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Brain implants

Julius Huebl, Anahita Poshtiban, Christof Brücke, Sandy Siegert, Antje Bock, Henryk Koziara, Tomasz Kmiec, Rafał Rola, Tomasz Mandat, Andrea A Kühn
OBJECTIVES: Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation type I (NBIA-I) is a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disorder with pallidal degeneration leading to disabling generalized dystonia and parkinsonism. Pallidal or subthalamic deep brain stimulation can partially alleviate motor symptoms. Disease-specific patterns of abnormally enhanced oscillatory neuronal activity recorded from the basal ganglia have been described in patients with movement disorders undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS)...
January 25, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Alexander Lilja-Cyron, Morten Andresen, Jesper Kelsen, Trine Hjorslev Andreasen, Kåre Fugleholm, Marianne Juhler
BACKGROUND: Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is used in cases of severe intracranial hypertension or impending intracranial herniation. DC effectively lowers intracranial pressure (ICP) but carries a risk of severe complications related to abnormal ICP and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation, eg, hygroma formation, hydrocephalus, and "syndrome of the trephined." OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term effect of DC on ICP, postural ICP regulation, and intracranial pulse wave amplitude (PWA)...
February 15, 2019: Neurosurgery
Henrik Behrend, Vilijam Zdravkovic, Marco Bösch, Bettina Hochreiter
PURPOSE: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) designs continuously evolve with the aim of improving patient outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to compare clinical and patient-reported outcome (PRO) results of a new TKA implant to its predecessor. The hypothesis of this study was that joint awareness and range of motion (ROM) of the newer design would be better than the classic design. METHODS: One hundred patients undergoing TKA using the newer design (Attune® ) were matched by age and gender to 200 patients with the classic design (LCS® )...
February 14, 2019: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Maria Alieva, Verena Leidgens, Markus J Riemenschneider, Christoph A Klein, Peter Hau, Jacco van Rheenen
The pathogenesis of glioblastoma (GBM) is characterized by highly invasive behavior allowing dissemination and progression. A conclusive image of the invasive process is not available. The aim of this work was to study invasion dynamics in GBM using an innovative in vivo imaging approach. Primary brain tumor initiating cell lines from IDH-wild type GBM stably expressing H2B-Dendra2 were implanted orthotopically in the brains of SCID mice. Using high-resolution time-lapse intravital imaging, tumor cell migration in the tumor core, border and invasive front was recorded...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
C E McElcheran, L Golestanirad, M I Iacono, P-S Wei, B Yang, K J T Anderson, G Bonmassar, S J Graham
Patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) implants may be subject to heating during MRI due to interaction with excitatory radiofrequency (RF) fields. Parallel RF transmit (pTx) has been proposed to minimize such RF-induced heating in preliminary proof-of-concept studies. The present work evaluates the efficacy of pTx technique on realistic lead trajectories obtained from nine DBS patients. Electromagnetic simulations were performed using 4- and 8-element pTx coils compared with a standard birdcage coil excitation using patient models and lead trajectories obtained by segmentation of computed tomography data...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Iain Mactier, Jonathan R Dalzell, David Carrick
CLINICAL INTRODUCTION: A 50-year-old woman presented with an inferoposterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and underwent emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Angiography revealed acute occlusion of the circumflex and right coronary (RCA) arteries. PCI was uncomplicated. Her medical history included asthma, hypertension and chronic sinusitis.Three months later, she presented with a non-STEMI (NSTEMI), and angiogram showed a new focal stenosis in the left anterior descending artery...
February 14, 2019: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Suwarna Chakraborty, Sunil Jamuna Tripathi, B N Srikumar, T R Raju, B S Shankaranarayana Rao
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a multifactorial disease which often coexists with cognitive deficits. Depression-induced cognitive deficits are known to be associated with aberrant reward processing, neurochemical and structural alterations. Recent studies have shown that chronic electrical stimulation of brain reward areas induces a robust antidepressant effect. However, the effects of repeated electrical self-stimulation of lateral hypothalamus - medial forebrain bundle (LH-MFB) on depression-induced cognitive deficits and associated neurochemical and structural alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are unknown...
