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acute liver disease

Wenbin Liu, Yujia Wang, Yufen Sun, Yingchuan Wu, Qiwang Ma, Yun Shi, Ruoxu He, Ting Zhang, Yu Ma, Wei Zuo, Zhongjun Wu
Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) in adult liver are promising for treatment of liver diseases. A biliary-derived HPC population in adult mice has been characterized by co-expression of stem cell marker Sry (sex determining region Y)-box 9 (SOX9) and biliary marker cytokeratin 7 (CK7). However, isolation of these HPCs in adult healthy liver without any selection procedures remains a big challenge in this field. Here, by establishing a simple and efficient method to isolate and expand the CK7+ SOX9+ HPCs in vitro as clones, we acquired a stable and largely scalable cell source...
February 20, 2019: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Hannah Wozniak, Patrick Saudan, Pierre-Yves Martin, Belen Ponte
Hepatorenal syndrome is a serious and frequent complication in patients suffering from liver cirrhosis. Its most severe type is characterized by the rapid occurrence of a functional acute kidney injury. However it is mainly an exclusion diagnosis. Although the pathophysiology is not yet fully understood, the principal hypothesis is a splanchnic vasodilatation leading to a systemic and renal vasoconstriction associated with sodium and water retention and progressive cardiac failure. Intravenous albumin associated with systemic vasoconstrictors, terlipressin or noradrenaline, is recommended...
February 20, 2019: Revue Médicale Suisse
Lakhmir S Chawla, Blaire Beers-Mulroy, George F Tidmarsh
Iron homeostasis is often disrupted in acute disease with an increase in catalytic free iron leading to the formation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent tissue-specific oxidative damage. This article highlights the potential therapeutic benefit of exogenous hepcidin to prevent and treat iron-induced injury, specifically in the management of infection from enteric gram-negative bacilli or fungi, malaria, sepsis, acute kidney injury, trauma, transfusion, cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, and liver disease...
April 2019: Critical Care Clinics
Tsu-Hsiang Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Chun-Yu Cho, Chih-Jung Yao, Gi-Ming Lai, Shuang-En Chuang
Radiotherapy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma causes severe side effects, including acute hepatitis and chronic fibrosis. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has emerged as an important part of integrative medicine in the management of diseases. Antrodia cinnamomea (AC), a valuable medicinal fungus originally found only in Taiwan, has been shown to possess anti-oxidation, vaso-relaxtation, anti-inflammation, anti-hepatitis, and anti-cancer effects. In this paper we evaluate the protective effects of ethanol extract of Antrodia cinnamomea (ACE) against radiotoxicity both in normal liver cell line CL48 and in tumor-bearing mice...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ebru H Ayvazoğlu Soy, Humaira Alam, Lale Olcay, Zeren Barış, Sedat Yıldırım, Adnan Torgay, Mehmet Haberal
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a rare and life-threatening systemic disease that can cause hepatic infiltration and present as acute liver failure. Here, we report a case of a 3-year-old pediatric patient who presented with acute liver failure and hepatic encephalopathy secondary to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. She had left lateral segment liver transplant from her father. After 27 months, she had bone marrow transplant from her sister. At the time of reporting (36 months after liver transplant), she showed normal liver function and blood peripheral counts...
January 2019: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Hao Chi Zhang, Wenyi Luo, Yinghong Wang
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs), used to treat different advanced malignancies, are associated with a wide range of immune-related adverse reactions (irAEs) that deserve close monitoring of patients. Gastrointestinal reactions and hepatotoxicity may occur, which warrant careful evaluation to confirm the etiology and attribution to ICPIs as these events could affect future management. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of a patient with prostate adenocarcinoma, treated with dual ICPIs comprised of ipilimumab and nivolumab, who developed elevated liver enzymes in the context of infliximab therapy prescribed to treat gastrointestinal irAE from his ICPIs...
