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Brainstem implantation

Robert J Yawn, Ashley M Nassiri, Alejandro Rivas
Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder associated with altered neural synchrony with respect to auditory stimuli. Patients have characteristic auditory findings including normal otoacoustic emissions in the setting of abnormal auditory brainstem response. Patients with ANSD have a high incidence of comorbid developmental delay that may impact speech outcomes. Treatment options for ANSD include hearing amplification and cochlear implantation. The article highlights issues and controversies with the diagnosis and treatment of this complex disorder...
February 11, 2019: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Kevin Wong, Elliott D Kozin, Vivek V Kanumuri, Nicolas Vachicouras, Jonathan Miller, Stéphanie Lacour, M Christian Brown, Daniel J Lee
The auditory brainstem implant (ABI) was first developed nearly 40 years ago and provides auditory rehabilitation to patients who are deaf and ineligible for cochlear implant surgery due to abnormalities of the cochlea and cochlear nerve. The aims of the following review are to describe the history of the ABI and innovations leading up to the modern ABI system, as well as highlight areas of future development in implant design.
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Anand V Kasbekar, Yu Chuen Tam, Robert P Carlyon, John M Deeks, Neil Donnelly, James Tysome, Richard Mannion, Patrick R Axon
Objectives  A decision on whether to insert a cochlear implant can be made in neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) if there is objective evidence of cochlear nerve (CN) function post vestibular schwannoma (VS) excision. We aimed to develop intraoperative CN monitoring to help in this decision. Design  We describe the intraoperative monitoring of a patient with NF2 and our stimulating and recording set up. A novel test electrode is used to stimulate the CN electrically. Setting  This study was set at a tertiary referral center for skull base pathology...
January 2019: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports
Jae Joon Han, Myung-Whan Suh, Moo Kyun Park, Ja-Won Koo, Jun Ho Lee, Seung Ha Oh
The outcome of cochlear implantation (CI) in patients with cochlear nerve deficiency (CND) is variable, resulting in a wide range of speech perception performance, from degrees of environmental sound perception to conversation without lip-reading. Twenty-five cochlear implantees with CND were enrolled retrospectively to determine the factors correlated with CI outcome in patients with CND and to develop a predictive model for CI outcome. CI outcome was evaluated using the Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) score at 2 years after CI...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Jolien Faes, Steven Gillis
Auditory brainstem implantation (ABI) is a recent technique in children's hearing restoration. Up till now the focus in the literature has mainly been the perceptual outcomes after implantation, whereas the effect of ABI on spoken language is still an almost unexplored area of research. This study presents a one-year follow-up of the volubility of two children with ABI. The volubility of signed and oral productions is investigated and oral productions are examined in more detail. Results show clear developmental trends in both children, indicating a beneficial effect of ABI on spoken language development...
January 14, 2019: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Charlotte Amalie Navntoft, Jeremy Marozeau, Tania Rinaldi Barkat
Cochlear implants (CIs) are neuroprosthetic devices that can provide a sense of hearing to deaf people. However, a CI cannot restore all aspects of hearing. Improvement of the implant technology is needed if CI users are to perceive music and perform in more natural environments, such as hearing out a voice with competing talkers, reflections, and other sounds. Such improvement requires experimental animals to better understand the mechanisms of electric stimulation in the cochlea and its responses in the whole auditory system...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chris J Cadman, Lyndsay Fraser, Claire McArthur
History A 1-year-old boy was referred for cochlear implant assessment after he received a diagnosis of bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss at neonatal hearing screening shortly after birth. The child was born at term via uneventful delivery, and there was no history of familial hearing loss or maternal illness. Tympanic membranes were normal, and hearing loss was confirmed with auditory brainstem testing, which showed no response from either ear. Hearing aids were provided from 3 months of age, but no behavioral responses were noted when these were worn...
