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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785995/stimulated-thyroglobulin-and-thyroglobulin-reduction-index-predict-excellent-response-in-differentiated-thyroid-cancers
#1
Bertrand Barres, Antony Kelly, Fabrice Kwiatkowski, Marie Batisse-Lignier, Geneviève Fouilhoux, Bernadette Aubert, Frédéric Dutheil, Igor Tauveron, Florent Cachin, Salwan Maqdasy
INTRODUCTION: Despite its good prognosis, differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is characterized by a high risk of disease persistence and/or recurrence. Estimation of long-term remission (excellent response) thanks to specific parameters could help to personalize the schedule of active surveillance. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the value of stimulated thyroglobulin and thyroglobulin reduction index (TRI) to predict long-term remission in patients with DTC managed by thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine (RAI) remnant ablation...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785867/isoform-specific-ras-signaling-is-growth-factor-dependent
#2
Fiona E Hood, Bertram Klinger, Anna U Newlaczyl, Anja Sieber, Mathurin Dorel, Simon P Oliver, Judy M Coulson, Nils Blüthgen, Ian A Prior
HRAS, NRAS and KRAS isoforms are almost identical proteins that are ubiquitously expressed and activate a common set of effectors. In vivo studies have revealed that they are not biologically redundant; however, the isoform-specificity of Ras signaling remains poorly understood. Using a novel panel of isogenic SW48 cell lines endogenously expressing wild type or G12V mutated activated Ras isoforms we have performed a detailed characterization of endogenous isoform-specific mutant Ras signaling. We find that despite displaying significant Ras activation, the downstream outputs of oncogenic Ras mutants are minimal in the absence of growth factor inputs...
February 20, 2019: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784907/sinomenine-inhibits-proliferation-migration-invasion-and-promotes-apoptosis-of-prostate-cancer-cells-by-regulation-of-mir-23a
#3
Feng Xu, Qi Li, Zhiyu Wang, Xiangming Cao
Background Prostate cancer is an extremely common disease in males, and the mortality of prostate cancer has been rising year by year. Sinomenine has been reported to exhibit anti-tumor effect on various cancers, but the function of Sinomenine in prostate cancer remains unclear. The study aimed to explore the effect of Sinomenine on proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion in prostate cancer cells. Methods PC3 cells were stimulated by different concentrations of Sinomenine, then cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis were examined by CCK-8, BrdU, Transwell and flow cytometry, respectively...
February 18, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784599/absence-of-cytosolic-2-cys-prx-subtypes-i-and-ii-exacerbates-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-apoptosis-via-different-routes
#4
Sunmi Lee, Joo Young Lee, Eun Woo Lee, Sujin Park, Dong Hoon Kang, Chengchun Min, Doo Jae Lee, Dongmin Kang, Jaewhan Song, Jongbum Kwon, Sang Won Kang
There are abundant peroxiredoxin (Prx) enzymes, but an increase of cellular H2 O2 level always happens in apoptotic cells. Here, we show that cellular H2 O2 switches different apoptosis pathways depending on which type of Prx enzyme is absent. TNF-α-induced H2 O2 burst preferentially activates the DNA damage-dependent apoptosis pathway in the absence of PrxI. By contrast, the same H2 O2 burst stimulates the RIPK1-dependent apoptosis pathway in the absence of PrxII by inducing the destruction of cIAP1 in caveolar membrane...
February 19, 2019: Cell Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784076/snx9-determines-the-surface-levels-of-integrin-%C3%AE-1-in-vascular-endothelial-cells-implication-in-poor-prognosis-of-human-colorectal-cancers-overexpressing-snx9
#5
Kazufumi Tanigawa, Masashi Maekawa, Takeshi Kiyoi, Jun Nakayama, Riko Kitazawa, Sohei Kitazawa, Kentaro Semba, Tomohiko Taguchi, Satoshi Akita, Motohira Yoshida, Kei Ishimaru, Yuji Watanabe, Shigeki Higashiyama
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is involved in a variety of diseases including the tumor growth. In response to various angiogenic stimulations, a number of proteins on the surface of vascular endothelial cells are activated to coordinate cell proliferation, migration, and spreading processes to form new blood vessels. Plasma membrane localization of these angiogenic proteins, which include vascular endothelial growth factor receptors and integrins, are warranted by intracellular membrane trafficking...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783638/formation-of-precisely-composed-cancer-cell-clusters-using-a-cell-assembly-generator-cage-for-studying-paracrine-signaling-at-single-cell-resolution
#6
Nikos Fatsis-Kavalopoulos, Paul O'Callaghan, Beichen Xie, Rodrigo Hernández Vera, Olof Idevall-Hagren, Johan Kreuger
The function and behaviour of any given cell in a healthy tissue, or in a tumor, is affected by interactions with its neighboring cells. It is therefore important to create methods that allow for reconstruction of tissue niches in vitro for studies of cell-cell signaling and associated cell behaviour. To this end we created the cell assembly generator (CAGE), a microfluidic device which enables the organization of different cell types into precise cell clusters in a flow chamber compatible with high-resolution microscopy...
