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Tomasz Boruta, Marcin Bizukojc
Aluminum oxide nanoparticles were supplemented to Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 precultures and the outcomes of the process were evaluated relative to the results of microparticle-enhanced and standard cultivations. The selected morphological parameters of fungal pellets (projected area, elongation, convexity, and shape factor) were monitored throughout the experiment, together with biomass, lactose, and lovastatin concentration. The qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis was performed with the use of liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry...
2019: BioMed Research International
David D Waters, Priscilla Y Hsue
Lipid abnormalities are prevalent among persons living with HIV infection and contribute to increasing the risk of cardiovascular events. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with lipid abnormalities, most commonly hypertriglyceridemia, but also increases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol. Different classes of ART, and different drugs within classes, have differing effects on lipid levels, but in general newer drugs have more favourable effects compared with older ones. Low-level inflammation and chronic immune activation act on lipids through a variety of mechanisms to make them more atherogenic...
November 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Edgardo Molina-Sotomayor, Rocío Arreguín-Moreno, Fernando Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Francisco Pradas, Juan Antonio León, José Antonio González-Jurado
INTRODUCTION: The deterioration of cognition is highly predominant in older adults. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a walking program on the cognition and blood concentration of lipids in women over 60 years of age who were being treated with lovastatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were distributed in two groups: An exercise group (EG, n=45) with aerobic training and an inactive sedentary group (SG, n=22)...
December 1, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Sonal Goswami, Sheridan Cavalier, Vinay Sridhar, Kimberly M Huber, Jay R Gibson
Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings in Fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients have revealed enhanced sensory responses, enhanced resting "gamma frequency" (30-100 Hz) activity, and a decreased ability for sensory stimuli to modulate cortical activity at gamma frequencies. Similar changes are observed in the FXS model mouse - the Fmr1 knockout. These alterations may become effective biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment of FXS. Therefore, it is critical to better understand what circuit properties underlie these changes...
January 8, 2019: Neurobiology of Disease
Lucie Novosvětská, Petr Chocholouš, František Švec, Hana Sklenářová
A fully automated method for the determination of lovastatin in dietary supplements containing red yeast rice has been developed. It uses a sequential injection analysis system combined with solid-phase extraction applying highly selective molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent. A miniaturized column for on-line extraction was prepared by packing 4.5 mg of the sorbent in a 5.0 × 2.5-mm-i.d. cartridge, which was used in the flow manifold. Sequential injection analysis manifold enabled all steps of lovastatin extraction and continuous spectrophotometric detection at 240 nm...
January 7, 2019: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
S I Piskov, L D Timchenko, I V Rzhepakovsky, S S Avanesyan, M N Sizonenko, D A Areshidze, D A Kovalev
The aim of this research was to study the influence of two drying methods: freeze-drying sublimation and dry-air drying on the selected nutritional properties and hypolipidemic potential of fruiting bodies of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). The criteria for evaluation of the food properties were the color, the morphological structure, regidratation capacity, the total level of soluble proteins, fats, polysaccharides, free amino acids and monosaccharides. Lipid-lowering potential of oyster mushroom was evaluated by the concentration of lovastatin and the level of antioxidant activity...
2018: Voprosy Pitaniia
T D Turner, L E Hatcher, C C Wilson, K J Roberts
An analysis of the important intermolecular interactions of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) lovastatin which contribute to the surface chemistry and attachment energy morphology is presented. The analysis is supported by a recent redetermination of the single crystal structure (orthorhombic space group P212121) and targets the understanding and potential control of the morphology of lovastatin, which tends to crystallise in a needle-like morphology, where the aspect ratio varies depending on the nature of the solvent...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Leisan F Galiullina, Holger A Scheidt, Daniel Huster, Albert Aganov, Vladimir Klochkov
Statins are drugs that specifically inhibit the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase and thereby reduce the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which represents a well-established risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. The results of several clinical trials have shown that there are important intermolecular differences responsible for the broader pharmacologic actions of statins, even beyond HMG-CoA reductase inhibition. According to one hypothesis, the biological effects exerted by these compounds depend on their localization in the cellular membrane...
