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hematoencephalic barrier

Juliana Maia Teixeira, Gilson Gonçalves Dos Santos, Amanda Ferreira Neves, Maria Carolina Pedro Athie, Ivan José Magayewski Bonet, Catarine Massucato Nishijima, Felipe Hertzing Farias, Jozi Godoi Figueiredo, Victor Hernandez-Olmos, Samer Alshaibani, Cláudia Herrera Tambeli, Christa E Müller, Carlos Amílcar Parada
Peripheral diabetic neuropathy (PDN) manifests in 50-60% of type I and II diabetic patients and is the major cause of limb amputation. Adequate therapy for PDN is a current challenge. There are evidences that the activation of the P2X4 receptor (P2X4R) expressed on microglial cells of the central nervous system takes part in the development of neuropathic pain. However, there is an open question: Is P2X4R activation on dorsal root ganglia (DRG) involved in the development of neuropathic pain? To answer this question, this study verified the involvement of P2X4R expressed in DRG cells on diabetes-induced neuropathic mechanical hyperalgesia in rats...
December 8, 2018: Neuroscience
Elena Curto, Elvira Munteis-Olivas, Eva Balcells, M Marisol Domínguez-Álvarez
Natalizumab (Tysabri(®)) is a leukocytes chemotaxis inhibitor that decreases the leukocytes passage through the hematoencephalic barrier and it is currently used in relapsing-remitting forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). We present a patient with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis diagnosed with MS who started treatment with natalizumab. She began to show mild asthmatic symptoms until she needed admission to the hospital due to respiratory insufficiency. Blood tests showed peripheral eosinophilia and the thoracic computed tomography scan demonstrated pulmonary infiltrates...
July 2016: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
Eduardo Sousa Melo, Filipe Carrilho Aguiar, Pedro Augusto Sampaio Rocha-Filho
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease who need dialysis often have poor quality of life. Dialysis headache is a frequent complication of hemodialysis and is often a challenge for nephrologists, neurologists, and headache specialists. METHOD: This was a narrative review. RESULTS: The prevalence of dialysis headache varies between 27% and 73%. Among the characteristics of this headache are the pulsatile pattern, frontal location, moderate to severe intensity, and onset a few hours after the beginning of dialysis...
January 2017: Headache
V A Otellin, L I Khozhai, T T Shishko
For the last time a particular interest of investigators has been attracted to the period of early newborn state when active process of adaptation of the organism to new life conditions occur defining its increased sensitivity to the effect of unfavorable environmental factors. An important place among these processes belongs to formation of homeostasis mechanisms and, primarily, the barrier mechanisms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate reactions of the hematoencephalic barrier (HEB) to action of perinatal normobaric hypoxia (a model of incomplete human pregnancy)...
September 2015: Zhurnal Evoliutsionnoĭ Biokhimii i Fiziologii
T I Kotkina, V N Titov, R M Parkhimovich
The mechanisms of beta-oxidation of fatty acids developed more than a century before have no compliance with actual physical chemical data. The oxidation of long-chain C 16:0 palmitic saturated fatty acid occurs not by sequential formation of eight molecules of acetyl-KoA but by force of formation of double bond and its hydrolysis on two short-chain C 8:0 fatty acids. Only short-chain fatty acids can become shorter under "chipping" of C 2-acetate with formation of C 4-butyric acid (butyrate) and its metabolites (beta-hidroxibutirate, acetoacetate, acetone)...
March 2014: Klinicheskaia Laboratornaia Diagnostika
Santiago Besa, Carlos I Calvo, Paul R Harris
Crigler-Najjar Syndrome is an uncommon genetic disorder characterized by the elevation of unconjugated plasmatic bilirubin secondary to deficiency of the enzyme uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UDP-GT). We report a 19-years-old woman with the syndrome diagnosed during the neonatal period, when she developed a severe jaundice in the first 10 days of life, reaching unconjugated bilirubin levels of 29 mg/dl, with normal liver function tests. After transient response to phototherapy, the patient was referred to a tertiary medical center in which an extensive work up ruled out other etiologies and the diagnosis of type I Crigler-Najjar syndrome was established...
