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Andrea M Russo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2019: Circulation
S R Baker, M Zabczyk, F L Macrae, C Duval, A Undas, R A S Ariëns
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with a high risk of recurrent events after withdrawal of anticoagulation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the difference in plasma clot mechanical properties from patients having recurrent (r) versus non-recurrent (nr) VTE. METHODS: We previously developed a system for determining clot mechanical properties using an in-house magnetic tweezers system. This system was used to determine the mechanical properties of clots made from plasma of 11 patients with rVTE and 33 with nrVTE...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Alexander M Frankell, SriGanesh Jammula, Xiaodun Li, Gianmarco Contino, Sarah Killcoyne, Sujath Abbas, Juliane Perner, Lawrence Bower, Ginny Devonshire, Emma Ococks, Nicola Grehan, James Mok, Maria O'Donovan, Shona MacRae, Matthew D Eldridge, Simon Tavaré, Rebecca C Fitzgerald
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a poor-prognosis cancer type with rapidly rising incidence. Understanding of the genetic events driving EAC development is limited, and there are few molecular biomarkers for prognostication or therapeutics. Using a cohort of 551 genomically characterized EACs with matched RNA sequencing data, we discovered 77 EAC driver genes and 21 noncoding driver elements. We identified a mean of 4.4 driver events per tumor, which were derived more commonly from mutations than copy number alterations, and compared the prevelence of these mutations to the exome-wide mutational excess calculated using non-synonymous to synonymous mutation ratios (dN/dS)...
February 4, 2019: Nature Genetics
James R Fernando, Peiyan Shen, Christina P C Sim, Yu-Yen Chen, Glenn D Walker, Yi Yuan, Coralie Reynolds, David P Stanton, Colin M MacRae, Eric C Reynolds
Dental caries, erosion and hypersensitivity are major public health problems. SnF2 is used widely in oral care products to help prevent/treat these conditions. Casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplexes (CPP-ACP) are a biomimetic nanotechnology of salivary phosphopeptide-ACP complexes that deliver bioavailable calcium and phosphate ions to promote dental remineralisation (repair). We show here using in vitro studies and a double-blind, randomised controlled, cross-over design in situ clinical trial that SnF2 and CPP-ACP interact to form a nanofilament coating on the tooth surface and that together they are superior in their ability to promote dental remineralisation...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Jiabo Tan, Thomas H MacRae
The crustacean, Artemia franciscana, displays a complex life history in which embryos either arrest development and undertake diapause as cysts or they develop into swimming nauplii. Diapause entry is preceded during embryogenesis by the synthesis of specific molecular chaperones, namely the small heat shock proteins p26, ArHsp21, and ArHsp22, and the ferritin homolog, artemin. Maximal synthesis of diapause-specific molecular chaperones is dependent on the transcription factor, heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1), found in similar amounts in cysts and nauplii newly released from females...
January 30, 2019: Cell Stress & Chaperones
A M Jensen, M L Crandall, J J Tepas, J H Ra
BACKGROUND: Hospitals are looking for effective methods to track outcomes that are risk-adjusted for patient population characteristics. This is especially relevant for safety net hospitals (SNHs) servicing high-risk populations and in an era of quality-based reimbursement incentives. One such program with these goals is the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP). This is an institution-based quality audit whereby we determined the presence and consistency of charted data required to compute perioperative risk in the ACS NSQIP risk calculator...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Kelvin Cheuk-Wai Leung, Jennifer Marie MacRae
In this review we discuss the evolving literature of anticoagulation in the context of the nephrology patient. Whereas CKD patients with atrial fibrillation, should be anticoagulated, the benefit of anticoagulation for those on dialysis remains controversial due to an increased risk of bleeding. The availability of direct oral anticoagulants offers new options for those with CKD. Until studies are available in stage 4 and 5/dialysis, this class of medication should be used with caution in this population. For anticoagulated patients requiring interventional procedures, a risk-based approach should be employed to determine those who will benefit from bridging anticoagulation...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Nephrology
Angela Michelato Ghizelini, Kelly Geronazzo Martins, Urs Christian Gießelmann, Erika Santoro, Laura Pasqualette, Leda C S Mendonça-Hagler, Alexandre Soares Rosado, Andrew Macrae
Mangroves are ecosystems located in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and are vital for coastal protection. Their unique characteristics make them hotspots for carbon cycling and biological diversity. Studies on isolated filamentous fungi and environmental and anthropogenic factors that influence sediments offer new understandings on how to preserve mangroves. Here we report on the filamentous fungi isolated from four mangroves. We correlated fungal community composition with sediment texture, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentration (oil pollution), pH, salinity, organic matter, total and thermotolerant coliforms (sewage pollution)...
