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Growth preterm infants

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776793/postnatal-nutritional-intakes-and-hyperglycemia-as-determinants-of-blood-pressure-at-6-5-years-of-age-in-children-born-extremely-preterm
#1
Itay Zamir, Elisabeth Stoltz Sjöström, Anna-Karin Edstedt Bonamy, Lilly-Ann Mohlkert, Mikael Norman, Magnus Domellöf
BACKGROUND: Adverse developmental programming by early-life exposures might account for higher blood pressure (BP) in children born extremely preterm. We assessed associations between nutrition, growth and hyperglycemia early in infancy, and BP at 6.5 years of age in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Data regarding perinatal exposures including nutrition, growth and glycemia status were collected from the Extremely Preterm Infants in Sweden Study (EXPRESS), a population-based cohort including infants born <27 gestational weeks during 2004-2007...
February 18, 2019: Pediatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770246/human-fetal-tnf-%C3%AE-cytokine-producing-cd4-effector-memory-t-cells-promote-intestinal-development-and-mediate-inflammation-early-in-life
#2
Renée R C E Schreurs, Martin E Baumdick, Adrian F Sagebiel, Max Kaufmann, Michal Mokry, Paul L Klarenbeek, Nicola Schaltenberg, Fenja L Steinert, Jorik M van Rijn, Agata Drewniak, Sarah-May M L The, Roel Bakx, Joep P M Derikx, Niek de Vries, Willemijn E Corpeleijn, Steven T Pals, Nicola Gagliani, Manuel A Friese, Sabine Middendorp, Edward E S Nieuwenhuis, Konrad Reinshagen, Teunis B H Geijtenbeek, Johannes B van Goudoever, Madeleine J Bunders
Although the fetal immune system is considered tolerogenic, preterm infants can suffer from severe intestinal inflammation, including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Here, we demonstrate that human fetal intestines predominantly contain tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)+ CD4+ CD69+ T effector memory (Tem) cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing of fetal intestinal CD4+ T cells showed a T helper 1 phenotype and expression of genes mediating epithelial growth and cell cycling. Organoid co-cultures revealed a dose-dependent, TNF-α-mediated effect of fetal intestinal CD4+ T cells on intestinal stem cell (ISC) development, in which low T cell numbers supported epithelial development, whereas high numbers abrogated ISC proliferation...
February 5, 2019: Immunity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758323/ventricular-remodeling-in-preterm-infants-computational-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-atlasing-shows-significant-early-remodeling-of-the-left-ventricle
#3
David J Cox, Wenjia Bai, Anthony N Price, A David Edwards, Daniel Rueckert, Alan M Groves
BACKGROUND: Premature birth is associated with ventricular remodeling, early heart failure, and altered left ventricular (LV) response to physiological stress. Using computational cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, we aimed to quantify preterm ventricular remodeling in the neonatal period, and explore contributory clinical factors. METHODS: Seventy-three CMR scans (34 preterm infants, 10 term controls) were performed to assess in-utero development and preterm ex-utero growth...
November 19, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744680/analysis-of-two-birth-tissues-provides-new-insights-into-the-epigenetic-landscape-of-neonates-born-preterm
#4
Yonghui Wu, Xinyi Lin, Ives Yubin Lim, Li Chen, Ai Ling Teh, Julia L MacIsaac, Kok Hian Tan, Michael S Kobor, Yap Seng Chong, Peter D Gluckman, Neerja Karnani
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB), defined as child birth before completion of 37 weeks of gestation, is a major challenge in perinatal health care and can bear long-term medical and financial burden. Over a million children die each year due to PTB complications, and those who survive can face developmental delays. Unfortunately, our understanding of the molecular pathways associated with PTB remains limited. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting the role of DNA methylation (DNAm) in mediating the effects of PTB on future health outcomes...