February 20, 2019: Lab on a Chip
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30782669/t-cell-activity-against-aml-improved-by-dual-targeted-t-cells-stimulated-through-t-cell-and-il7-receptors
#7
Eric Krawczyk, Sergey N Zolov, Kevin Huang, Challice L Bonifant
The development of engineered T cells to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is challenging due to difficulty in target selection and the need for robust T-cell expansion and persistence. We designed a T cell stimulated to kill AML cells based on recognition of the AML-associated surface marker CLEC12A, via secretion of a CLEC12AxCD3 bispecific "engager" molecule (CLEC12A-ENG). CLEC12A-ENG T cells are specifically activated by CLEC12A, are not toxic to hematopoietic progenitor cells, and exhibit antigen-dependent AML killing...
February 19, 2019: Cancer Immunology Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30782666/radiotherapy-and-cisplatin-increase-immunotherapy-efficacy-by-enabling-local-and-systemic-intratumoral-t-cell-activity
#8
Paula Kroon, Elselien Frijlink, Victoria Iglesias-Guimarais, Andriy Volkov, Marit M Van Buuren, Ton N Schumacher, Marcel Verheij, Jannie Borst, Inge Verbrugge
To increase cancer immunotherapy success, PD-1 blockade must be combined with rationally selected treatments. Here, we examined, in a poorly immunogenic mouse breast cancer model, the potential of antibody-based immunomodulation and conventional anticancer treatments to collaborate with anti-PD-1 treatment. One requirement to improve anti-PD-1-mediated tumor control was to promote tumor-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) priming, which was achieved by stimulating the CD137 costimulatory receptor. A second requirement was to overrule PD-1-unrelated mechanisms of CTL suppression in the tumor micro-environment (TME)...
February 19, 2019: Cancer Immunology Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30782261/mir-761-inhibits-colorectal-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-through-targeting-hdac1
#9
Wei Xiong, Shu Yang, Wanfu Zhang, Yesheng Chen, Feng Wang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancer diagnoses. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) overactivity in CRC could promote cancer progression. HDAC1, a member of the HDAC family, is found aberrantly expressed in CRC, but it remains unclear whether the expression of HDAC1 can be regulated by microRNA. In the present study, we confirmed the overexpression status of HDAC1 in CRC tissues and cell lines, and its overexpression could promote CRC cell proliferation and invasion in vitro . We saw that HDAC1 was a direct target gene of miR-761 in CRC by bioinformatic and luciferase reporter analyses...
February 1, 2019: Die Pharmazie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30782029/an-update-on-extracellular-vesicles-in-multiple-myeloma-a-focus-on-their-role-in-cell-to-cell-cross-talk-and-as-potential-liquid-biopsy-biomarkers
#10
Luciana De Luca, Ilaria Laurenzana, Stefania Trino, Daniela Lamorte, Antonella Caivano, Pellegrino Musto
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by a clonal proliferation of neoplastic plasma cells (PCs) in bone marrow (BM) and the interplay between MM PCs and the BM microenvironment, which plays a relevant role in its pathogenesis. In this important cross-talk, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are active. EVs, including small and medium/large EVs, are lipid bi-layer particles released in circulation by normal and neoplastic cells. A selected cargo of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids is loaded into EVs, and delivered locally and to distant sites, thus influencing the physiology of recipient cells...