January 31, 2019: Brain Stimulation
Cosimo Carriere, Ugo Corrà, Massimo Piepoli, Alice Bonomi, Elisabetta Salvioni, Simone Binno, Alessandra Magini, Susanna Sciomer, Beatrice Pezzuto, Piero Gentile, Mauro Schina, Gianfranco Sinagra, Piergiuseppe Agostoni
BACKGROUND: During cardiopulmonary exercise test, the isocapnic buffering period ranges between anaerobic threshold (AT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP). We investigated whether oxygen uptake (VO2 ) increase during the isocapnic buffering period (ΔVO2 AT-RCP) is related to heart failure severity and prognosis. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed reduced ejection fraction heart failure patients who attained RCP at cardiopulmonary exercise test. The study endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular mortality and urgent heart transplantation/left ventricular assist device implantation...
February 12, 2019: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Filipe O Barroso, Bryan Yoder, David Tentler, Josephine Wallner, Amina Kinkhabwala, Maria K Jantz, Robert D Flint, Pablo Tostado, Evonne Pei, Ambika Satish, Sarah Brodnick, Aaron Suminski, Justin C Williams, Lee E Miller, Matthew Tresch
OBJECTIVE: Recovery of voluntary gait after spinal cord injury (SCI) requires the restoration of effective motor cortical commands, either by means of a mechanical connection to the limbs, or by restored functional connections to muscles. The latter approach might use functional electrical stimulation (FES), driven by cortical activity, to restore voluntary movements. Moreover, there is evidence that this peripheral stimulation, synchronized with patients' voluntary effort, can strengthen descending projections and recovery...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Anders Christian Meidahl, Christian K E Moll, Bernadette van Wijk, Alessandro Gulberti, Gerd Tinkhauser, Manfred Westphal, Andreas K Engel, Wolfgang Hamel, Peter Brown, Andrew Sharott
Both phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) and beta-bursts in the subthalamic nucleus have been significantly linked to symptom severity in Parkinson's disease (PD) in humans and emerged independently as competing biomarkers for closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS). However, the underlying nature of subthalamic PAC is poorly understood and its relationship with transient beta burst-events has not been investigated. To address this, we studied macro- and micro electrode recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) and single unit activity from 15 hemispheres in 10 PD patients undergoing DBS surgery...
February 9, 2019: Neurobiology of Disease
Bing Wang, Pengbo Yang, Yaxue Ding, Honglan Qi, Qiang Gao, Chengxiao Zhang
The development of chronically implanted electrodes attracts much attention since these electrodes are much favorable for monitoring changes of neurotransmitters in brain science. The research of this field mainly was only focused on chemical modification to improve the potential stability, less on the biocompatibility. In this work, at the first time, we proposed the concept of cell-membrane electrodes based on a basic hypothesis using animal's self-cell membrane to reduce animal exclusiveness (hyperacute rejection and chronic rejection)...
February 11, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tuan Anh Nguyen, Timothy Chow, Wayne Riggs, Dan Rurak
BACKGROUND: Approximately 1/3 of newborns exposed antenatally to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) exhibit poor neonatal adaptation. Although several potential mechanisms have been proposed, the actual mechanism has not been elucidated. METHODS: We investigated outcomes in neonatal lambs exposed prenatally or postnatally to fluoxetine (FX). Daily FX injections (50 mg) were given intravenously (i.v.) to five pregnant ewes via implanted catheters beginning at 131-132 days gestation (term = 147 days) for 2 weeks...
February 9, 2019: Pediatric Research
Antonio Meola, Jianghong Rao, Navjot Chaudhary, Guosheng Song, Xianchuang Zheng, Steven D Chang
Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a novel radiation-free tomographic imaging method that provides a background-free, signal attenuation-free, direct quantification of the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with high temporal resolution (milliseconds), high spatial resolution (< 1 mm), and extreme sensitivity (μmol). The technique is based on non-linear magnetization of the SPIONs when exposed to an oscillating magnetic field. MPI was first described in 2001. Since then, the technique has been applied to experimental imaging of diseases affecting different organs in the human body...