February 11, 2019: Clinical Epigenetics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30741254/isolation-and-characterization-of-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-preterm-and-term-infants
#5
Sota Iwatani, Makiko Yoshida, Keiji Yamana, Daisuke Kurokawa, Jumpei Kuroda, Khin Kyae Mon Thwin, Suguru Uemura, Satoru Takafuji, Nanako Nino, Tsubasa Koda, Masami Mizobuchi, Masahiro Nishiyama, Kazumichi Fujioka, Hiroaki Nagase, Ichiro Morioka, Kazumoto Iijima, Noriyuki Nishimura
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have considerable therapeutic potential and attract increasing interest in the biomedical field. MSCs are originally isolated and characterized from bone marrow (BM), then acquired from tissues including adipose tissue, synovium, skin, dental pulp, and fetal appendages such as placenta, umbilical cord blood (UCB), and umbilical cord (UC). MSCs are a heterogeneous cell population with the capacity for (1) adherence to plastic in standard culture conditions, (2) surface marker expression of CD73+ /CD90+ /CD105+ /CD45- /CD34- /CD14- /CD19- /HLA-DR- phenotypes, and (3) trilineage differentiation into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes, as currently defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT)...
January 26, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740165/effect-of-early-breast-milk-nutrition-on-serum-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-in-preterm-infants
#6
Fatma A Alzaree, Mones M AbuShady, Mohamed Abdel Atti, Gihan A Fathy, Essam M Galal, Alaa Ali, Tahany R Elias
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is one of the essential intrauterine hormonal mediators of growth, and its serum values are often low after preterm delivery. AIM: To evaluate the influence of immediate breast milk feeding on serum IGF-1 in preterm newborns. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective, observational cohort study included 60 premature infants born < 32 weeks of gestation, divided into group A and B regarding breastfeeding or formula feeding...
January 15, 2019: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737045/measuring-body-composition-in-the-preterm-infant-evidence-base-and-practicalities
#7
REVIEW
Edward T Andrews, R Mark Beattie, Mark J Johnson
Preterm birth and body composition have demonstrable effects on growth and later health outcomes. Preterm infants reach term equivalent age with a lower proportion of lean mass and higher body fat percentage than their term equivalent counterparts. Weight and length do not give an accurate assessment of body composition. Tracking body composition rather than just weight is a fundamental part of improving nutritional outcomes. This is important given the ongoing controversies regarding the nutritional needs of preterm infants, as well as establishing suitable targets for their growth...
January 12, 2019: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721930/the-subplate-a-potential-driver-of-cortical-folding
#8
Shreya Rana, Rosita Shishegar, Sebastian Quezada, Leigh Johnston, David W Walker, Mary Tolcos
In many species of Mammalia, the surface of the brain develops from a smooth structure to one with many fissures and folds, allowing for vast expansion of the surface area of the cortex. The importance of understanding what drives cortical folding extends beyond mere curiosity, as conditions such as preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and fetal alcohol syndrome are associated with impaired folding in the infant and child. Despite being a key feature of brain development, the mechanisms driving cortical folding remain largely unknown...
February 4, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721843/three-hourly-feeding-intervals-are-associated-with-faster-advancement-in-very-preterm-infants
#9
Elaine Chu, Sue Freck, Lishi Zhang, Kushal Y Bhakta, Michel Mikhael
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of two-hourly (Q2H) vs. three-hourly (Q3H) feeding on time to achieve full enteral feeding, growth metrics and respiratory tolerance in very preterm infants with birth weight ≤ 1250 g. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study review of 18 months before and after a change in our feeding guideline from Q3H to Q2H feedings. RESULTS: 113 infants were included, 59 in Q3H and 54 in Q2H groups. Q2H infants required 10% more days to achieve full enteral feeding, however it was not statistically significant (P = 0...
February 2, 2019: Early Human Development
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30691508/planned-delivery-or-expectant-management-for-late-preterm-pre-eclampsia-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial-phoenix-trial
#10
Lucy C Chappell, Marcus Green, Neil Marlow, Jane Sandall, Rachael Hunter, Stephen Robson, Ursula Bowler, Virginia Chiocchia, Pollyanna Hardy, Edmund Juszczak, Louise Linsell, Anna Placzek, Peter Brocklehurst, Andrew Shennan
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy disorder, characterised by hypertension and multisystem complications in the mother. The adverse outcomes of pre-eclampsia include severe hypertension, stroke, renal and hepatic injury, haemorrhage, fetal growth restriction and even death. The optimal time to instigate delivery to prevent morbidity when pre-eclampsia occurs between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation, without increasing problems related to infant immaturity or complications, remains unclear...
