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Milita Zaheed, Nicholas Wilcken, Melina L Willson, Dianne L O'Connell, Annabel Goodwin
BACKGROUND: Anthracyclines and taxanes are chemotherapeutic agents widely used in a sequential regimen in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment of early breast cancer to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence. Standard practice is to administer anthracycline-based chemotherapy followed by a taxane. Anthracyclines tend to be administered first as they were established before taxanes for treatment of early breast cancer. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the sequence in which anthracyclines and taxanes are administered affects outcomes for people with early breast cancer receiving adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy...
February 18, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Laura A Outhwaite, Marc Faulder, Anthea Gulliford, Nicola J Pitchford
Improving provision and raising achievement in early math for young children is of national importance. Child-centered apps offer an opportunity to develop strong foundations in learning math as they deliver one-to-one instruction. Reported here is the first pupil-level randomized control trial in the United Kingdom of interactive math apps designed for early years education, with 389 children aged 4-5 years. The original and rigorous research design disentangled the impact of the math apps as a form of quality math instruction from additional exposure to math...
February 2019: Journal of Educational Psychology
Bertrand Tombal, Fred Saad, David Penson, Maha Hussain, Cora N Sternberg, Robert Morlock, Krishnan Ramaswamy, Cristina Ivanescu, Gerhardt Attard
BACKGROUND: In the PROSPER trial, enzalutamide significantly improved metastasis-free survival in patients with non-metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer. Here, we report the results of patient-reported outcomes of this study. METHODS: In the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 PROSPER trial, done at 254 study sites worldwide, patients aged 18 years or older with non-metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer and a prostate-specific antigen doubling time of up to 10 months were randomly assigned (2:1) via an interactive voice web recognition system to receive oral enzalutamide (160 mg per day) or placebo...
February 12, 2019: Lancet Oncology
Krzysztof Kuglarz, Marek Bury, Agnieszka Kasprzycka, Justyna Lalak-Kańczugowska
The aim of the study was to determine the biogas productivity from selected cultivars of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench) and maize (Zea mays L.) depending on the dose of mineral fertilization with nitrogen. The topic is novelty in the northern Poland area due to the fact that this crop is not very widespread here. The silage samples were derived from two experiments: 1) two factors experiment with sorghum varieties (Arbatax, KWS Maja, Herkules) and two doses of mineral nitrogen fertilization (0 and 150 kg·ha-1 N) in split-plot design...
February 15, 2019: Environmental Technology
Isabelle Poirot-Mazères, Patrick Chaskiel
Nanomedicine opens new diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives. So far, even if few health nanoproducts are on the market, more than a hundred are in clinical trials, mainly in oncology. In fact, the uncertainty that characterizes the knowledge of risks related to nanoparticles, such as the difficulty of adapting evaluation methodologies to the singularity of each of them, in turn, affects the establishment of the benefit-risk balance, prior to any marketing. The objective of this study is to show that, facing the pitfall of risk assessment, the measurement of a global benefit, combining medical efficacity and life benefit for patients, from the very beginning of the nanoproduct design, becomes crucial for the construction of the balance and should be apprehended as the key normative condition of its development...
July 20, 2018: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Lorenzo Ridola, Silvia Nardelli, Stefania Gioia, Oliviero Riggio
The design of clinical trials on Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE) is not an easy task, in fact there are several issues related to the performance of clinical trials in HE that have impeded progress in the field, mainly because most of the studies on HE therapy were performed before the era of rigorous Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs). In this review we discuss the major problems affecting previously published trials on HE treatments aiming to provide evidences, suggestions and indications to prepare well designed RCTs in three different settings: (1) management of hospitalized patients with episodic HE; (2) secondary prophylaxis in patients following an episode of HE; and (3) management of minimal/covert HE...
