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J U Van Dyke, R -J Spencer, M B Thompson, B Chessman, K Howard, A Georges
Conservation requires rapid action to be effective, which is often difficult because of funding limitations, political constraints, and limited data. Turtles are among the world's most endangered vertebrate taxa, with almost half of 356 species threatened with extinction. In Australia's Murray River, nest predation by invasive foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was predicted to drive turtle declines in the 1980s. We assessed populations of the broad-shelled turtle (Chelodina expansa), eastern long-necked turtle (C. longicollis), and Murray River turtle (Emydura macquarii) in the Murray River and some of its associated waterways...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Mariela Soledad Fernández, Xia Wang, Mátyás Vremir, Chris Laurent, Darren Naish, Gary Kaiser, Gareth Dyke
A Late Cretaceous-aged multi-taxon nesting site from Romania preserved in three dimensions reveals the earliest example of nest site sharing yet known from the vertebrate fossil record. Eggshell and osteological evidence combined in this single accumulation demonstrate that at least four vertebrate taxa including enantiornithine birds and another avian of indeterminate affinities as well as crocodylomorphs and gekkotan squamates nested together in the same place. Colonial nesting in enantiornithines was previously described from this site; here, we present the first fossil evidence that other vertebrates also nested in the same place, perhaps exploiting the presence of the large bird colony...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Grant Navid Doering, Stephen C Pratt
Maintenance of a social group requires the ability to reach consensus when faced with divisive choices. Thus, when migrating colonies of the ant Temnothorax rugatulus split among multiple sites, they can later reunify on the basis of queen location or differences in site quality. In this study, we found that colonies can reunify even without obvious cues to break the symmetry between sites. To learn how they do so, we observed both symmetric reunifications (between identical nests) and asymmetric reunifications (between nests of unequal quality) by colonies of individually-marked ants...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Experimental Biology
Ashley B Bennett, Sarah Lovell
Urbanization has detrimental effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, as agricultural and semi-natural habitats are converted into landscapes dominated by built features. Urban agricultural sites are a growing component of urban landscapes and have potential to serve as a source of biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service provisioning in urban areas. In 19 urban agricultural sites, we investigated how surrounding land cover and local site variables supported bees and pollination services. We found the abundance of bees differentially responded to landscape and local scale variables depending on body size and nesting habit...
2019: PloS One
Krishnan Balasubramanian
We review various mathematical and computational techniques for drug discovery exemplifying some recent works pertinent to group theory of nested structures of relevance to phylogeny, topological, computational and combinatorial methods for drug discovery for multiple viral infections. We have reviewed techniques from topology, combinatorics, graph theory and knot theory that facilitate topological and mathematical characterizations of protein-protein interactions, molecular-target interactions, proteomics, genomics and statistical data reduction procedures for a large set of starting chemicals in drug discovery...
February 8, 2019: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Yasuo Imai, Shuhei Noda, Chiaki Matsuyama, Ayako Shimizu, Takao Kamai
OBJECTIVE: In rare cases, differential diagnosis between bladder cancer (BC) and gynecological tract cancer (GTC) is difficult because of anatomical proximity and morphological similarity. We analyzed expression status of sex steroid hormone receptors in BC in this study. First, we investigated their usefulness as a histological marker for differential diagnosis. Second, we considered their roles in BC histogenesis. METHODS: Estrogen receptor α (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PgR) expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 125 BCs obtained by transurethral resection or biopsy, then in nonneoplastic background mucosa (trigone, fundus, and dome) of 33 total cystectomy samples...
February 6, 2019: Urologic Oncology
A Kölzsch, G J D M Müskens, P Szinai, S Moonen, P Glazov, H Kruckenberg, M Wikelski, B A Nolet
Background: For the conservation and management of migratory species that strongly decrease or increase due to anthropological impacts, a clear delineation of populations and quantification of possible mixing (migratory connectivity) is crucial. Usually, population exchange in migratory species is only studied in breeding or wintering sites, but we considered the whole annual cycle in order to determine important stages and sites for population mixing in an Arctic migrant. Methods: We used 91 high resolution GPS tracks of Western Palearctic greater white-fronted geese ( Anser A...
