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Luiza F Souza, William S Santos, Walmir Belinato, Rogerio M V Silva, Linda V E Caldas, Divanizia N Souza
Thermoluminescence dosimeters containing boron, such as magnesium tetraborate (MgB4 O7 ), are of interest because of their very high sensitivity, near tissue-equivalent absorption coefficients, low cost, easy handling, and very large linearity range for absorbed dose. Another important parameter that should be considered when working with thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) is the mass energy absorption coefficient (μen /ρ), which is a close approximation to the energy available for production of chemical, biological and other effects associated with exposure to ionizing radiation, therefore important in estimating dose in medical and health physics...
April 13, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Jianliang Sun, Jierui Yang, Yueping Liu, Mengli Guo, Qiaoyun Wen, Weijun Sun, Jianxin Yao, Yu Li, Feng Jiang
A novel iron-cycling process based on core-shell iron granules, which contained zero-valent iron (Fe0 ) in the core and maghemite (γ-Fe2 O3 ) on the shell (Fe0 @FeIII granules), was proposed to in-situ control hydrogen sulfide in the sediments of the polluted urban rivers. The Fe0 @FeIII granules added in the top sediment layer removed 97% of sulfide generated by sulfate-reducing bacteria in the sediments, and the sulfide removal capacity of virgin granules was 163 mg S/g Fe (114 mg S/g granule). The Fe0 @FeIII granules removed the formed sulfide through the abiotic sulfide oxidation and precipitation, and they also stimulated the microbial iron reduction, which competitively consumed wastewater-derived organics and partially inhibited the sulfate reduction in the sediments...
March 27, 2019: Water Research
Qi Wang, Hong Wu, Qiaoyuan Gao, Dagang Lin, Yongjie Fan, Ran Duan, Yanqing Cong, Yi Zhang
Plasmonic Bi0 modified BiOI-Bi2 O3 composite (Bi/BiOI-Bi2 O3 ) was prepared via in situ UV reduction method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were carried out to identify the formation of semimetal Bi0 . The results indicated that the dot-like bismuth particles were originated from the partial reduction of lattice Bi3+ to Bi0 by accumulated conduction band electrons in BiOI-Bi2 O3 . The as-prepared ternary composite exhibited enhanced visible-light-response, decreased charge transfer impedance and higher charge carrier density relative to unmodified BiOI-Bi2 O3 ...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
M Kovendhan, Hari Kang, Sangmin Jeong, Jong-Sang Youn, Inhwan Oh, Young-Kwon Park, Ki-Joon Jeon
For water electrolysis, a rare earth material (eg., platinum) is often used as an electrode, but because of the high cost and toxicity of chemicals, researchers are searching for cost effective and eco-friendly alternative materials. Various alloys and metals have been long explored for use as electrode materials in different media. Stainless steel (SS 304) electrodes are cost effective and have a large surface area; further their catalytic performance is comparable to that of carbon coated noble metals cathodes...
March 30, 2019: Environmental Research
Xue Qiao, Peng Wang, Jie Zhang, Hongliang Zhang, Ya Tang, Jianlin Hu, Qi Ying
As surface ozone (O3 ) concentrations have significantly increased in many regions of China, it is concerned that O3 may cause negative impacts on forests in the country. To estimate the risks of O3 exposure to forest health, several frequently used O3 exposure indices (M7, M24, N100, SUM60, W126, and AOT40f) were calculated for the entire year of 2013 and the source contributions to exposure in April and August were quantified using a source-oriented version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model...
April 9, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Alexandra Bourgois, David Crouzier, François-Xavier Legrand, Florent Raffin, Alexandre Boyard, Maria Girleanu, Anne-Laure Favier, Sabine François, Samir Dekali
Applications using alumina nanoparticles (Al2 O3 NPs) have incredibly increased in different fields of activity. In defense and aerospace fields, solid composite propellants use leads to complex combustion aerosols emissions containing high concentrations of Al2 O3 NPs and hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). To better characterize potential hazard resulting from exposure to these aerosols, this study assesses cytotoxic effects of mixtures containing both compounds on human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (A549 cell line) after 24 h exposures...
April 17, 2019: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Nathalie Dyane Miranda Slompo, Gustavo Henrique Ribeiro da Silva
The scarcity of natural resources supports the perspective of reusing treated effluents, mainly in agriculture, where the reduction in the demand of drinking water and the provision of alternative sources for nutrients are important. However, the process of disinfection, essential to the protection of human health, generates deleterious byproducts to both humans and the environment. This research aimed to evaluate the use of ozone as a disinfectant for wastewater treated by anaerobic/aerobic baffled reactor for later agricultural reuse...