February 7, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Olesya T Shevchouk, Gregory F Ball, Charlotte A Cornil, Jacques Balthazart
Testosterone activates singing within days in castrated male songbirds but full song quality only develops after a few weeks. Lesions of the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) inhibit while stereotaxic testosterone implants into this nucleus increase singing rate suggesting that this site plays a key role in the regulation of singing motivation. Testosterone action in the song control system works in parallel to control song quality. Accordingly, systemic testosterone increases POM volume within 1-2 days in female canaries, while the increase in volume of song control nuclei takes at least 2 weeks...
February 6, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Zhengtuo Zhao, Xue Li, Fei He, Xiaoling Wei, Shengqing Lin, Chong Xie
OBJECTIVE: Implanted microelectrodes provide a unique means to directly interface with the nervous system, but have been limited by the lack of stable functionality. There is growing evidence suggesting that substantially reducing the mechanical rigidity of neural electrodes promotes tissue compatibility and improves their recording stability in both short- and long-terms. However, the miniaturized dimensions and ultraflexibility desired for mitigating tissue responses preclude the probe's self-supported penetration into the brain tissue...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Lindsey Boman, Maxine De Butte
Despite substantial increases in the use of antipsychotics to treat various psychiatric conditions in children, there is a lack of literature regarding long-term effects of early treatment. Some studies have indicated that early administration results in differential alterations to neurotransmission systems, but few studies have investigated whether there are long-term behavioral modifications. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the neurobehavioral effects of low dose risperidone (a commonly prescribed antipsychotic) treatment using juvenile rats...
February 5, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Hwa Chul Shin, Byung Gon Jo, Chan-Yong Lee, Kang-Woo Lee, Uk Namgung
A growing body of evidence shows that the electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve can improve mental illness including depression. Here we investigated whether the vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is involved in regulating the responsiveness of hippocampal neurons in rats under chronic restraint stress (CRS). c-Fos protein signals were detected 2 h after VNS in 5-HT1A receptor-positive neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) as well as in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Chronic VNS was performed on a daily basis for 2 weeks using an implanted microelectrode in rats that had undergone CRS for 2 weeks...
February 8, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Michal Rosenberg, Neta Zilony, Orit Shefi, Ester Segal
Despite the great potential of NGF for treating neurodegenerative diseases, its therapeutic administration represents a significant challenge as the protein does not cross the blood-brain barrier, owing to its chemical properties, and thus requires long-term delivery to the brain to have a biological effect. This work describes fabrication of nanostructured PSi films as degradable carriers of NGF for sustained delivery of this sensitive protein. The PSi carriers are specifically tailored to obtain high loading efficacy and continuous release of NGF for a period of four weeks, while preserving its biological activity...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
A Saam Youshani, Samuel Rowlston, Claire O'Leary, Gabriella Forte, Helen Parker, Aiyin Liao, Brian Telfer, Kaye Williams, Ian D Kamaly-Asl, Brian W Bigger
BACKGROUND: Chimeric mouse models generated via adoptive bone marrow transfer are the foundation for immune cell tracking in neuroinflammation. Chimeras that exhibit low chimerism levels, blood-brain barrier disruption and pro-inflammatory effects prior to the progression of the pathological phenotype, make it difficult to distinguish the role of immune cells in neuroinflammatory conditions. Head-shielded irradiation overcomes many of the issues described and replaces the recipient bone marrow system with donor haematopoietic cells expressing a reporter gene or different pan-leukocyte antigen, whilst leaving the blood-brain barrier intact...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Hayet Pigeon, Elodie A Pérès, Charles Truillet, Benoit Jego, Fawzi Boumezbeur, Fabien Caillé, Bastian Zinnhardt, Andreas H Jacobs, Denis Le Bihan, Alexandra Winkeler
Background: Glioblastoma is the most devastating brain tumor. Despite the use of multimodal treatments, most patients relapse, often due to the highly invasive nature of gliomas. However, the detection of glioma infiltration remains challenging. The aim of this study was to assess advanced positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for visualizing biological activity and infiltration of the tumor. Methods: Using multi-modality imaging, we investigated [18F]DPA-714, a radiotracer targeting the 18kDa translocator protein (TSPO), [18F]FET PET, non-Gaussian diffusion MRI (ADC0, Kurtosis), and the S-index, a composite diffusion metric, to detect tumor infiltration in a human invasive glioma model...
February 5, 2019: Neuro-oncology
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