2019: Movement Ecology
Lei Zhang, Li-Na Qin, Zi-Rui Zeng, Chang-Zheng Wu, Yuan-Yong Gong, Lai-Hua Liu, Feng-Qiu Cao
Background: Plant root apex is the major part to direct the root growth and development by responding to various signals/cues from internal and soil environments. To study and understand root system biology particularly at a molecular and cellular level, an Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional enhancer trap line J3411 expressing reporters (GFP) only in the root tip was adopted in this study to isolate a DNA fragment. Results: Using nested PCR, DNA sequencing and sequence homology search, the T-DNA insertion site(s) and its flanking genes were characterised in J3411 line...
2019: Plant Methods
Murilo Dantas de Miranda, Henrique M Pereira, Martin F V Corley, Thomas Merckx
Farmland abandonment and the accompanying natural succession are largely perceived as unwanted amongst many European conservationists due to alleged negative effects on biodiversity levels. Here, we test this assumption by analysing alpha, beta and gamma diversity patterns of macro-moth communities in habitats on an ecological succession gradient, from extensively managed meadows to scrub-encroached and wooded sites. Macro-moths were light-trapped at 84 fixed circular sampling sites arranged in a semi-nested design within the National Park of Peneda-Gerês, NW-Portugal...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Luca Pietro Casacci, Karsten Schönrogge, Jeremy Ambler Thomas, Emilio Balletto, Simona Bonelli, Francesca Barbero
In natural ecosystems, relationships between organisms are often characterised by high levels of complexity, where vulnerabilities in multi-trophic systems are difficult to identify, yet variation in specific community modules can be traceable. Within the complex community interactions, we can shed new light on dynamics by which co-evolutionary outcomes can inform science-led conservation. Here we assessed host-ant use in six populations of the butterfly Phengaris (=Maculinea) rebeli, an obligate social parasite of Myrmica ants and a model system in evolutionary and conservation ecology...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Gu Li, Amery D Wu, Sheila K Marshall, Ryan J Watson, Jones K Adjei, Minjeong Park, Elizabeth M Saewyc
There is limited research on evaluating nonrandomized population health interventions. We aimed to introduce a new approach for assessing site-level longitudinal effects of population health interventions (SLEPHI) by innovatively applying multiple group multilevel (MG-ML) modeling to repeated cycles of cross-sectional data collected from different individuals of the same sites at different times, a design commonly employed in public health research. For illustration, we used this SLEPHI method to examine the influence of Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) on school-level perceived safety among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) and heterosexual (HET) adolescents...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
J R Coelho, C W Holliday, J M Hastings
We studied prey theft in two cicada killer aggregations: Ruby, Arizona (Sphecius convallis Patton) and Easton, Pennsylvania (Sphecius speciosus Drury). Many prey (Tibicen parallelus Davis [Hemiptera: Cicadidae]) were stolen from S. convallis by kingbirds and Greater Roadrunners at Ruby. Seventy percent of kingbird attacks on provisioning wasps were successful. Using sand-filled trap nests baited with a cicada, we tested the hypothesis that conspecific females might kleptoparasitize by laying an egg on the cicada and closing the nest cell...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Insect Science
Jiancheng Wang, Huiyuan Guo, Tengfei Lin, Yun Song, Hao Zhang, Binyan Wang, Yan Zhang, Jianping Li, Yong Huo, Xiaobin Wang, Xianhui Qin, Xiping Xu
BACKGROUND: Evidence from epidemiologic studies has been inconsistent regarding the role of vitamin E in cancer incidence risk. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prospective association between baseline plasma vitamin E levels and subsequent cancer risk in Chinese adults with hypertension, and to identify effect modifiers. DESIGN: A nested, case-control study was conducted from 20,702 hypertensive participants in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial, a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, conducted from May 2008 to August 2013...