February 18, 2019: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Arnaldo X Torres Hernandez, Chamitha J Weeramange, Prathibha Desman, Anthony Fatino, Olivia Haney, Ryan J Rafferty
6-Thiopurine (6TP) is a currently prescribed drug in the treatment of diseases ranging from Crohn's disease to acute lymphocytic leukemia. While its potent mode of action is through incorporation into DNA as a thiol mimic of deoxyguanosine, severe toxicities are associated with its administration which hinder the potential therapeutic application. We have previously reported in vitro that the oxidative metabolites of 6TP, specifically 6-thiouric acid (6TU, K i 7 μM), are potent inhibitors of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UDPGDH), an enzyme that is responsible for the formation of UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA), an essential substrate that is used in detoxification processes in the liver...
January 1, 2019: MedChemComm
Rintaro Ono, Takashi Watanabe, Eiryo Kawakami, Makoto Iwasaki, Mariko Tomizawa-Murasawa, Masashi Matsuda, Yuho Najima, Shinsuke Takagi, Saera Fujiki, Rumi Sato, Yoshiki Mochizuki, Hisahiro Yoshida, Kaoru Sato, Hiromasa Yabe, Shunichi Kato, Yoriko Saito, Shuichi Taniguchi, Leonard D Shultz, Osamu Ohara, Masayuki Amagai, Haruhiko Koseki, Fumihiko Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Graft-versus host disease (GVHD) is a complication of stem cell transplantation associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Non-specific immune-suppression, the mainstay of treatment, may result in immune-surveillance dysfunction and disease recurrence. METHODS: We created humanised mice model for chronic GVHD (cGVHD) by injecting cord blood (CB)-derived human CD34+ CD38- CD45RA- haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) into hIL-6 transgenic NOD/SCID/Il2rgKO (NSG) newborns, and compared GVHD progression with NSG newborns receiving CB CD34- cells mimicking acute GVHD...
February 13, 2019: EBioMedicine
Taciana Pereira Sant'Ana Santos, Mariana de Menezes Pereira, Maria Isabel Schinoni, Geraldo Pedral Sampaio, Roque Aras, Maria Luiza Sousa Atta, Ajax M Atta
There appears to be an associative link between chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the exact nature of the relationship between CHC and CVDs has not been elucidated. We investigated the presence of CVDs and the clinical and laboratory alterations associated with these diseases in CHC patients. Twenty-six CHC patients, 35 individuals with atherosclerosis (Athero) and 27 healthy individuals were examined for risk factors for CVD, lipid profile, atherogenic risk indexes, and insulin resistance (IR)...
February 13, 2019: Cytokine
Asuka Tanaka, Takashi Onoe, Kohei Ishiyama, Kentaro Ide, Hirotaka Tashiro, Hideki Ohdan
INTRODUCTION: Transient Left Ventricular Apical Balloon Syndrome (LV-ABS) is an unknown acute dysfunction of the left ventricle, which develops under emotional or physical stress events like the major surgical postoperative period. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 68-year-old woman diagnosed with hepatitis C cirrhosis was admitted for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). No evidence for underlying cardiac or pulmonary disease was found. LDLT was performed, and her intra and post-operative course was uneventful...
February 10, 2019: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Olivette Laure Matafack Dongmo, Nadine Joissy Epoh, Herve Tchoumbou Tadjoua, Sammer Yousuf, Phelix Bruno Telefo, Leon Azefack Tapondjou, M Iqbal Choudhary
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tetrapleura tetrapteura Taub. is a leguminous multipurpose tree (Fabaceae) indigenous to tropical Africa. Fruits, seeds and stem bark infusions or decoctions of Tetrapleura tetrapteura Taub. are used to treat many diseases, such as gastric ulcer, rheumatism, malaria, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. AIM OF THE STUDY: This work was conducted to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the aqueous extract of Tetrapleura tetrapteura Taub...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Masamichi Isobe, Takaaki Konuma, Seiko Kato, Susumu Tanoue, Mai Mizusawa, Maki Oiwa-Monna, Satoshi Takahashi, Arinobu Tojo
The different effects of pre-engraftment syndrome (PES) and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) on transplant outcomes after cord blood transplantation (CBT) are unclear. We retrospectively evaluated the impact of PES and acute GVHD on relapse and survival after single CBT for 138 adult patients with hematological malignancies in our institute between 2004 and 2016. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that development of grade III to IV acute GVHD, particularly gut or liver involvement of acute GVHD, significantly contributed to higher non-relapse mortality (P<0...
