutants on toxicity from complex mixtures of ambient air pollutants. The aim of this study is to generate aerosols constituted by silica nanoparticles (NPs) and bisulfate to serve as simulators of particle-associated high-sulfur air pollution. Then, the health impacts of sulfur dioxide were evaluated at the cellular level using an air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure chamber...
February 7, 2019: Chemosphere
Elizabeth G Radke, Joseph M Braun, John D Meeker, Glinda S Cooper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2019: Environment International
Hai Nie, Eva Kubrova, Tao Wu, Janet M Denbeigh, Christine Hunt, Allan B Dietz, Jay Smith, Wenchun Qu, Andre J van Wijnen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the biological effects of lidocaine on the viability, proliferation and function of human adipose-tissue derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. METHODS: Adipose-derived MSCs from three donors were exposed to lidocaine at various dilutions (2mg/ml-8mg/ml) and exposure times (0.5 to 4 hours). Cell number and viability, mitochondrial activity, and quantitative real time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were analyzed at 0 (immediate effects) or 24 and 48 hours (recovery effects) after treatment with lidocaine...
February 19, 2019: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Wei Wei, Shujuan Pang, Dianjun Sun
Fluorine is one of the trace elements necessary for health. It has many physiological functions, and participates in normal metabolism. However, fluorine has paradoxical effects on the body. Many studies have shown that tissues and organs of humans and animals appear to suffer different degrees of damage after long-term direct or indirect exposure to more fluoride than required to meet the physiological demand. Although the aetiology of endemic fluorosis is clear, its specific pathogenesis is inconclusive. In the past 5 years, many researchers have conducted in-depth studies into the pathogenesis of endemic fluorosis...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Tian-Tian Zuo, Yao-Lei Li, Huai-Zhen He, Hong-Yu Jin, Lei Zhang, Lei Sun, Fei Gao, Qi Wang, Yuan-Jun Shen, Shuang-Cheng Ma, Lang-Chong He
Little is known about the extent of heavy metal accumulation in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). In this study, the levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg) in traditional animal medicines were monitored using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Additionally, for the first time, a heavy metal risk assessment strategy was used to evaluate the potential risks of traditional animal medicines by calculating estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), and cancer risk (CR)...
February 19, 2019: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yukiko Yano, Hasmik Grigoryan, Courtney Schiffman, William Edmands, Lauren Petrick, Katie Hall, Todd Whitehead, Catherine Metayer, Sandrine Dudoit, Stephen Rappaport
Metabolism of chemicals from the diet, exposures to xenobiotics, the microbiome, and lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking, alcohol intake) produce electrophiles that react with nucleophilic sites in circulating proteins, notably Cys34 of human serum albumin (HSA). To discover potential risk factors resulting from in utero exposures, we are investigating HSA-Cys34 adducts in archived newborn dried blood spots (DBS) that reflect systemic exposures during the last month of gestation. The workflow includes extraction of proteins from DBS, measurement of hemoglobin (Hb) to normalize for blood volume, addition of methanol to enrich HSA by precipitation of Hb and other interfering proteins, digestion with trypsin, and detection of HSA-Cys34 adducts via nanoflow liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry...
February 19, 2019: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Joseph V Rodricks
Federal regulatory agencies had, by the 1970s, been charged with enforcing a host of new laws requiring that they establish controls on human exposures to chemicals necessary to protect health. The agencies relied upon a methodology introduced in the 1950s to identify safe levels of exposure to chemicals known to display toxicity. During the 2 decades prior to the 1970s, federal authorities had come to treat carcinogens as distinct from other toxic agents, and to regard them as unsafe at any level of exposure, and no systematic methods had been developed to deal with the rapidly increasing numbers of carcinogens...
January 2019: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
Katie A O'Brien, R Andrew Atkinson, Larissa Richardson, Albert Koulman, Andrew J Murray, Stephen D R Harridge, Daniel S Martin, Denny Z H Levett, Kay Mitchell, Monty G Mythen, Hugh E Montgomery, Michael P W Grocott, Julian L Griffin, Lindsay M Edwards
At high altitude oxygen delivery to the tissues is impaired leading to oxygen insufficiency (hypoxia). Acclimatisation requires adjustment to tissue metabolism, the details of which remain incompletely understood. Here, metabolic responses to progressive environmental hypoxia were assessed through metabolomic and lipidomic profiling of human plasma taken from 198 human participants before and during an ascent to Everest Base Camp (5,300 m). Aqueous and lipid fractions of plasma were separated and analysed using proton (1 H)-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and direct infusion mass spectrometry, respectively...
February 19, 2019: Scientific Reports
Vasti Aguayo, Bianca N Valdés Fernandez, Madeline Rodríguez-Valentín, Caleb Ruiz-Jiménez, Marcos J Ramos-Benítez, Loyda B Méndez, Ana M Espino
Parasitic helminths and helminth-derived molecules have demonstrated to possess powerful anti-inflammatory properties and confirmed therapeutic effects on inflammatory diseases. The helminth Fasciola hepatica has been reported to suppress specific Th1 specific immune responses induced by concurrent bacterial infections, thus demonstrating its anti-inflammatory ability in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that native F. hepatica glutathione S-transferase (nFhGST), a major parasite excretory-secretory antigen, majorly comprised of Mu-class GST isoforms, significantly suppresses the LPS-induced TNFα and IL1β of mouse bone-marrow derived macrophages in vitro and the pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine storm within C57BL/6 mice exposed to lethal doses of LPS increasing their survival rate by more than 85%...
February 19, 2019: Scientific Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"