April 20, 2019: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Binghao Wang, Peijun Guo, Li Zeng, Xia Yu, Aritra Sil, Wei Huang, Matthew J Leonardi, Xinan Zhang, Gang Wang, Shaofeng Lu, Zhihua Chen, Michael J Bedzyk, Richard D Schaller, Tobin J Marks, Antonio Facchetti
Metal oxide (MO) semiconductor thin films prepared from solution typically require multiple hours of thermal annealing to achieve optimal lattice densification, efficient charge transport, and stable device operation, presenting a major barrier to roll-to-roll manufacturing. Here, we report a highly efficient, cofuel-assisted scalable combustion blade-coating (CBC) process for MO film growth, which involves introducing both a fluorinated fuel and a preannealing step to remove deleterious organic contaminants and promote complete combustion...
April 19, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marcella Mauro, Matteo Crosera, Massimo Bovenzi, Gianpiero Adami, Giovanni Maina, Elena Baracchini, Francesca Larese Filon
Dermal exposure to Aluminium nanoparticles (AlNPs) can occur in occupationally- and non occupationally exposed- population, due to the use of Al salts-based antiperspirants. No AlNPs transdermal permeation data exists. Our study investigated in vitro the permeation of 30-60 nm Al2 O3 NPs dispersed in synthetic sweat (20 g/L) using excised human skin on Franz cells. Experiments were performed using intact (experiment 1) and needle-abraded skin (experiment 2). After 24 h traces of Al were detectable in receiving solution of exposed cells (35...
April 16, 2019: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Masoud Mohammadtaheri, Yuanshi Li, Qiaoqin Yang
316L stainless steel (SS) implants suffer from tribological and biocompatibility problems which limit their service lifetime. In order to improve the surface properties of 316L SS for orthopedic implant applications, hard chromium oxide coatings were applied on 316L SS substrates using a reactive magnetron sputtering technique. The morphological, structural, and phase compositional analyses were conducted on the deposited coatings by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
April 17, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Chia-Hsun Hsu, Yun-Shao Cho, Wan-Yu Wu, Shui-Yang Lien, Xiao-Ying Zhang, Wen-Zhang Zhu, Sam Zhang, Song-Yan Chen
In this study, aluminum oxide (Al2 O3 ) films were prepared by a spatial atomic layer deposition using deionized water and trimethylaluminum, followed by oxygen (O2 ), forming gas (FG), or two-step annealing. Minority carrier lifetime of the samples was measured by Sinton WCT-120. Field-effect passivation and chemical passivation were evaluated by fixed oxide charge (Qf ) and interface defect density (Dit ), respectively, using capacitance-voltage measurement. The results show that O2 annealing gives a high Qf of - 3...
April 18, 2019: Nanoscale Research Letters
Jing-Fan Xin, Xiao-Ru Han, Fei-Fei He, Yi-Hong Ding
Despite the great interest in energy storage application, stable neutral Cn On ( n > 1) structures either in thermodynamics or kinetics have yet been largely limited due to the rather high tendency to release the very stable CO molecule. The neutral cyclopropanetrione (C3 O3 ) cluster has long remained elusive since no isomer with sufficient kinetic stability has been found either experimentally or theoretically. In this work, we constructed the first global potential energy surface of singlet C3 O3 at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ//B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level, from which the kinetic stability of a wide range of C3 O3 isomers can be determined by investigating their isomerization and fragmentation pathways...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Fei Li, Matthew J Cabral, Bin Xu, Zhenxiang Cheng, Elizabeth C Dickey, James M LeBeau, Jianli Wang, Jun Luo, Samuel Taylor, Wesley Hackenberger, Laurent Bellaiche, Zhuo Xu, Long-Qing Chen, Thomas R Shrout, Shujun Zhang
High-performance piezoelectrics benefit transducers and sensors in a variety of electromechanical applications. The materials with the highest piezoelectric charge coefficients ( d 33 ) are relaxor-PbTiO3 crystals, which were discovered two decades ago. We successfully grew Sm-doped Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3 )O3 -PbTiO3 (Sm-PMN-PT) single crystals with even higher d 33 values ranging from 3400 to 4100 picocoulombs per newton, with variation below 20% over the as-grown crystal boule, exhibiting good property uniformity...
April 19, 2019: Science
J G Johansen, G Kertzscher, E B Jørgensen, S Rylander, L Bentzen, S B Hokland, C S Søndergaard, A K M With, S Buus, K Tanderup
PURPOSE: This paper presents a method to verify dwell times during High Dose Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy (BT) by means of in vivo dosimetry (IVD), and reports on an afterloader's stability in dwell time control. METHODS: In vivo dosimetry was performed during 20 HDR prostate cancer treatments using a point detector based on a radio-luminescence crystal (Al2 O3 :C) coupled to a fiber-optic cable. The dose rate was recorded at either 10 Hz or 20 Hz during the treatments...
