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Geeta Karyakarte, Alka Dive, Ashish Bodhade, Shubhangi Khandekar
In today's era of forensic investigations, hard copies of forensic data have been replaced by digital records. However, wide availability of image processing software makes digital image manipulation an easy and low-cost way to distort or conceal facts. This review article aims to understand fraudulence in the digital records in forensic odontology and the various ways to detect as well as prevent it to an appreciable extent. Types of image fraudulence, ways to detect this fraudulence, and measures to prevent it to an appreciable extent have been discussed...
May 2018: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Zong-Fei Qu, Zhi-Chao Jia, Lu Jiang
Lucanidae have long received great attention for their adults. However, differentiating between the larvae of stag beetles is difficult and remains unsatisfactorily resolved due to the microscopic features separating groups. In the current study, the larvae of Prismognathus dauricus Motschulsky, 1860 were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. The larvae of P. dauricus are atypical for the following characters: i) the epipharynx possesses anteriorly eleven protophoba arranged in a semi-round line; ii) the par stridens consists of 31 ± 0...
February 4, 2019: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Ken-Ichi Sato, Alexander A Tokmakov
Studies on the egg plasma membrane-associated tyrosine kinase Src have shed light on the identity of the molecular machinery that is responsible for gamete interaction and possibly fusion in African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. Here we describe our protocol for identifying and analyzing molecular and cellular machinery that contributes to a variety of biological processes in the course of oogenesis, oocyte maturation, egg fertilization, and early embryogenesis in Xenopus. Our current special interest is to evaluate the hypothesis that the oocyte/egg membrane microdomain (MD)-associated uroplakin III-Src system is responsible for mediating sperm-egg membrane interaction/fusion signal to the oocyte/egg cytoplasm to initiate embryonic and zygotic development in this species...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rino Frisina, Elisabetta Pilotto, Luigi Tozzi, Raffaele Parrozzani, Edoardo Midena
The authors developed a new surgical technique of retropupillary implantation of an iris-claw intraocular lens (RP-ICIOL). RP-ICIOL is an alternative surgical option to the scleral-fixation technique for the treatment of aphakia without capsular support. Several studies have shown that RP-ICIOL is efficient and safe. However, although it is easier to perform than scleral fixation, it presents some critical issues related to the enclavation procedure. The success of the correct enclavation without excessive surgical manipulations, with subsequent pigment dispersion and without pupil distortion, is highly related to the surgical skills of the individual surgeon...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
P Nick Nation, Colleen Cassady St Clair
Dismembered cats ( Felis catus) have been found in North American schoolyards, parks, walkways, or lawns and sometimes result in local media attention. When a member of the public encounters these cats, they commonly report finding either the cranial or caudal half of a cat in a prominent location. Such findings cause public consternation and pose difficulties to investigators in identifying whether animal abuse has occurred and whether to concentrate resources on the investigation. This report describes necropsy results from 53 cats involved in such instances in the cities of Edmonton and St...
February 5, 2019: Veterinary Pathology
Shige-Hiro Sugiyama, Yukiko Yasui, Suzuha Ohmori, Wakana Tanaka, Hiro-Yuki Hirano
The ABC model in flower development represents a milestone of plant developmental studies and is essentially conserved across a wide range of angiosperm species. Despite this overall conservation, individual genes in the ABC model are not necessarily conserved and sometimes plays a species-specific role, depending on the plant. We previously reported that carpels are specified by the YABBY gene DROOPING LEAF (DL) in rice (Oryza sativa), which bears flowers that are distinct from those of eudicots. By contrast, another group reported that carpels are specified by two class C genes, OsMADS3 and OsMADS58...
February 1, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
Lucas Rezende Penido Paschoal, Fernando José Zara
Sexual differentiation and primary and secondary sexual characteristics in male crustaceans are modulated by hormones produced in the androgenic gland (AG). The AG is also responsible for the determination of morphotypes in caridean shrimps, such as Macrobrachium amazonicum that shows four morphotypes: translucent claw (TC), cinnamon claw (CC), green claw 1 (GC1) and green claw 2 (GC2). Here, we verified the anatomical, histological and ultrastructural characteristics of the AG in different morphotypes of this species with both amphidromous and hololimnetic life cycles...