January 28, 2019: Trials
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685870/early-postnatal-igf-1-and-igfbp-1-blood-levels-in-extremely-preterm-infants-relationships-with-indicators-of-placental-insufficiency-and-with-systemic-inflammation
#11
Alan Leviton, Elizabeth N Allred, Raina N Fichorova, Deborah K VanderVeen, T Michael O'Shea, Karl Kuban, Olaf Dammann
OBJECTIVE:  To evaluate to what extent indicators of placenta insufficiency are associated with low concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-1-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in neonatal blood, and to what extent the concentrations of these growth factors are associated with concentrations of proteins with inflammatory, neurotrophic, or angiogenic properties. DESIGN:  Using multiplex immunoassays, we measured the concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-1, as well as 25 other proteins in blood spots collected weekly from ≥ 880 infants born before the 28th week of gestation, and sought correlates of concentrations in the top and bottom quartiles for gestational age and day the specimen was collected...
January 27, 2019: American Journal of Perinatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30680983/the-soluble-fms-like-tyrosin-kinase-1-sflt-1-to-placental-growth-factor-pigf-ratio-as-a-possible-indicator-for-the-severity-of-preeclampsia-single-institution-experience
#12
Andrijana Müller, Vesna Horvat, Martina Vulin, Sanja Mandić, Vatroslav Šerić, Domagoj Vidosavljević
Aim To investigate a potential of the clinical use of the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT-1) to placental growth factor (PlGF) ratio from the perspective of a small hospital centre. Methods Maternal serum samples were analysed at 241/7-28 0/7, and 281/7-320/7 weeks of gestation. The level of sFLT-1 and PIGF was determined by immunoassay platform and used to calculate the sFLT-1/PIGF ratio in 35 pregnant women, and divided into subgroups according to preeclampsia occurrence at the time of delivery: preterm (≤37 weeks) or term (37-42 weeks'), and matched a control group...
February 1, 2019: Medicinski Glasnik
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30679791/continuous-pulse-oximetry-and-respiratory-rate-trends-predict-short-term-respiratory-and-growth-outcomes-in-premature-infants
#13
Alyssa Warburton, Ranjan Monga, Venkatesh Sampath, Navin Kumar
BACKGROUND: To examine the correlation between interval vital signs recorded by nursing staff and continuous monitor recordings, and to determine whether aggregated monitor recordings can better predict impending escalation of respiratory support in premature infants. METHOD: Preterm infants on noninvasive respiratory support or room air (RA) were prospectively enrolled. Nursing-and monitor-recorded pulse oximetry (SpO2) and respiratory rates (RR) data were recorded daily...
January 14, 2019: Pediatric Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30679253/extrauterine-growth-restriction-in-low-birth-weight-infants
#14
Kari Bonnar, Debbie Fraser
Extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) affects a significant number of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants and has the potential to impact neurodevelopmental outcome as well as other aspects of long-term health. More aggressive nutritional approaches have reduced the incidence of postnatal growth failure but many questions remain about the expected rate of growth for very preterm infants, the best ways to measure growth velocity, and the optimal approaches to supporting growth. This article examines some of the outstanding issues regarding postnatal growth failure and summarizes current practice recommendations...
January 2019: Neonatal Network: NN
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30678256/impact-of-donor-milk-on-short-and-long-term-growth-of-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#15
Rebecca Hoban, Michael E Schoeny, Anita Esquerra-Zwiers, Tanyaporn K Kaenkumchorn, Gina Casini, Grace Tobin, Alan H Siegel, Kousiki Patra, Matthew Hamilton, Jennifer Wicks, Paula Meier, Aloka L Patel
Mother's own milk (MOM) reduces the risk of morbidities in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. When MOM is unavailable, donor breastmilk (DM) is used, with unclear impact on short- and long-term growth. This retrospective analysis compared anthropometric data at six time points from birth to 20⁻24 months corrected age in VLBW infants who received MOM supplements of preterm formula ( n = 160) versus fortified DM ( n = 161) during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization. The cohort was 46% female; mean birth weight and gestational age (GA) were 998 g and 27...