April 2019: Physica Medica: PM
Jonathan Yap, Yixiang Ng, Khung Keong Yeo, Anders Sahlén, Carolyn Su Ping Lam, Vernon Lee, Stefan Ma
BACKGROUND: Air pollution has a significant health impact. Most data originate from temperate regions. We aim to study the health impact of air pollution, particularly among the elderly, in a tropical region. METHODS: A daily time-series analysis was performed to estimate excess risk (ER) of various air pollutants on daily death counts amongst the general population in Singapore from 2001 to 2013. Air pollutants included particulate matters smaller than 10 μm, and 2...
April 18, 2019: Environmental Health
Achintya Kundu, Fabian Dahms, Benjamin P Fingerhut, Erik T J Nibbering, Ehud Pines, Thomas Elsaesser
The solvation structure of protons in aqueous media is highly relevant to electric properties and to proton transport in liquids and membranes. At ambient temperature, polar liquids display structural fluctuations on femto- to picosecond time scales with a direct impact on proton solvation. We apply two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy for following proton dynamics in acetonitrile/water mixtures with the Zundel cation H5 O2 + prepared in neat acetonitrile as a benchmark. The 2D-IR spectra of the proton transfer mode of H5 O2 + demonstrate stochastic large-amplitude motions in the double-minimum proton potential, driven by fluctuating electric fields...
April 18, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Liliya Dunyushkina, Adelya Khaliullina, Anastasia Meshcherskikh, Alexander Pankratov, Denis Osinkin
The effect of Sr-nonstoichiometry on phase composition, microstructure, defect chemistry and electrical conductivity of Srx ZrO3-δ and Srx Zr0.95 Y0.05 O3-δ ceramics (SZx and SZYx, respectively; x = 0.94-1.02) was investigated via X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and impedance spectroscopy followed by distribution of relaxation times analysis of impedance data. It was shown that at low Sr deficiency (x > 0.96 and 0.98 for SZx and SZYx, respectively) a solid solution of strontium vacancies in strontium zirconate crystal structure forms, whereas at higher Sr deficiency the secondary phase, zirconium oxide or yttrium zirconium oxide, is precipitated...
April 17, 2019: Materials
Guoying Wang, Cheng Cheng, Jianchao Zhu, Lijun Wang, Shengwang Gao, Xunfeng Xia
Cu-doped LaFeO3 perovskite (LaFe1-x Cux O3-δ , LFCx ) synthesized using a sol-gel method was introduced in the heterogeneous activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for atrazine degradation. The obtained LFCx catalysts were characterized by several technologies and the results showed that Cu was incorporated into the perovskites lattice successfully. In addition, the introduction of Cu resulted in the mixed valence state of Fe(III)/Fe(II) and Cu(II)/Cu(I) in perovskite structure. LaFe0.8 Cu0.2 O3-δ (LFC0.2 ) exhibited excellent catalytic activity and stability towards the degradation of atrazine...
April 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Jacob E Page, Michael A Hayward
Neutron powder diffraction data show that Sr2 Fe0.5 Ir0.5 O4 , Sr2 Co0.5 Ir0.5 O4 , and La0.5 Sr1.5 Co0.5 Ir0.5 O4 all adopt undistorted, n = 1 Ruddlesden-Popper structures in which the Ir5+ and Fe3+ /Co3+ /Co2+ cations are statistically disordered over all the octahedral coordination sites. Magnetization data indicate the two cobalt phases are spin glasses at low temperature, while Sr2 Fe0.5 Ir0.5 O4 appears to adopt an antiferromagnetic state with very small magnetically ordered domains. Topochemical reduction with a Zr getter converts the tetragonal A2 M0...
April 18, 2019: Inorganic Chemistry
Germán E Gomez, J August Ridenour, Nicole M Byrne, Alexander P Shevchenko, Christopher L Cahill
Six new uranyl hybrid materials have been synthesized solvothermally utilizing the ligands 2,2'-bipyridine-3,3'-dicarboxylic acid (H2 L) and 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine (TPY). The six compounds are classified as either molecular complexes (I0 O0 connectivity), [(UO2 )(L)(TPY)]·H2 O (1), [Ni(TPY)2 ][(UO2 )(L)2 ]·3H2 O (2), and [Cu(TPY)2 ][(UO2 )(L)2 ]·3H2 O (3), or 3D metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, I0 O3 connectivity), [Cu2 (UO2 )2 (OH)(C2 H3 O2 )(L)3 (TPY)2 ]·6H2 O (4), [Zn2 (UO2 )2 (OH)(NO3 )(C2 H3 O2 )(L)3 (TPY)2 ]·4H2 O (5), and Na[Ni(UO2 )3 (OH)(O)(L)3 ]·9H2 O (6)...
April 18, 2019: Inorganic Chemistry
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