February 13, 2019: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Lifu Xiong, Yanan Du, Tianhui Zhou, Bingying Du, Phimphone Visalath, Lanyi Lin, Shisan Bao, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is characterized by acute deterioration of chronic liver disease with excessive inflammation. N-myc and STAT interactor (NMI), an inflammation-mediated protein, involves in various inflammatory related diseases, but the role of NMI in development and prognosis in HBV-ACLF remains to be elucidated. METHODS: Serum NMI from healthy controls (HCs, n=20), chronic hepatitis B (CHB, n=50) patients and HBV-ACLF patients (n=50) were determined using ELISA...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Kirsten Tryde Macklon
INTRODUCTION: Ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) is increasingly offered to women in need of fertility preservation. However, little is known about the risk of these women dying before they use the preserved material. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 1999 to 2016, 927 girls and women underwent OTC in our center, prior to receiving gonadotoxic treatment. All patients were without disseminated disease and with an estimated chance of survival after 5 years of > 50%...
February 15, 2019: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Ali Akbar Hajiagha Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza Azizi
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the main causes of hospitalisation. The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic factors in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical outcomes, demographic and laboratory variables of the subjects were collected from the HIS software and national code with the SQL format from three hospitals in Qazvin. The data were linked to the database software designed by the author...
February 12, 2019: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
L C Ramsay, K Anyiwe, M Li, L Macdonald, P C Coyte, B Sander
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) causes acute liver infection and is spread through the fecal-oral route. Travel to countries in HAV-endemic regions (e.g., Asia and Latin America) is a well-described risk factor for infection. Currently, Ontario publicly funds hepatitis A vaccination for some populations at high risk of HAV infection but not for all travellers to endemic countries. The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of expanding publicly funded HAV vaccination to people planning travel to HAV-endemic regions, from the Ontario healthcare payer perspective...
February 12, 2019: Vaccine
Lasse L Langholm, Tina Manon-Jensen, Morten A Karsdal, Flemming Bendtsen, Diana J Leeming, Søren Møller
OBJECTIVES: Portal hypertension in cirrhosis is associated with endothelial dysfunction, impaired wound healing, and decreased platelet count. Increased von Willebrand factor (VWF) formation has been suggested as a compensatory mechanism, but the role of VWF processing has not been directly assessed. The aim was to measure the processing of activated VWF (VWF-A) in addition to VWF release (VWF-N) to investigate the association of primary hemostasis with disease activity and portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis...
February 12, 2019: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Phillipp Hartmann, Huikuan Chu, Yi Duan, Bernd Schnabl
The intestinal microbiome plays an major role in the pathogenesis of liver disease, with a hallmark event being dysbiosis, or an imbalance of pathobionts and beneficial bacteria with the associated deleterious effects on its host. Reducing the number of intestinal bacteria with antibiotic treatment is generally advantageous in experimental liver diseases. Complete absence of intestinal microbiota as in germ-free rodents can be protective in autoimmune hepatitis, and hepatic tumors induced by chemicals; or it can exacerbate disease as in acute toxic liver injury and liver fibrosis/cirrhosis...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Rosalie C Oey, Laurelle van Tilburg, Nicole S Erler, Herold J Metselaar, Manon C W Spaander, Henk R van Buuren, Robert A de Man
Colorectal cancer screening with colonoscopy is commonly used in candidate patients for liver transplantation. We initiated this study to define the risk-benefit ratio of performing screening colonoscopy in this population. A retrospective observational study of all consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy during pre-liver transplantation screening between 2004-2017 was conducted. Endoscopic and pathological findings and clinical events potentially related to the colonoscopy in the 30 days after the procedure were registered and compared with a 30 days in-patient control time frame...
February 14, 2019: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Yun Zhou, Vatsalya Vatsalya, Leila Gobejishvili, Richard J Lamont, Craig J McClain, Wenke Feng
Bacterial infection is frequently observed in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We examined a possible role of Porphyromonas gingivalis in the development/progression and severity of disease in patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH). Plasma specimens from 47 patients with AAH (16 moderate, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease [MELD] score <20]; 31 severe, MELD score >20) and 22 healthy controls (HCs) were collected. Clinical, drinking history (lifetime drinking history [LTDH]), and demographic data were collected...
February 2019: Hepatology communications
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