January 22, 2019: Nutrients
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30678181/quantification-of-human-milk-phospholipids-the-effect-of-gestational-and-lactational-age-on-phospholipid-composition
#16
Ida Emilie Ingvordsen Lindahl, Virginia M Artegoitia, Eimear Downey, James A O'Mahony, Carol-Anne O'Shea, C Anthony Ryan, Alan L Kelly, Hanne C Bertram, Ulrik K Sundekilde
Human milk (HM) provides infants with macro- and micronutrients needed for growth and development. Milk phospholipids are important sources of bioactive components, such as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and choline, crucial for neural and visual development. Milk from mothers who have delivered prematurely (<37 weeks) might not meet the nutritional requirements for optimal development and growth. Using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry, 31 phospholipid (PL) species were quantified for colostrum (<5 days postpartum), transitional (≥5 days and ≤2 weeks) and mature milk (>2 weeks and ≤15 weeks) samples from mothers who had delivered preterm ( n = 57) and term infants ( n = 22), respectively...
January 22, 2019: Nutrients
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30674088/transient-improvement-of-cerebellar-oligodendroglial-development-in-a-neonatal-hyperoxia-model-by-pdgfa-treatment
#17
Till Scheuer, Luisa Sophie Klein, Christoph Bührer, Stefanie Endesfelder, Thomas Schmitz
In preterm infants, the changes from fetal life to ex-utero conditions often coincide with reduced growth and white matter damage of the cerebellum. The premature increase of arterial oxygen tension caused by preterm birth may dysregulate cerebellar development. In a hyperoxia rat model of white matter damage to mimic a steep increase of oxygen levels by 24h exposure to 80% O2 from postnatal day 6 (P6) to day 7, we analyzed growth factor (GF) synthesis of cerebellar astrocytes. Determination of GF production was performed in astrocytes after MACS isolation from cerebelli after hyperoxia exposure ex vivo, and also in astroglial cultures...
January 23, 2019: Developmental Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30660941/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-at-five-years-after-early-onset-fetal-growth-restriction-analyses-in-a-dutch-subgroup-participating-in-a-european-management-trial
#18
A Pels, O C Knaven, B J Wijnberg-Williams, M J C Eijsermans, S M Mulder-de Tollenaer, C S H Aarnoudse-Moens, C Koopman-Esseboom, J van Eyck, J B Derks, W Ganzevoort, A G van Wassenaer-Leemhuis
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to explore developmental outcomes at five years after early-onset fetal growth restriction (FGR). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective data analysis of prospective follow-up of patients of three Dutch centres, who participated in a twenty centre European randomized controlled trial on timing of delivery in early-onset FGR. Developmental outcome of very preterm infants born after extreme FGR is assessed at (corrected) age of five...
January 11, 2019: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30658676/enteral-nutrition-tolerance-and-respiratory-support-entares-study-in-preterm-infants-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Francesco Cresi, Elena Maggiora, Silvia Maria Borgione, Elena Spada, Alessandra Coscia, Enrico Bertino, Fabio Meneghin, Luigi Tommaso Corvaglia, Maria Luisa Ventura, Gianluca Lista
BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and feeding intolerance are common conditions in preterm infants and among the major causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity. For many years, preterm infants with RDS have been treated with mechanical ventilation, increasing risks of acute lung injury and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. In recent years non-invasive ventilation techniques have been developed. Showing similar efficacy and risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) and heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) have become the most widespread techniques in neonatal intensive care units...
January 18, 2019: Trials
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657741/risk-of-hypertension-following-perinatal-adversity-iugr-and-prematurity
#20
REVIEW
Trassanee Chatmethakul, Robert D Roghair
Consistent with the paradigm shifting observations of David Barker and colleagues that revealed a powerful relationship between decreased weight through 2 years of age and adult disease, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preterm birth are independent risk factors for the development of subsequent hypertension. Animal models have been indispensable in defining the mechanisms responsible for these associations and the potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Among the modifiable risk factors, micronutrient deficiency, physical immobility, exaggerated stress hormone exposure and deficient trophic hormone production are leading candidates for targeted therapies...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Endocrinology
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