December 19, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Biomembranes
Xiao Zou, Junwei Shao, Qi Wang, Peisai Chen, Yanchun Zhu, Changxi Yin
Cytokinins (CKs), a class of phytohormone, regulate root growth in a dose-dependent manner. A certain threshold content of CK is required for rapid root growth, but supraoptimal CK content inhibits root growth, and the mechanism of this inhibition remains unclear in rice. In this study, treatments of lovastatin (an inhibitor of CK biosynthesis) and kinetin (KT; a synthetic CK) were found to inhibit rice seminal root growth in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that endogenous CK content is optimal for rapid growth of the seminal root in rice...
December 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Anna Sokalska, Amanda B Hawkins, Toshia Yamaguchi, Antoni J Duleba
PURPOSE: To compare effects of lipid-soluble statins (simvastatin, lovastatin, atorvastatin) and water-soluble statin (pravastatin) on growth and invasiveness of human endometrial stromal (HES) cells. METHODS: Endometrial biopsies were collected during the proliferative phase from five volunteers. HES cells were isolated and cultured in the absence or in the presence of simvastatin, lovastatin, atorvastatin, and pravastatin. Effects of statins on DNA synthesis, cell viability, activity of caspases 3/7 and invasiveness were evaluated...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Lei Wang, Meijuan Yuan, Jianting Zheng
The highly reducing iterative polyketide synthases responsible for lovastatin biosynthesis contains a section homologous to condensation (CON) domain observed in nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). In the present study, we expressed the isolated lovastatin CON domain and solved the crystal structure to 1.79 Å resolution. The overall structure shows similarity to canonical condensation domains of NRPSs, containing the N-terminal and C-terminal subdomains that resemble enzymes of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase family, whereas distinct structural features are observed at the active site...
March 2019: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Patrícia M R Pereira, Sai Kiran Sharma, Lukas M Carter, Kimberly J Edwards, Jacob Pourat, Ashwin Ragupathi, Yelena Y Janjigian, Jeremy C Durack, Jason S Lewis
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene amplification and/or protein overexpression in tumors is a prerequisite for initiation of trastuzumab therapy. Although HER2 is a cell membrane receptor, differential rates of endocytosis and recycling engender a dynamic surface pool of HER2. Since trastuzumab must bind to the extracellular domain of HER2, a depressed HER2 surface pool hinders binding. Using in vivo biological models and cultures of fresh human tumors, we find that the caveolin-1 (CAV1) protein is involved in HER2 cell membrane dynamics within the context of receptor endocytosis...
December 3, 2018: Nature Communications
Li Dong, Liying Xue, Cuiying Zhang, Hui Li, Zhihui Cai, Ruifang Guo
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) has been reported to promote the growth and inhibit apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Immunostaining of the tissue array demonstrated that HSP90 was upregulated in HCC clinical samples and was associated with clinical features. HSP90 interacted with 3‑hydroxy‑3‑methylglutaryl‑CoA reductase (HMGCR), the rate‑limiting enzyme of mevalonate pathway, in the immunoprecipitation assay and regulated its protein expression level by inhibiting protein degradation...
November 19, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Wenqiang Wang, Qunqun Hao, Wenlong Wang, Qinxue Li, Fengjuan Chen, Fei Ni, Yong Wang, Daolin Fu, Jiajie Wu, Wei Wang
In the present study on a wheat stay-green mutant, tasg1, we found that its delayed senescence at the late filling stage was related to the high cytokinin (CK) and N contents. RNA sequencing suggested that several genes may be responsible for the different senescence processes between wild-type (WT) and tasg1 plants. WT and tasg1 seedlings were treated with NH4 NO3 , lovastatin, and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), and the results suggested that the feedback of CK with N content regulated the leaf senescence in the tasg1 plants...
