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Minglu Zhu, Qiongfeng Shi, Tianyiyi He, Zhiran Yi, Yiming Ma, Bin Yang, Tao Chen, Chengkuo Lee
Wearable devices rely on hybrid mechanisms possess the advantages of establishing a smarter system for healthcare, sports monitoring, and smart home etc. Intimate socks with sensing capabilities can reveal more direct sensory information of body for longer duration in daily life. However, the limitation of suitable materials for smart textile makes the development of multi-functional socks remaining as a grand challenge. In this paper, we have developed a self-powered and self-functional sock (S2-sock) to realize diversified functions including energy harvesting and sensing various physiological signals, i...
February 11, 2019: ACS Nano
Dhiren K Pradhan, Ajay K Mishra, Shalini Kumari, Abhisek Basu, Maddury Somayazulu, Elzbieta Gradauskaite, Rebecca M Smith, Jonathan Gardner, P W Turner, Alpha T N'Diaye, M B Holcomb, Ram S Katiyar, Peng Zhou, Gopalan Srinivasan, J M Gregg, J F Scott
We have studied the atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray Bragg reflections, X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of the Pd L-edge, Scanning electron microscopey (SEM) and Raman spectra, and direct magnetoelectric tensor of Pd-substituted lead titanate and lead zirconate-titanate. A primary aim is to determine the percentage of Pd+4 and Pd+2 substitutional at the Ti-sites (we find that it is almost fully substitutional). The atomic force microscopy data uniquely reveal a surprise: both threefold vertical (polarized out-of-plane) and fourfold in-plane domain vertices...
February 8, 2019: Scientific Reports
Y Soldatenko, A El Albani, M Ruzina, C Fontaine, V Nesterovsky, J-L Paquette, A Meunier, M Ovtcharova
The Neoproterozoic Era was characterized by rapidly changing paleogeography, global climate changes and especially by the rise and fall of the Ediacaran macro-biota. The correlation between disparate Ediacaran fossil-bearing localities and the tentative reconstruction of their paleoenvironmental and paleogeographic contexts are usually complicated by the lack of precise and accurate age data. For this reason, Neoproterozoic sedimentary sections associating Ediacaran biota fossils and fresh volcanic material are especially valuable for radioisotopic dating...
February 8, 2019: Scientific Reports
Aude Cincotta, Ekaterina B Pestchevitskaya, Sofia M Sinitsa, Valentina S Markevich, Vinciane Debaille, Svetlana A Reshetova, Irina M Mashchuk, Andrei O Frolov, Axel Gerdes, Johan Yans, Pascal Godefroit
Diverse epidermal appendages including grouped filaments closely resembling primitive feathers in non-avian theropods, are associated with skeletal elements in the primitive ornithischian dinosaur Kulindadromeus zabaikalicus from the Kulinda locality in south-eastern Siberia. This discovery suggests that "feather-like" structures did not evolve exclusively in theropod dinosaurs, but were instead potentially widespread in the whole dinosaur clade. The dating of the Kulinda locality is therefore particularly important for reconstructing the evolution of "feather-like" structures in dinosaurs within a chronostratigraphic framework...
2019: PeerJ
Mengying Xie, Yan Zhang, Marcin J Kraśny, Chris Bowen, Hamideh Khanbareh, Nicholas Gathercole
Self-powered flexible electronics are of particular interest and important for next generation electronics due to their light weight, flexible and self-sustainable properties. Many self-powered sensors made from piezoelectric composite materials are either inflexible or possess low piezoelectricity. In this work, we demonstrate self-powered flexible and highly active pressure and shear sensors based on freeze casting ceramic-polymer structures. A lamellar lead zirconate titanate (PZT) structure is initially developed via freeze-casting and the piezoelectric composites are formed by impregnating a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix into the aligned pore channels...
October 1, 2018: Energy & Environmental Science
Jitao Zhang, Weiwei Zhu, D A Filippov, Wei He, Dongyu Chen, Kang Li, Shengtao Geng, Qingfang Zhang, Liying Jiang, Lingzhi Cao, Roshan Timilsina, Gopalan Srinivasan
A high-Q magnetoelectric (ME) gyrator consisting of a trilayer laminate of nickel-iron-based constant elasticity alloy (Ni-Fe-Cr) and lead zirconate titanate with a coil wound around it has been developed and systematically characterized. Highly efficient magneto-mechanical-electric conversion can be achieved by means of the combination contributions of high quality factors from individuals, and much energy can be transferred through the gyration device. Under an electromechanical resonance frequency of 54...
January 2019: Review of Scientific Instruments
Peter J M van der Slot, Marco A G Porcel, Klaus-J Boller
We theoretically investigate the use of Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (SAWs) for refractive index modulation in optical waveguides consisting of amorphous dielectrics. Considering low-loss Si3 N4 waveguides with a standard core cross-section of 4.4×0.03 μm2 size, buried 8-μm deep in a SiO2 cladding, we compare surface acoustic wave generation in various different geometries via a piezo-active, lead zirconate titanate film placed on top of the surface and driven via an interdigitized transducer (IDT). Using numerical solutions of the acoustic and optical wave equations, we determine the strain distribution of the SAW under resonant excitation...