January 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Oxana Palesh, Caroline Scheiber, Shelli Kesler, Richard Gevirtz, Charles Heckler, Joseph J Guido, Michelle Janelsins, Mallory G Cases, Bingjie Tong, Jessica M Miller, Nick G Chrysson, Karen Mustian
OBJECTIVE: Nearly 80% of cancer patients struggle with insomnia, which is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV) and quality of life (QOL). The aim of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the possible effects of Brief Behavioral Therapy for Cancer-Related Insomnia (BBT-CI), delivered during chemotherapy visits, on QOL and HRV in patients with breast cancer (BC). METHOD: QOL and HRV data were obtained during a pilot clinical trial assessing the feasibility and effects of BBT-CI on insomnia...
March 2019: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Melissa L Caras, Dan H Sanes
Skill learning is fundamental to the acquisition of many complex behaviors that emerge during development. For example, years of practice give rise to perceptual improvements that contribute to mature speech and language skills. While fully honed learning skills might be thought to offer an advantage during the juvenile period, the ability to learn actually continues to develop through childhood and adolescence, suggesting that the neural mechanisms that support skill learning are slow to mature. To address this issue, we asked whether the rate and magnitude of perceptual learning varies as a function of age as male and female gerbils trained on an auditory task...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jöran Köchling, Berit Geis, Stefan Wirth, Kai O Hensel
Background: Alcohol-induced hangover constitutes a significant, yet understudied, global hazard and a large socio-economic burden. Old folk wisdoms such as "Beer before wine and you'll feel fine; wine before beer and you'll feel queer" exist in many languages. However, whether these concepts in fact reduce hangover severity is unclear. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the combination and order of beer and wine consumption on hangover intensity...
February 1, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Maria Maddalena Simile, Paola Bagella, Gianpaolo Vidili, Angela Spanu, Roberto Manetti, Maria Antonietta Seddaiu, Sergio Babudieri, Giordano Madeddu, Pier Andrea Serra, Matteo Altana, Panagiotis Paliogiannis
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a highly-aggressive malignancy arising from the biliary tree, characterized by a steady increase in incidence globally and a high mortality rate. Most CCAs are diagnosed in the advanced and metastatic phases of the disease, due to the paucity of signs and symptoms in the early stages. This fact, along with the poor results of the local and systemic therapies currently employed, is responsible for the poor outcome of CCA patients and strongly supports the need for novel therapeutic agents and strategies...
February 8, 2019: Medicina
Farnaz Khodabakhsh, Mahdi Behdani, Abbas Rami, Fatemeh Kazemi-Lomedasht
Nanobodies for the first time were identified in the sera of Camelidae. Single-domain antibodies or nanobodies are a class of next-generation antibodies that have specific features: small size (in nanoscale), high penetration in various tissues, high stability in hard situations and ease production process in microbial systems. In fact single-domain antibodies are the smallest fragment of the antibody with binding ability. Unique characteristics and features of nanobodies make them an appropriate candidate for further evaluation as the development of novel antibody-based therapeutics...
February 11, 2019: International Reviews of Immunology
Richard A Slivicki, Zhili Xu, Sonali S Mali, Andrea G Hohmann
Activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors suppresses pathological pain but also produces unwanted side effects, including tolerance and physical dependence. Inhibition of fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the major enzyme catalyzing the degradation of anandamide (AEA), an endocannabinoid, and other fatty-acid amides, suppresses pain without unwanted side effects typical of direct CB1 agonists. However, FAAH inhibitors have failed to show efficacy in several clinical trials suggesting that the right partnership of FAAH inhibition and pathology has yet to be identified...
February 7, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Jan Willem van Dalen, Eric P Moll van Charante, William A van Gool, Edo Richard
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether discontinuation of antihypertensive medication in community-dwelling older people is associated with a reduction in memory complaints and/or incident dementia. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study within the Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care (preDIVA) trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling participants (aged 70-78 years at baseline) who underwent 2-yearly assessments during 6-8 years of follow-up...