February 2019: Radiology
Murray R Thompson, Catherine S Birman
OBJECTIVES: Bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal (IAC) is rare and is associated with profound sensorineural hearing loss. The present study aims to review our experience with bilateral cochlear implantation (CI) in children with a duplication of the IAC and to review the literature. METHODS: The Sydney Cochlear Implant Centre database was searched for children with duplication of the internal auditory canal. Data was collected regarding clinical history, MRI and CT findings, auditory brainstem responses (ABR), tympanometry and otoacoustic emissions (OAE), visually reinforced orientation audiometry, auditory brainstem response, electrocochleography (ECochG), transtympanic electrical auditory brainstem response (ABR), aided cortical evoked potentials (CAEP) and intraoperative neural response telemetry (NRT) and CI evoked electrical auditory brainstem testing...
January 12, 2019: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Brian V Lien, Mark H Tuszynski, Paul Lu
Neural stem cells (NSCs) can differentiate into both neurons and glia after transplantation into spinal cord injury (SCI) sites. The neuronal component of stem cell grafts has the potential to form functional synaptic relays across the lesion site. The glial component may reform a blood-spinal cord barrier, support neuronal function, and contribute to remyelination. We performed a long-term, 1.5-year time course study focused on astrocyte migration, differentiation, integration, and safety following human NSC transplantation into C5 hemisection sites in immunodeficient rats...
January 14, 2019: Experimental Neurology
Myles W Billard, Fatemeh Bahari, John Kimbugwe, Kevin D Alloway, Bruce J Gluckman
A multielectrode system that can address widely separated targets at multiple sites across multiple brain regions with independent implant angling is needed to investigate neural function and signaling in systems and circuits of small animals. Here, we present the systemDrive, a novel multisite, multiregion microdrive that is capable of moving microwire electrode bundles into targets along independent and nonparallel drive trajectories. Our design decouples the stereotaxic surgical placement of individual guide cannulas for each trajectory from the placement of a flexible drive structure...
November 2018: ENeuro
Carl B Heilman, Gregory W Basil, Brandon M Beneduce, Adel M Malek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We evaluated the inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) and adjacent cerebellopontine angle (CPA) cistern as a potential implantation site for a novel venous endovascular transdural CSF shunt concept to treat communicating hydrocephalus. We analyzed the dimensions of the IPS, CPA cistern, and distances to adjacent neurovascular structures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gadolinium enhanced T1 weighted brain MRI datasets of 36 randomly selected patients, aged 20-80 years, were analyzed with three-dimensional multiplanar reconstruction to measure IPS diameter and length, CPA cistern depth, and IPS proximity to the vertebrobasilar arteries and brainstem...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
M Barbakadze, I Bilanishvili, N Khizanishvili, M Dumbadze, Z Nanobashvili
Out of genetically determined epilepsy models a special interest draws the model of audiogenic seizures, which does not require whatever additional intervention (e.g. pharmacological or/and electric stimulation), because epileptic responses are elicited by specific sensory stimulation only. Notwithstanding the fact that different formations of the central nervous system are recruited in audiogenic seizure reactions, critical importance for the manifestation of this type epilepsy is attributed to the inferior colliculus and brainstem reticular nuclei...
November 2018: Georgian Medical News
Erik Schebsdat, Manuel C Kohl, Farah I Corona-Strauss, Harald Seidler, Daniel J Strauss
The importance of binaural cues in auditory stream formation and sound source segregation is widely accepted. When treating one ear with a cochlear implant (CI) the peripheral auditory system gets partially replaced and processing delays get added potentially, thus important interaural time differences get altered. However, these effects are not fully understood, leaving a lack of systematic binaural fitting strategies with respect to an optimal binaural fusion. To get new insights into such alterations, we suggest a novel method of free-field auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABRs) analysis in CI users...
October 2, 2018: Audiology Research
Till F Jakob, Robert-Benjamin Illing, Nicole Rosskothen-Kuhl
Worldwide, almost 500 million people are hearing impaired, making hearing loss the most common sensory impairment among humans. For people with single-sided deafness (SSD), cochlear implants (CIs) can be enormously beneficial by providing binaural information. However, binaural benefits in CI users have been only incompletely realized. Overcoming these limitations requires a better knowledge of how neuronal circuits adapt to SSD and how unilateral CI stimulation can compensate a deaf ear. We investigated effects of neonatal SSD on auditory brainstem circuitry using acoustic (AS), electric (ES), or acoustic stimulation on one ear and electric stimulation on the other ear (AS + ES)...