January 30, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Sharon Pike, Michaela S Matthes, Paula McSteen, Walter Gassmann
Functionally characterizing plant membrane transport proteins is challenging. Typically, heterologous systems are used to study them. Immature eggs (oocytes) of the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis are considered an ideal expression system for such studies. These large oocytes have a low number of endogenous transport systems in their plasma membranes and highly express foreign mRNA; the oocyte plasma membrane is the default destination of integral membrane proteins that lack recognized organellar sorting signals...
February 1, 2019: Current Protocols in Plant Biology
Helen R Petty, Trishna Rathod-Mistry, Hylton B Menz, Edward Roddy
Background: Gout frequently affects the foot yet relatively little is known about the effects of gout on foot structure, pain and functional ability. This study aimed to describe the impact of gout in a UK primary care population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was nested within an observational cohort study of adults aged ≥50 years with foot pain. Participants with gout were identified through their primary care medical records and each matched on age (±2 years) and gender to four participants without gout...
2019: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
Patricia Ruth Yvonne Backwell
Many animals that use acoustic communication synchronize their mate attraction signals: individuals precisely time their calls to overlap those of their neighbors. In contrast, synchrony in the mate attraction displays of species with visual/motion-based signals is rare. It has only been documented in five species of fiddler crabs. In all of them, small groups of males wave their single large claw in close synchrony. Here, I review what we know about synchrony in fiddler crabs, comparing the five species with each other to determine whether similar mechanisms and functions are common to all...
February 2019: Current Zoology
M Hässig, D Depka, G Boo, S I Fabrikant, P R Torgerson
In the present study, the incidence of diseases in cattle in the area of a veterinary practice was analyzed spatially. Furthermore, the relationship between the incidence of diseases and the distance to geographical elements was investigated. For this study, all cattle farms that were customers of the ambulatory clinic of the animal hospital in Zurich (Tierspital Zürich) were exactly localized on a map. From clinical and treatment data program (Oblon Data®) all services and drugs between January 1st 2013 and December 31st 2013 were evaluated and added as attributes to the according farm...
February 2019: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Jan Tauchen
BACKGROUND: Migraine may be described as a headache with moderate to extreme pain that is often accompanied by incapacitating neurological symptoms. It is estimated that 12% of the world population suffers from migraine. Although a number of drugs have been used for treatment of migraine, most of these are not effective for every patient and may have undesirable side-effects. Thus there is an enormous unmet need in current migraine therapy for discovering safer and more effective agents...
January 25, 2019: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Liesa Schnee, Benjamin Sampalla, Josef K Müller, Oliver Betz
Our aim was to compare friction and traction forces between two burying beetle species of the genus Nicrophorus exhibiting different attachment abilities during climbing. Specifically, the interaction of adhesive hairs and claws during attachment with respect to various surface properties was investigated by using a 2 × 3 experimental design. Traction force was measured for two different surface energies (hydrophilic vs hydrophobic) varying in roughness from smooth to micro-rough to rough. Nanotribometric tests on single legs were also performed...
2019: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Yong-Lai Zhang, Ye Tian, Huan Wang, Zhuo-Chen Ma, Dong-Dong Han, Li-Gang Niu, Qi-Dai Chen, Hong-Bo Sun
Strategies that can make general materials smart are highly desired for developing artificial shape-morphing systems and devices. However, at present, it still lacks universal technologies that enable designable prototyping of deformable 3D micronanostructures. Inspired by natural automation systems, for instance, tendrils, leaves and flowers deform dynamically under external stimuli by varying internal turgor, we report a dual-3D femtosecond laser processing strategy for fabricating smart and deformable 3D micro-actuators based on general photopolymers...