February 6, 2019: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Jose Viña
The free radical theory of ageing has provided a framework of research into ageing based on Harman's idea that ageing was caused by damage produced by free radicals. However, several experiments have cast doubts on the general validity of the theory. The postulation of the free radical theory of frailty came from two basic facts: first that radicals not only act as damaging molecules, but also as signals to control cell function and second that on many occasions oxidative damage does not correlate with chronological but rather with unsuccessful ageing...
February 5, 2019: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Yuhong Zhou, Shutang Han, Yamin He
Background. Tongxieyaofang (TXYF), a prescription originated from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used on treating Diarrhea Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS-D). The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate whether TXYF was effective and safe for IBS-D. Methods. We searched seven electronic databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PubMed, CNKI, VIP, CBM, and Wanfang Data up to 26 July 2017. Randomized controlled trails (RCTs) were eligible, regardless of blinding. Risk of bias of included trials was evaluated according to the Cochrane Handbook...
2019: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Sara Poursalehan, Sholeh Nesioonpour, Reza Akhondzadeh, Soheila Mokmeli
Background: Postoperative pain is one of the major concerns about a cesarean in pregnant women that can lead to serious complications and delayed recovery for patients. Objectives: The objective is to investigate the effect of low power laser on acute pain after elective cesarean. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind clinical trial, 80 candidates for an elective cesarean were divided randomly into two groups, control and laser. The type of surgery was the same for both groups, which contained the spinal anesthesia technique...
December 2018: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Junsik Kim, Bum Suk Lee, Hye-Jin Lee, Hye-Ri Kim, Duk-Youn Cho, Jung-Eun Lim, Jin-Ju Kim, Ha Yeon Kim, Zee-A Han
In the original version of the article the authors incorrectly stated that: "One case study provided evidence of some improvements in motor performance and spasticity [19], while several other studies only provided evidence on the feasibility of UER as an assessment tool; however, the fact that the manufacturer funded these studies lessens their objectivity [15, 20-24]." This is not correct as the manufacturers did not fund the studies. The correct phrase therefore should have read: "One case study provided evidence of some improvements in motor performance and spasticity [19], while several other studies provided evidence focusing more on the feasibility of UER rather than the clinical efficacy [15, 20-24]...
February 4, 2019: Spinal Cord
Arkadeb Mukhopadhyay, Tapan Kumar Barman, Prasanta Sahoo, J Paulo Davim
To achieve enhanced surface characteristics in wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM), the present work reports the use of an artificial neural network (ANN) combined with a genetic algorithm (GA) for the correlation and optimization of WEDM process parameters. The parameters considered are the discharge current, voltage, pulse-on time, and pulse-off time, while the response is fractal dimension. The usefulness of fractal dimension to characterize a machined surface lies in the fact that it is independent of the resolution of the instrument or length scales...
February 1, 2019: Materials
Timothy G White, Hussam Abou-Al-Shaar, Jung Park, Jeffrey Katz, David J Langer, Amir R Dehdashti
OBJECTIVECerebral revascularization for carotid occlusion was previously a mainstay procedure for the cerebrovascular neurosurgeon. However, the 1985 extracranial-intracranial bypass trial and subsequently the Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study (COSS) provided level 1 evidence via randomized controlled trials against bypass for symptomatic atherosclerotic carotid occlusion disease. However, in a small number of patients optimal medical therapy fails, and some patients with flow-limiting stenosis develop a perfusion-dependent neurological examination...
February 1, 2019: Neurosurgical Focus
Karsten Münstedt, Felix Momm, Jutta Hübner
BACKGROUND: and purpose: In spite of several trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, honey is not considered as a viable candidate for the prophylaxis and treatment of radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in the practice guidelines for supportive care. The purpose of this study was to analyse the value of honey in this treatment situation based on randomized trials acknowledging the fact that manuka honey which is used in some trials distinguishes itself from other honey due to the presence of methylglyoxal...
February 2019: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
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