February 21, 2019: Neuroscience
Angela Marchi, Bernard Giusiano, Mark King, Stanislas Lagarde, Agnès Trébuchon-Dafonseca, Christophe Bernard, Sylvain Rheims, Fabrice Bartolomei, Aileen McGonigal
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe intracerebral aspects of postictal generalized electroencephalography suppression (PGES) following focal to bilateral tonic-clonic ("secondarily generalized tonic-clonic") seizures (GTCS) recorded using stereoelectroencephalographic (SEEG), and to correlate these with electroclinical features. METHODS: Three independent observers scored semiologic and SEEG features. Patient and epilepsy characteristics were collected. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis were performed...
November 22, 2018: Epilepsia
J Y Chen, Y X Li
Auditory neuropathy is a disorder characterized by absent or severely abnormal auditory brainstem response (ABR) with intact outer hair cell function, as evidenced by the presence of evoked otoacoustic emissions and/or cochlear microphonics. Unlike patients with sensory hearing loss who show clinical evidence of impaired outer hair cell function. For ANSD patients, clinical rehabilitation is mainly limited to hearing aid wearing and cochlear implantation. However, the effect of cochlear implantation for ANSD patients may be difference...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Yangyang Xu, Peng Li, Shizhen Zhang, Yi Wang, Xiaoyan Zhao, Xin Wang, Wei Wang
OBJECTIVES: Data on the treatment of the vegetative state (VS) with cervical spinal cord stimulation (cSCS) are limited and prognostic factors are inconclusive. In this study, we present our experience of treating 12 VS patients with cSCS and discuss the prognostic factors. METHODS: Twelve VS patients were enrolled. Preoperative assessments included CT/MRI, PET, brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs), somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), and electroencephalogram (EEG)...
December 13, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Tevfik Sözen, Münir Demir Bajin, Ateş Kara, Levent Sennaroğlu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the national pneumococcal vaccination program on postmeningitis sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall, 2751 patients (2615 cochlear implantation and 136 auditory brainstem implantation) who underwent cochlear implantation (CI) and auditory brainstem implantation (ABI) at a tertiary referral hospital otolaryngology clinic were retrospectively analyzed. One hundred sixteen patients with a history of meningitis were included in the study...
December 12, 2018: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Laura Cavalle Garrido, Konrad Schwarz, Kathrin Lauss, Carlos de Paula Vernetta, Alejandra Kontides, Miguel Diaz Gomez, Abel Guzmán Calvete, Miguel Armengot Carceller
OBJECTIVES: Electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAP) recordings are widely used in functional evaluation and fitting of cochlear implants (CI) in clinics. We compared the results from two eCAP recording approaches (StandardART and FineGrain, MED-EL, Austria). The FineGrain method is more advanced than the Auditory Nerve Response Telemetry (StandardART) method in terms of the stimulation and algorithm for the eCAP threshold detection. To understand the benefits of these alterations, we compared the two methods on a larger scale in pediatric CI users alongside evoked auditory brainstem responses (eABR)...
December 12, 2018: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Torsten Rahne, Thomas Hocke, Christian Strauß, Sabrina Kösling, Laura Fröhlich, Stefan K Plontke
OBJECTIVE: To predict and optimize hearing outcomes with a cochlear implant (CI) in patients with intracochlear schwannoma and neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). PATIENT: A patient with NF2 and bilateral deafness. INTERVENTIONS: The intracochlear portion of a vestibular schwannoma was removed with a partial cochleoectomy. During the procedure, a CI was implanted. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Perioperatively, electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (eABRs) were recorded with a novel intracochlear, CI-evoked, broad band stimulus to support the decision to implant a CI...
January 2019: Otology & Neurotology
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