January 2014: Revista Médica de Chile
I Jáuregui, M Ferrer, J Montoro, I Dávila, J Bartra, A del Cuvillo, J Mullol, J Sastre, A Valero
The most commonly occurring allergic diseases can involve a daytime drowsiness associated with the condition itself. The antihistamines used in their treatment can also have central effects and affect certain occupations concerned with risk, road safety and maritime and air navigation. Cognitive tests, experimental studies and epidemiological data recommend avoiding 1st generation antihistamines for people who must drive regularly and/or professions concerned with safety. Although there are no comparative studies on real driving between 1st and 2nd generation antihistamines, in this type of patients there should be a preference for prescribing those with least possible central effect, especially those which are a good substrate for transmembrane transporter pumps such as P-glycoprotein and therefore have a low capacity for crossing the hematoencephalic barrier, thus allowing a broader window for therapy...
2013: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
J Montoro, J Bartra, J Sastre, I Dávila, M Ferrer, J Mullol, A del Cuvillo, I Jáuregui, A Valero
Antihistamines (AH) have been classified into first and second generation according to their pharmacokinetic properties, structural characteristics and adverse effects. The effects on the central nervous system (CNS) are determined basically by their capacity to cross the hematoencephalic barrier and attach to central H1 receptors. Benzodiazepines (BZD) are drugs with effects on the CNS following their union to the specific location of GABA receptors type A. At low doses, the BZD have sedative and anticonvulsive effects, and as the dose increases it leads to sedation, amnesia and finally unconsciousness...
2013: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
E A Melnik, Yu P Buzulukov, V F Demin, V A Demin, I V Gmoshinski, N V Tyshko, V A Tutelyan
Silver nanoparticles (NPs), widely used in the manufacture of various types of consumer products and for medical applications, belong to novel types of materials that pose potential risks to human health. The potential negative effects of the influence of these NPs on reproduction are insufficiently researched. A quantitative assessment of the transfer of metallic silver nanoparticles through the placenta and breast milk was carried out during an in vivo experiment. We used 34.9 ± 14.8 nm in size silver NPs that were stabilized by low-molecularweight polyvinylpyrrolidone and labeled with the (110m)Ag radioactive isotope using thermal neutron irradiation in a nuclear reactor...
July 2013: Acta Naturae
Sibelle Feitosa da Cunha Xavier Soares, Andréia Aguiar Vieira, Reinaldo Teixeira Delfino, José Daniel Figueroa-Villar
Neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds (OPs), which are used as pesticides and chemical warfare agents lead to more than 700,000 intoxications worldwide every year. The main target of OPs is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme necessary for the control of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). The control of ACh function is performed by its hydrolysis with AChE, a process that can be completely interrupted by inhibition of the enzyme by phosphylation with OPs. Compounds used for reactivation of the phosphylated AChE are cationic oximes, which usually possess low membrane and hematoencephalic barrier permeation...
September 15, 2013: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
N V Kuvacheva, A B Salmina, Yu K Komleva, N A Malinovskaya, A V Morgun, E A Pozhilenkova, G S Zamai, N A Yauzina, M M Petrova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2013: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
V M Bondarenko, E V Riabichenko
Mutually directed connections between intestine and brain are implemented by endocrine, neural and immune systems and nonspecific natural immunity. Intestine micro flora as an active participant of intestine-brain axis not only influences intestine functions but also stimulates the development of CNS in perinatal period and interacts with higher nervous centers causing depression and cognitive disorders in pathology. A special role belongs to intestine microglia. Apart from mechanic (protective) and trophic functions for intestine neurons, glia implements neurotransmitter, immunologic, barrier and motoric functions in the intestine...
March 2013: Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii
Jana Dvořáčková, Hana Bielniková, Jirka Mačák
The detection of metal particles in the pathologically altered tissues (eg. in inflammatory lesions or tumors) led to the idea that they might be associated with emergence of some idiopathic diseases. To understand the etiopathogenesis of diseases associated with the presence of nanoparticles in the tissue there is a new area of pathology - nanopathology. Numerous studies have shown that nanoparticles can enter the human body through inhalation or ingestion. Through the pulmonary alveoli, skin and intestinal mucosa, the nanoparticles may reach the blood and lymphatic system, which subsequently distributes them to other target organs...
January 2013: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
V P Chekhonin, V P Baklaushev, G M Iusubalieva, N E Volgina, O I Gurina
The results of fundamental and applied studies of blood-brain barrier had been conducted by authors during the last 10 years are summarized in the publication. The molecular anatomy of barrier microvessels, as well as promising markers of BBB and other proteins involved in barrier functions are discussed. Via in vitro experiments with endothelial cells of cerebral microvessels we characterized the basic conditions required for adequate BBB modeling. The in vivo data of BBB permeability for macromolecules in normal and different pathological process is including radiation injury, hyperosmotic shock, and nervous tissue ischemia are properly described...