January 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Yazeng Huang, Jun Zhang, Haiyu Shao, Jianwen Liu, Mengran Jin, Jinping Chen, Hongying Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Preventing cell metastasis is an effective therapeutic strategy to treat osteosarcoma and improve prognosis. Statins have been found to have anticancer effects in addition to their cholesterol-lowering action. As a new target of statins, cysteine-rich 61 (CYR61) was recently identified to promote cell migration and metastasis in osteosarcoma. However, the underlying mechanisms mediating the regulation of CYR61 expression by statins remain unknown. METHODS: Human osteosarcoma cell lines MG63 and SaOS2 were used to clarify the effect of lovastatin on CYR61 expression...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Hayato Akimoto, Akio Negishi, Shinji Oshima, Mitsuyoshi Okita, Sachihiko Numajiri, Naoko Inoue, Shigeru Ohshima, Daisuke Kobayashi
To evaluate the onset timing of musculoskeletal adverse events (MAEs) that develop during statin monotherapy and to determine whether concomitant drugs used concurrently with statin therapy shifts the onset timing of MAEs. Cases in which statins (atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin, lovastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin, and pravastatin) were prescribed were extracted from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) Data Files. The onset timing of MAEs during statin monotherapy was evaluated by determining the difference between statin start date and MAE onset date...
December 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Lu Lu, Huimei Yi, Chao Chen, Shichao Yan, Hui Yao, Guangchun He, Guifei Li, Yiqun Jiang, Tuo Deng, Xiyun Deng
The nucleolus is a dynamic structure that has roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Perturbations on many aspects of the nucleolar functions are thought to cause "nucleolar stress", which occurs in response to a variety of chemotherapeutic drugs. The main characteristic changes of nucleolar stress include: 1) reduction of the size and volume of the nucleolus; 2) inhibition of RNA Pol I-mediated rRNA synthesis; and 3) nucleoplasmic translocation of nucleolar stress-related proteins...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Hiroya Itoh, Makoto Matsui, Yuki Miyamura, Itaru Takeda, Jun Ishii, Toshitaka Kumagai, Masayuki Machida, Takashi Shibata, Masanori Arita
For many secondary metabolites, heterologous synthesis is the definitive step to determine their required biosynthetic genes. Using a multivector expression system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we reconstituted not only two natural statins from two fungal species, i.e., lovastatin from Aspergillus terreus and FR901512 from Xylaria grammica, but also new statin structures by mixing their genes. Combinatorial gene exchange experiments revealed the functional promiscuity of two polyketide synthases in A. terreus, lovB, and lovF; they could synthesize FR901512 with Xylaria genes...
November 13, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Yuan Yuan Pan, Gang Liu
More than half of the activity secondary metabolites from microorganisms are produced by filamentous fungi. The metabolites that are well known include penicillin, cyclosporine A, lovastatin, and so on. Due to their importance in agriculture, medicine and industry, biosynthesis and regulation of these fungal secondary metabolites have attracted much attention. The biosynthesis of fungal secondary metabolites is a complex process which generally includes multistep enzymatic reactions. Commonly, the process is controlled by elaborate regulations at different levels...
October 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Jun-X Lu, Chao Guo, Wen-S Ou, Yun Jing, Hui-F Niu, Ping Song, Quan-Z Li, Zhan Liu, Jian Xu, Peng Li, Mo-L Zhu, Ya-L Yin
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a chronical inflammatory disease in arterial walls, which is involved in oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. Aromatherapy is one of the complementary therapies that use essential oils as the major therapeutic agents to treat several diseases. Citronellal (CT) is a monoterpene predominantly formed by the secondary metabolism of plants, producing antithrombotic, antiplatelet, and antihypertensive activities. AIM: The aim of the present study is to explore whether aromatherapy with CT improves endothelial function to prevent the formation of atherosclerotic plaque in vivo...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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