January 31, 2019: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Roopali Rajput, Paras Singh, Rohit Sarin, Prabhpreet Sethi, Sangeeta Sharma
BACKGROUND: Confirmatory diagnosis of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis remains a true challenge owing to difficulty in procuring appropriate specimen, inefficient laboratory methods and paucibacillary nature of infection. These obstructions become all the very difficult in pediatric EPTB cases, due to non-specific clinical signs and symptoms, low sensitivity of smear microscopy and culture, lack of awareness among clinicians, etc. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of rapid and cost-effective loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for EPTB diagnosis in children...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Charles B Halpern, Joseph A Antos, Shan Kothari, Annette M Olson
Woody-plant encroachment represents a global threat to grasslands. Although the causes and consequences of this regime shift have received substantial attention, the processes that constrain reassembly of the grassland state remain poorly understood. We experimentally tested two potentially important controls on reassembly-the past influence of trees and the effects of fire-in conifer-invaded grasslands (mountain meadows) of western Oregon. Previously, we had reconstructed the history of tree invasion at fine spatial and temporal resolution...
January 31, 2019: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Yanjie Xia, Shiyue Mei, Shuang Hu, Qinghua Wu, Xiangdong Kong
OBJECTIVE: Genetic screening and prenatal diagnosis was performed in eighteen families with high risk of 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) to provide valuable information for genetic counseling in these affected families. METHODS: First, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) combined with nested-PCR based Sanger sequencing was used to detect CYP21A2 gene mutations in probands and their parents of eighteen families, with seven probands had been dead...
February 10, 2019: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Paul Gellert, Norma Bethke, Joachim Seybold
INTRODUCTION: Childhood vaccination programmes have been established in all Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries; however, measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) as well as diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio (Tdap-IPV) vaccination rates are not optimal in adolescents. Education in combination with easy access vaccination may be a promising approach to improve vaccination rates. We aim at improving MMR and Tdap-IPV rates in a school setting in the context of a planned cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT), the present paper describes the detailed protocol of this trial...
January 29, 2019: BMJ Open
Lorelle Barrett, Irek Malecki, Dominique Blache
Floor-laying in commercially farmed Pekin ducks is not well understood. This exploratory study aimed to determine if behavioral differences exist between floor-laying and nest-laying ducks. Retrospective analysis of video footage from a small commercial breeding flock (n = 60 birds) was used to quantify the behavior of floor-laying and nest-laying birds (n = 24 events per group) in the hour prior to oviposition site selection. The frequency, percentage of time spent, and duration of bouts were compared for nest box interactions, behaviors inside and outside of boxes and aggressive interactions...
January 29, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Andrew B Kirke, David Atkinson, Sarah Moore, Kylie Sterry, Sally Singleton, Carly Roxburgh, Kate Parrish, Cindy Porter, Julia V Marley
OBJECTIVE: To quantify screening rate for gestational diabetes mellitus and completion of oral glucose tolerance test in rural and remote Western Australia. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective audit of 551 antenatal records from women of 16 years and older without pre-existing diabetes and with singleton pregnancies delivered in 2013. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of women recorded screened for gestational diabetes mellitus in second or third trimester using oral glucose tolerance test or other tests; gestational diabetes mellitus rate...
January 29, 2019: Australian Journal of Rural Health
Justin S Liberman, Lauren R Samuels, Kathryn Goggins, Sunil Kripalani, Christianne L Roumie
Background Many patients use opioids for nonmalignant pain, and opioid use in the general population has been associated with poor long-term outcomes. The use of high-risk medications, including opioid analgesics, may increase the risk of unplanned healthcare utilization. Methods and Results We performed a nested evaluation in the VICS (Vanderbilt Inpatient Cohort Study) (N=3000) on patients with an admitting diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome and/or acute decompensated heart failure. Patient enrollment occurred from October 2011 until December 2015 and involved a single investigational site, Vanderbilt University Medical Center (Nashville, TN)...
February 5, 2019: Journal of the American Heart Association
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