2012: Vestnik Rossiĭskoĭ Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk
Juan José Rodríguez-Mercado, Mario Agustín Altamirano-Lozano
This review summarizes the current knowledge about the general toxicity of thallium (Tl) and its environmental sources, with special emphasis placed on its potential mutagenic, genotoxic, and cytotoxic effects on both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Tl is a nonessential heavy metal that poses environmental and occupational threats as well as therapeutic hazards because of its use in medicine. It is found in two oxidation states, thallous (Tl(+)) and thallic (Tl(3+)), both of which are considered highly toxic to human beings and domestic and wild organisms...
July 2013: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
V M Bondarenko, E V Riabichenko
The review is dedicated to the role of sensory nerve endings of the gut, vegetal and central nervous system (CNS) in the diseases of gastrointestinal tract. Molecular-cellular inter-relations of nerve endings of the gut and neurons of the CNS are a key axis that among with neuroendocrine and immune responses, define the clinical manifestation and rehabilitation potential of the patient in the development of infectious process in the gut. Infectious-inflammation processes in the gut of various etiologies promote the increase of permeability of the intestine barrier with consequent trans-intestinal translocation of toxins and molecular mediators of inflammation to the system bloodstream...
November 2011: Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii
S Comai, A Bertazzo, N Carretti, A Podfigurna-Stopa, S Luisi, C V L Costa
Tryptophan (Trp) is present in the serum, partly bound to albumine and in the free form. The unbound portion of circulating tryptophan has the property of crossing the hematoencephalic barrier and being converted within the brain into serotonin (5-HT) through the enzymatic processes of hydroxylation and decarboxylation. The serotoninergic system plays an important role in neuroendocrine control of reproductive hormone secretion, and in particular, it may influence GnRH pulsatility, a function essential for reproductive processes...
2010: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
A Rorive, J Collignon, M Martin, C André, G Jerusalem, P Coucke
The cerebral metastases are frequent in the evolution of breast cancer and convey a poor prognosis. The frequency depends on the histology of the cancer and on the expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptors as well as of HER2 antigen. The treatment is currently based on surgery and the different modalities of radiotherapy used alone or in association. Indeed, chemotherapy agents available for the treatment of breast cancer do not cross the hematoencephalic barrier and are thus ineffective. However, some encouraging results have been recently reported with the therapies targeting HER2...
May 2011: Revue Médicale de Liège
Ivan Malík, Fils Andriamainty, Eva Sedlárová, Jozef Cizmárik, Jana Galisinová, Petr Mokrý, Jozef Csöllei, Janka Karlovská, Milos Lukác
The present paper deals with a complex spectral and physicochemical evaluation of mono[{3-[4-(2-etoxyetoxy)-benzoyloxy]-2-hydroxypropyl}-isopropylammonium]fumarate, a potential ultrashort acting beta1-blocker. The identity of the substance under study (labelled as UPB-1) was confirmed by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra as well as IR spectrometry. The determined fundamental physicochemical characteristics included the determination of the melting point, solubility in a spectrum of solvents, verification of purity (adsorption thin-layer chromatography), determination of surface activity (Traube's stalagmometric method), acidobasic characteristics (pK(a) value by means of alkalimetric titration), determination of log epsilon values using spectrophotometry in UV/VIS region, as well as the evaluation of the effect of acid and basic media on the stability of the substance under the study...
April 2011: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
S K Sudakov, V G Bashkatova, A A Kolpakov, A E Umriukhin
The aim of the work was to study effect of peripheral administration of mu-opioid receptor ligands unable to penetrate through the hematoencephalic barrier on the measures of emotionality in rats and on the release of beta-endorphins from nerve endings of the anterior cingulate cortex during emotional stress. The mu-opioid receptor agonist loperimide mostly acted as an anxiolytic whereas the receptor antagonist methylnaloxon showed depressive activity. Lifetime microdialysis and subsequent immunoenzyme assay demonstrated that intraventricular infusion of loperamide and methylnaloxon decreased and increased respectively the surge of beta-endorphin into the intercellular space...
2011: Vestnik Rossiĭskoĭ Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk
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