January 21, 2019: Optics Express
Lutz Nasdala, Fernando Corfu, Blair Schoene, Simon R Tapster, Corey J Wall, Mark D Schmitz, Maria Ovtcharova, Urs Schaltegger, Allen K Kennedy, Andreas Kronz, Peter W Reiners, Yue-Heng Yang, Fu-Yuan Wu, Sarah E M Gain, William L Griffin, Dawid Szymanowski, Chutimun Chanmuang N, Martin Ende, John W Valley, Michael J Spicuzza, Bhuwadol Wanthanachaisaeng, Gerald Giester
Here, we document a detailed characterisation of two zircon gemstones, GZ7 and GZ8. Both stones had the same mass at 19.2 carats (3.84 g) each; both came from placer deposits in the Ratnapura district, Sri Lanka. The U-Pb data are in both cases concordant within the uncertainties of decay constants and yield weighted mean 206 Pb/238 U ages (95% confidence uncertainty) of 530.26 Ma ± 0.05 Ma (GZ7) and 543.92 Ma ± 0.06 Ma (GZ8). Neither GZ7 nor GZ8 have been subjected to any gem enhancement by heating...
December 2018: Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research
Christopher R Fielding, Tracy D Frank, Stephen McLoughlin, Vivi Vajda, Chris Mays, Allen P Tevyaw, Arne Winguth, Cornelia Winguth, Robert S Nicoll, Malcolm Bocking, James L Crowley
Past studies of the end-Permian extinction (EPE), the largest biotic crisis of the Phanerozoic, have not resolved the timing of events in southern high-latitudes. Here we use palynology coupled with high-precision CA-ID-TIMS dating of euhedral zircons from continental sequences of the Sydney Basin, Australia, to show that the collapse of the austral Permian Glossopteris flora occurred prior to 252.3 Ma (~370 kyrs before the main marine extinction). Weathering proxies indicate that floristic changes occurred during a brief climate perturbation in a regional alluvial landscape that otherwise experienced insubstantial change in fluvial style, insignificant reorganization of the depositional surface, and no abrupt aridification...
January 23, 2019: Nature Communications
Jiaqiu Wang, Shuai Luo, Fang Ling, Zheqiang Zhong, Bin Zhang
The correction ability of deformable mirrors (DMs) with different fatigued degrees has been studied by quantitatively analyzing the fitting wavefront, the times-diffraction-limit factor β, and the wavefront power spectral density (PSD). The results indicate that the fatigue of DMs can be ignored when the DM continually works below 105 cycles, while the performance of the DM degrades gradually if the loading cycles of the DMs exceed 105 . Consequently, the peak-valley (PV) value of the fitting wavefront of the DM decreases with the increase of the fatigue degree of the DM, resulting in the increase of the PV value of the corresponding residual wavefront...
December 10, 2018: Applied Optics
J Kawai, D Chris McLendon, H-J Kim, S A Benner
While formaldehyde (HCHO) was likely generated in Earth's prebiotic atmosphere by ultraviolet light, electrical discharge, and/or volcano-created lightning, HCHO could not have accumulated in substantial amounts in prebiotic environments, including those needed for prebiotic processes that generate nucleosidic carbohydrates. HCHO at high concentrations in alkaline solutions self-reacts in the Cannizzaro reaction to give methanol and formate, neither having prebiotic value. Here, we explore the possibility that volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) might have generated a reservoir for Hadean HCHO by a reversible reaction with HCHO to give hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS)...
January 7, 2019: Astrobiology
C Brenhin Keller, Jon M Husson, Ross N Mitchell, William F Bottke, Thomas M Gernon, Patrick Boehnke, Elizabeth A Bell, Nicholas L Swanson-Hysell, Shanan E Peters
The Great Unconformity, a profound gap in Earth's stratigraphic record often evident below the base of the Cambrian system, has remained among the most enigmatic field observations in Earth science for over a century. While long associated directly or indirectly with the occurrence of the earliest complex animal fossils, a conclusive explanation for the formation and global extent of the Great Unconformity has remained elusive. Here we show that the Great Unconformity is associated with a set of large global oxygen and hafnium isotope excursions in magmatic zircon that suggest a late Neoproterozoic crustal erosion and sediment subduction event of unprecedented scale...
December 31, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Fengzai Tang, Richard J M Taylor, Josh F Einsle, Cauê S Borlina, Roger R Fu, Benjamin P Weiss, Helen M Williams, Wyn Williams, Lesleis Nagy, Paul A Midgley, Eduardo A Lima, Elizabeth A Bell, T Mark Harrison, Ellen W Alexander, Richard J Harrison
Zircon crystals from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, are one of the few surviving mineralogical records of Earth's first 500 million years and have been proposed to contain a paleomagnetic record of the Hadean geodynamo. A prerequisite for the preservation of Hadean magnetization is the presence of primary magnetic inclusions within pristine igneous zircon. To date no images of the magnetic recorders within ancient zircon have been presented. Here we use high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that all observed inclusions are secondary features formed via two distinct mechanisms...