February 20, 2019: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781569/briarenones-a%C3%A2-c-new-briarellin-diterpenoids-from-the-gorgonian-briareum-violaceum
#11
Yang Cheng, Atallah F Ahmed, Raha S Orfali, Chang-Feng Dai, Jyh-Horng Sheu
Three new eunicellin-derived diterpenoids of briarellin type, briarenones A‒C ( 1 ‒ 3 ), were isolated from a Formosan gorgonian Briareum violaceum . The chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional (2D) NMR. The absolute configuration of 1 was further confirmed by a single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The in vitro cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory potentialities of the isolated metabolites were tested against the growth of a limited panel of cancer cell lines and against the production of superoxide anions and elastase release in N -formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenyl-alanine and cytochalasin B (fMLF/CB)-stimulated human neutrophils, respectively...
February 17, 2019: Marine Drugs
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781521/exploring-lncrna-mediated-regulatory-networks-in-endometrial-cancer-cells-and-the-tumor-microenvironment-advances-and-challenges
#12
REVIEW
Peixin Dong, Ying Xiong, Junming Yue, Sharon J B Hanley, Noriko Kobayashi, Yukiharu Todo, Hidemichi Watari
Recent studies have revealed both the promise and challenges of targeting long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) to diagnose and treat endometrial cancer (EC). LncRNAs are upregulated or downregulated in ECs compared to normal tissues and their dysregulation has been linked to tumor grade, FIGO stage, the depth of myometrial invasion, lymph node metastasis and patient survival. Tumor suppressive lncRNAs (GAS5, MEG3, FER1L4 and LINC00672) and oncogenic lncRNAs (CCAT2, BANCR, NEAT1, MALAT1, H19 and Linc-RoR) have been identified as upstream modulators or downstream effectors of major signaling pathways influencing EC metastasis, including the PTEN/PI3K/AKT/mTOR, RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK, WNT/β-catenin and p53 signaling pathways...
February 16, 2019: Cancers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779783/the-knocking-down-of-the-oncoprotein-golgi-phosphoprotein-3-in-t98g-cells-of-glioblastoma-multiforme-disrupts-cell-migration-by-affecting-focal-adhesion-dynamics-in-a-focal-adhesion-kinase-dependent-manner
#13
Cecilia Arriagada, Charlotte Luchsinger, Alexis E González, Tomás Schwenke, Gloria Arriagada, Hugo Folch, Pamela Ehrenfeld, Patricia V Burgos, Gonzalo A Mardones
Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) is a conserved protein of the Golgi apparatus that in humans has been implicated in tumorigenesis. However, the precise function of GOLPH3 in malignant transformation is still unknown. Nevertheless, clinicopathological data shows that in more than a dozen kinds of cancer, including gliomas, GOLPH3 could be found overexpressed, which correlates with poor prognosis. Experimental data shows that overexpression of GOLPH3 leads to transformation of primary cells and to tumor growth enhancement...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779763/immune-enhancing-effects-of-anionic-macromolecules-extracted-from-codium-fragile-on-cyclophosphamide-treated-mice
#14
Chaiwat Monmai, SangGuan You, Woo Jung Park
Immune-regulation and homeostasis are critical in cancer therapy and immunomodulatory biomaterials have been used to decrease side effects of immunosuppressant drugs. Anionic macromolecules (CFAMs) were isolated from the seaweed Codium fragile, and its immune-enhancing biological activities were examined in CY-induced immunosuppressed mice. CFAMs improved the splenic lymphocyte proliferation, NK cell activity, and spleen index. The expression of immune-associated genes was highly upregulated in splenic lymphocytes, and gene expression was differently regulated according to mitogens such as T-cell (Con A) and B-cell (LPS) mitogens...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779113/poly-i-c-stimulation-is-superior-than-imiquimod-to-induce-the-anti-tumoral-functional-profile-of-tumor-conditioned-macrophages
#15
Akihiro Maeda, Elisabeth Digifico, Fernando T Andon, Alberto Mantovani, Paola Allavena
Macrophage plasticity is the ability of mononuclear phagocytes to change phenotype, function and genetic re-programming upon encounter of specific local stimuli. In the tumor micro-environment, Tumor-Associated Macrophages (TAMs) acquire an immune-suppressive and tumor-promoting phenotype. With the aim to re-educate TAMs to anti-tumor effectors, in this study we used two immune-stimulatory compounds: the TLR7 agonist Imiquimod (IMQ) and the TLR3 agonist Poly(I:C). To better mimic in vitro the response of TAMs, we used Tumor-Conditioned Macrophages (TC-Mϕ) differentiated in the presence of tumor cell supernatants...