February 2019: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Linda S May-Zhang, Zhongyi Chen, Noura S Dosoky, Patricia G Yancey, Kelli L Boyd, Alyssa H Hasty, MacRae F Linton, Sean S Davies
Obesity increases the risk for cardiometabolic diseases. N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) are precursors of N-acylethanolamides, which are endogenous lipid satiety factors. Incorporating engineered bacteria expressing NAPEs into the gut microbiota retards development of diet induced obesity in wild-type mice. Because NAPEs can also exert anti-inflammatory effects, we hypothesized that administering NAPE-expressing bacteria to low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr)-/- mice fed a Western diet would improve various indices of cardiometabolic disease manifested by these mice...
January 23, 2019: Scientific Reports
Catherine Beard, Rebecca Purvis, Ingrid M Winship, Finlay A Macrae, Daniel D Buchanan
The AXIN2 gene, like APC, plays a role in the Wnt signalling pathway involved in colorectal tumour formation. Heterozygous mutations in AXIN2 have been shown to cause ectodermal dysplasia (including tooth agenesis, or more specifically, oligodontia), and, in some carriers, colorectal cancer and/or adenomatous polyposis develops. There is a paucity of published AXIN2 families making genotype-phenotype (polyposis, colorectal cancer and oligodontia) correlations challenging. In this case report we describe a family with c...
January 22, 2019: Familial Cancer
Shih-Han S Huang, Jennifer MacRae, Dana Ross, Rameez Imtiaz, Brittany Hollingsworth, Gihad E Nesrallah, Michael A Copland, Philip A McFarlane, Christopher T Chan, Deborah Zimmerman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Canadian home hemodialysis guidelines highlight the potential differences in complications associated with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) cannulation technique as a research priority. Our primary objective was to determine the feasibility of randomizing patients with ESKD training for home hemodialysis to buttonhole versus stepladder cannulation of the AVF. Secondary objectives included training time, pain with needling, complications, and cost by cannulation technique...
January 18, 2019: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
QiPing Feng, Wei-Qi Wei, Sandip Chaugai, Barbara G Carranza Leon, Jonathan D Mosley, Daniel A Carranza Leon, Lan Jiang, Andrea Ihegword, Christian M Shaffer, MacRae F Linton, Cecilia P Chung, C Michael Stein
Importance: Whether low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are associated with increased risk of sepsis and poorer outcomes is unknown. Objective: To examine the association between LDL-C levels and risk of sepsis among patients admitted to the hospital with infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cohort study in which deidentified electronic health records were used to define a cohort of patients admitted to Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, with infection...
January 4, 2019: JAMA network open
Shazia Mehmood Siddique, Shivan J Mehta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2019: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Gary McEwan, Duncan Buchan, Daryl Cowan, Rosie Arthur, Mark Sanderson, Eilidh Macrae
CONTEXT: Walking football (soccer) has recently emerged as a physical activity option targeted at older males to enhance health and wellbeing. DESIGN: This pilot study aimed to examine the feasibility of recruiting and retaining males aged 50 years and over to an 8-week walking football programme in a professional football club. INTERVENTION: Participants were recruited via social media and assigned to an intervention group or a wait-list control group...
December 11, 2018: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
David Rees, Ahmed Younis, Siân MacRae
BACKGROUND: Knee kinematics when running, specifically knee valgus, have been linked to patellofemoral pain syndrome. Assessing running biomechanics requires skill, equipment and time. Clinically, the single leg squat is used to make inferences about knee kinematics during running. No evidence supports this practice. METHODS: Sixteen asymptomatic runners and sixteen runners with patellofemoral pain syndrome were recruited. Asymptomatic runners were sub-divided by dominant and non-dominant leg and runners with patellofemoral pain syndrome by painful and non-painful leg...