January 24, 2019: ACS Nano
Ashrenee Govender, Johan Groeneveld, Sohana Singh, Sandi Willows-Munro
Full-length mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequence information from lobster phyllosoma larvae can be difficult to obtain when DNA is degraded or fragmented. Primers that amplify smaller fragments are also more useful in metabarcoding studies. In this study, we developed and tested a method to design a taxon-specific mini-barcode primer set for marine lobsters. The shortest, most informative portion of the COI gene region was identified in silico, and a DNA barcode gap analysis was performed to assess its reliability as species diagnostic marker...
2019: PloS One
Fabricio H Santos, Cristina A Rheims
Spiders of the family Philodromidae are free-living active predators, with laterigrade legs, eyes without tubercles, two tarsal claws and claw tufts. Although very common in zoological collections, their systematics is poorly known, especially in the Neotropics, and their specimens are usually identified only at family level. In this paper, the genus Gephyrellula Strand, 1932 is revised and the type species, G. violacea (Mello-Leitão, 1918) is redescribed and illustrated. Gephyrellula paulistana (Soares, 1943) is considered a junior synonym of G...
December 6, 2018: Zootaxa
Mami Watabe, Kenta Izaki, Shohei Fujino, Mei Maruyama, Chiho Kojima, Azusa Hiraiwa, Shuichi Ueno, Yasuhiro Iwao
Polyspermy blocking, to ensure monospermic fertilization, is necessary for normal diploid development in most animals. We have demonstrated here that monospermy in the clawed frog, Xenopus tropicalis, as well as in X. laevis, is ensured by a fast, electrical block to polyspermy on the egg plasma membrane after entry of the first sperm, which is mediated by the positive-going fertilization potential. An intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ) at the sperm entry site was propagated as a Ca2+ wave over the whole egg cytoplasm...
January 15, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Renzo A Seminario-cÓrdova, Enrique Baquero, Rafael Jordana, Mateo Vadell
This paper documents the collembolan fauna of the Campanet cave, in the province of Mallorca (Balearic Islands). Sampling was carried out using pitfall traps baited with beer and checked every 15 days. The cave fauna included the following species: Coecobrya tenebricosa, Disparrhopalites patrizi, Entomobrya pazaristei, Neelus murinus and Dicyrtomina ornata. In addition, two new species were found and are described here: Pseudosinella grauae sp. nov. and Oncopodura siquierae sp. nov. The former is characterised by an unpigmented body, eyes absent, dorsal chaetotaxy R0R1R2001/31/0101+2, with accessory chaeta 's' on Abd IV; all claws with three teeth; posterior chaetae on labial triangle as M1, M2, r, E, L1, L2, all ciliated except for r, a smooth microchaetae and smooth remaining anterior labial chaetae...
December 16, 2018: Zootaxa
Anna Seniczak, StanisŁaw Seniczak
The morphological ontogeny of Achipteria punctata (Nicolet, 1855) is redescribed and illustrated. The adult of this species has genu IV approximately as long as tibia IV, seta bv'' on femur II is as long as seta d, with short seta l' on femur III and smooth claws of all legs. The juveniles of A. punctata are stocky, with most prodorsal setae short and smooth, except for slightly longer and barbed seta ro, and gentle reticulation of cuticle between the bothridia and in the posterior part of prodorsum. In the larva, most gastronotal setae are short, thick and barbed, except for smooth c2, c3 and h2; in the nymphs the gastronotal setae are short, thin and finely barbed...
December 28, 2018: Zootaxa
Karin Brigit Holthaus, Leopold Eckhart, Luisa Dalla Valle, Lorenzo Alibardi
In all amniotes specialized intermediate filament keratins (IF-keratins), in addition to keratin-associated and corneous proteins form the outermost cornified layer of the epidermis. Only in reptiles and birds (sauropsids) the epidermis of scales, claws, beaks, and feathers, largely comprises small proteins formerly indicated as "beta-keratins" but here identified as corneous beta-proteins (CBPs) to avoid confusion with true keratins. Genes coding for CBPs have evolved within the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC), a locus with no relationship with those of IF-keratins...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
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