February 18, 2019: European Journal of Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779072/egf-promotes-hif-1%C3%AE-expression-in-colorectal-cancer-cells-and-tumor-metastasis-by-regulating-phosphorylation-of-stat3
#16
F-L Zhao, C-F Qin
OBJECTIVE: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) functions importantly in the development of colorectal cancer. HIF-1α is induced by some cytokines and growth factors and is also regulated by another kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathways. Meanwhile, inhibiting HIF-1α expression can inhibit the development of colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in human colorectal cancer cells SW480...
February 2019: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778902/a-high-risk-luminal-a-dominant-breast-cancer-subtype-with-increased-mobility
#17
Liping Guo, Guoji Chen, Wen Zhang, Lulin Zhou, Ting Xiao, Xuebing Di, Yipeng Wang, Lin Feng, Kaitai Zhang
PURPOSE: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and although advances in molecular subtyping have been achieved in recent years, most subtyping strategies target individual genes independent of one another and primarily concentrate on proliferative markers. The contributions of biological processes and immune patterns have been neglected in breast cancer subtype stratification. METHODS: We performed a gene set variation analysis to simplify the information on biological processes using hallmark terms and to decompose immune cell data using the immune cell gene terms on 985 breast invasive ductal/lobular carcinoma RNAseq samples in the TCGA database...
February 19, 2019: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778749/cd24-targeting-bi-specific-antibody-that-simultaneously-stimulates-nkg2d-enhances-the-efficacy-of-cancer-immunotherapy
#18
Yue Han, Fumou Sun, Xinrong Zhang, Tong Wang, Jiahao Jiang, Jialing Cai, Qi Gao, Kamal Hezam, Yali Liu, Jiajun Xie, Min Wang, Juan Zhang
PURPOSE: Bi-specific antibody (BsAb) is an emerging novel format of antibody. We aimed to develop the natural killer (NK) cell receptor NK group 2, member D (NKG2D)-mediated, immune surveillance system. In this system, the NKG2D ligand MHC class I-related chain A (MICA) was fused with BsAb, which targeted a cluster of differentiation 24 (CD24), a tumor-initiating cell marker that is over-expressed on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: The Homo MICA extracellular domains (hMICA) were fused to the end of the heavy chain of cG7 with the flexible pentapeptide (Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly-Ser; G4S), which formed the cG7-MICA that was further identified using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting (WB)...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778333/extragonadal-fshr-expression-and-function-is-it-real
#19
REVIEW
Marcin Chrusciel, Donata Ponikwicka-Tyszko, Slawomir Wolczynski, Ilpo Huhtaniemi, Nafis A Rahman
Expression of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), besides gonadal tissues, has recently been detected in several extragonadal normal and tumorous tissues, including different types of primary and metastatic cancer and tumor vessel endothelial cells (TVEC). The suggested FSH actions in extragonadal tissues include promotion of angiogenesis, myometrial contractility, skeletal integrity, and adipose tissue accumulation. Non-malignant cells within cancer tissue have been shown to be devoid of FSHR expression, which implies a potential role of FSHR as a diagnostic, prognostic, or even a therapeutic tool...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777877/prevalence-and-cellular-distribution-of-novel-immune-checkpoint-targets-across-longitudinal-specimens-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-melanoma-implications-for-clinical-trials
#20
Jarem J Edwards, Annie Tasker, Ines Silva, Camelia Quek, Marcel Batten, Angela L Ferguson, Ruth Allen, Benjamin Michael Allanson, Robyn Pm Saw, John F Thompson, Alexander M Menzies, Umaimainthan Palendira, James S Wilmott, Georgina Long, Richard A Scolyer
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapies targeting co-stimulating and co-inhibitory checkpoint receptors beyond PD-1 and CTLA-4 have entered clinical trials. Little is known about the relative abundance, co-expression, and immune cells enriched for each specific drug target, limiting understanding of the biological basis of potential treatment outcomes and development of predictive biomarkers for personalized immunotherapy. AIMS: We sought to assess the abundance of checkpoint receptors during melanoma disease progression, and identify immune cells enriched for them...
February 18, 2019: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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