December 14, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Hajer Malitan, Alejandro M Cohen, Thomas H MacRae
Embryos of the crustacean, Artemia franciscana may arrest as gastrulae, forming cysts that enter diapause, a state of reduced metabolism and enhanced stress tolerance. Diapausing cysts survive physiological stresses for years, due in part to molecular chaperones. p26, a small heat shock protein, is an abundant diapause-specific molecular chaperone in cysts and it affects embryo development and stress tolerance. p26 is therefore thought to influence many proteins in cysts and this study was undertaken to determine how the loss of p26 by RNA interference (RNAi) affects the diapause proteome of A...
January 8, 2019: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Wendy Atkin, Amanda J Cross, Ines Kralj-Hans, Eilidh MacRae, Carolyn Piggott, Sheena Pearson, Kate Wooldrage, Jeremy Brown, Fiona Lucas, Aaron Prendergast, Natalie Marchevsky, Bhavita Patel, Kevin Pack, Rosemary Howe, Hanna Skrobanski, Robert Kerrison, Nicholas Swart, Julia Snowball, Stephen W Duffy, Stephen Morris, Christian von Wagner, Stephen Halloran
BACKGROUND: In the UK, patients with one or two adenomas, of which at least one is ≥ 10 mm in size, or three or four small adenomas, are deemed to be at intermediate risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and referred for surveillance colonoscopy 3 years post polypectomy. However, colonoscopy is costly, can cause discomfort and carries a small risk of complications. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether or not annual faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) are effective, acceptable and cost saving compared with colonoscopy surveillance for detecting CRC and advanced adenomas (AAs)...
January 2019: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Josie C van Kralingen, Aisling McFall, Emily N J Ord, Thomas F Coyle, Maria Bissett, John D McClure, Christopher McCabe, I Mhairi Macrae, Jesse Dawson, Lorraine M Work
Active transport of microRNAs (miRNA) in extracellular vesicles (EV) occurs in disease. Circulating EV-packaged miRNAs in the serum of stroke patients were compared to stroke mimics with matched cardio- and cerebrovascular risk factors, with corroboration of results in a pre-clinical model. An unbiased miRNA microarray was performed in stroke vs. stroke mimic patients (n = 39). Results were validated (n = 173 patients) by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. miRNA expression was quantified in total serum/EV (n = 5-7) of naïve adult spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP), their normotensive reference strain (Wistar Kyoto, WKY) and in circulating EV (n = 3), peri-infarct brain (n = 6), or EV derived from this region (n = 3) in SHRSP following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO)...
January 7, 2019: Translational Stroke Research
Włodzimierz Otto, Finlay Macrae, Janusz Sierdziński, Justyna Smaga, Maria Król, Ewa Wilińska, Krzysztof Zieniewicz
Angiogenesis represents one of the critical mechanisms that facilitates carcinoma development. The study objective was to evaluate whether the microsatellite instability of colorectal carcinoma has impact on the angiogenesis activity in liver metastases.In a cohort of 80 randomly selected patients with stage IV colorectal carcinoma, 30% were recognized as microsatellite unstable (Microsatellite instability high-frequency (MSI-H)). The endothelial progenitor cell fraction (CD309+) was counted within the subpopulation of CD34+CD45+ cell and CD34+CD45- cells by flow cytometer...
January 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Megan L Brophy, Yunzhou Dong, Huan Tao, Patricia G Yancey, Kai Song, Kun Zhang, Aiyun Wen, Hao Wu, Yang Lee, Marina V Malovichko, Srinivas D Sithu, Scott Wong, Lili Yu, Olivier Kocher, Joyce Bischoff, Sanjay Srivastava, MacRae F Linton, Klaus Ley, Hong Chen
RATIONALE: Atherosclerosis is in part caused by immune and inflammatory cell infiltration into the vascular wall, leading to enhanced inflammation and lipid accumulation in the aortic endothelium. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease is critical for the development of new therapies. Our recent studies demonstrate that epsins, a family of ubiquitin-binding endocytic adaptors, are critical regulators of atherogenicity. Given the fundamental contribution lesion macrophages make to fuel atherosclerosis, whether and how myeloid specific epsins promote atherogenesis is an open and significant question...
December 31, 2018: Circulation Research
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