December 31, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hamidreza Hoshyarmanesh, Nafiseh Ebrahimi, Amir Jafari, Parisa Hoshyarmanesh, Minjae Kim, Hyung-Ho Park
The composition of fine-ground lead zirconate-titanate powder Pb(Zr0.52 Ti0.48 )O₃, suspended in PZT and bismuth titanate (BiT) solutions, is deposited on the curved surface of IN718 and IN738 nickel-based supper alloy substrates up to 100 µm thickness. Photochemical metal organic and infiltration techniques are implemented to produce smooth, semi-dense, and crack-free random orientated thick piezoelectric films as piezo-sensors, free of any dopants or thickening polymers. Every single layer of the deposited films is heated at 200 °C with 10 wt...
December 20, 2018: Sensors
Jakub Duszczyk, Katarzyna Siuzdak, Tomasz Klimczuk, Judyta Strychalska-Nowak, Adriana Zaleska-Medynska
Manganese phosphate coating could be used to protect the surface of steel products. However, it is essential to determine the effects which process parameters, as well as the types of additives used, have on the efficiency of coating deposition. Thus, we present here a process of phosphatization of low-alloy steel (for 15 min at 95 °C) in manganese/nickel baths followed by a passivation process with the use of a silicon and zircon compounds. The microstructure and morphology of the surface were analyzed by SEM EDX and XRD methods...
December 18, 2018: Materials
Pedro Junior, Doriana M D'Addona, Paulo R Aguiar
Low-cost piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) diaphragm transducers have attracted increasing attention as effective sensing devices, based on the electromechanical impedance (EMI) principle, for applications in many engineering sectors. Due to the considerable potential of PZT diaphragm transducers in terms of excellent electromechanical coupling properties, low implementation cost and wide-band frequency response, this technique provides a new alternative approach for tool condition monitoring in grinding processes competing with the conventional and expensive indirect sensor monitoring methods...
December 16, 2018: Sensors
M J Madruga, C Miró, M Reis, L Silva
Building materials from Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain) were collected and analysed for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K using HPGe gamma-ray spectrometers. The results show that the highest mean value of 226Ra and 232Th activities are 2168 and 390 Bq kg-1, respectively, measured in zircon. For 40K, this value is 1290 Bq kg-1, measured in granite. The mean concentrations of the three radionuclides in the different building materials, excluding the zircon and the industrial by-products (ashes, gypsum and phosphogypsum), are 62, 31 and 519 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively...
December 13, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Fa-Qian Liu, Guo-Hua Li, Shu-Wen Luo, Weihua Li, Zhao-Ge Huang, Wei Li, Feng Su, Chao-Qin Li, Zhen-Bo Ding, Qinglong Jiang
It was reported that the main obstacle of Li2ZrO3 as high-temperature CO2 adsorbents is the very slow CO2 sorption kinetics, which are ascribed to the formation of solid zirconia and carbonate layers along with unreacted lithium zirconate phase; accordingly, the Li+ and O2- have to travel long distance through the solid layers by diffusion, resulting in "sticky" ions which undergo frequent trapping and detrapping. We report here that three dimensional (3D) interconnected nanoporous Li2ZrO3 is promising for CO2 capture with ultrafast kinetics...
December 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Romana E C Dew, Simon Nachtergaele, Alan S Collins, Stijn Glorie, John Foden, Johan De Grave, Morgan L Blades, Christopher K Morley, Noreen J Evans, Brandon L Alessio, Pitsanupong Kanjanapayont, Rosalind King, Punya Charusiri
This data article provides zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic information along with whole-rock Sm-Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic geochemistry from granitoids in Thailand. The U-Pb ages are described and the classification of crystallisation and inherited ages are explained. The petrography of the granitoid samples is detailed. The data presented in this article are interpreted and discussed in the research article entitled "Probing into Thailand's basement: New insights from U-Pb geochronology, Sr, Sm-Nd, Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic systems from granitoids" (Dew et al...
December 2018: Data in Brief
Prakruthi Hareesh, Don L DeVoe
Traveling wave ultrasonic micromotors fabricated from a single layer of homogeneous bulk piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) are described. The miniature motors are capable of bi-directional rotary motion with controllable speeds. By taking advantage of transverse interdigitated electrodes to excite traveling waves in a patterned bulk PZT substrate, the monolithic micromotor stators are patterned using a simple and low cost fabrication technique based on micropowder blasting. Performance of the ultrasonic micromotors is explored using devices with integrated glass rotors, using defined preload forces applied between the microfabricated stator and rotor elements...
June 2018: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
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