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Ami Klin

Jessica Bradshaw, Scott Gillespie, Cheryl Klaiman, Ami Klin, Celine Saulnier
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder and average IQ exhibit a widening discrepancy between lagging adaptive skills relative to their cognitive potential, but it is unknown when this discrepancy emerges in development. To address this important question, we measured adaptive and cognitive skills longitudinally, from 12-36 months, in 96 low-risk typically developing infants and 69 high-risk siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder who at 36 months were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder ( N = 21), the broader autism phenotype ( N = 19), or showed no concerns (unaffected; N = 29)...
December 7, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Longchuan Li, Jocelyne Bachevalier, Xiaoping Hu, Ami Klin, Todd M Preuss, Sarah Shultz, Warren Jones
Although a large body of research has identified discrete neuroanatomical regions involved in social cognition and behavior (the "social brain"), the existing findings are based largely on studies of specific brain structures defined within the context of particular tasks or for specific types of social behavior. The objective of the current work was to view these regions as nodes of a larger collective network and to quantitatively characterize both the topology of that network and the relative criticality of its many nodes...
November 2018: Brain Connectivity
Simon Baron-Cohen, Ami Klin, Steve Silberman, Joseph D Buxbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Molecular Autism
Sarah Shultz, Ami Klin, Warren Jones
Within the context of early infant-caregiver interaction, we review a series of pivotal transitions that occur within the first 6 months of typical infancy, with emphasis on behavior and brain mechanisms involved in preferential orientation towards, and interaction with, other people. Our goal in reviewing these transitions is to better understand how they may lay a necessary and/or sufficient groundwork for subsequent phases of development, and also to understand how the breakdown thereof, when development is atypical and those transitions become derailed, may instead yield disability...
May 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Robin Sifre, Lindsay Olson, Scott Gillespie, Ami Klin, Warren Jones, Sarah Shultz
Preferential attention to biological motion is an early-emerging mechanism of adaptive action that plays a critical role in social development. The present study provides a comprehensive longitudinal mapping of developmental change in preferential attention to biological motion in 116 infants at 7 longitudinal time points. Tested repeatedly from 2 until 24 months of age, results reveal that preferential attention to biological motion changes considerably during the first months of life. Previously reported preferences in both neonates and older infants are absent in the second month but do reemerge by month 3 and become increasingly pronounced during the subsequent two years...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
John N Constantino, Stefanie Kennon-McGill, Claire Weichselbaum, Natasha Marrus, Alyzeh Haider, Anne L Glowinski, Scott Gillespie, Cheryl Klaiman, Ami Klin, Warren Jones
Long before infants reach, crawl or walk, they explore the world by looking: they look to learn and to engage, giving preferential attention to social stimuli, including faces, face-like stimuli and biological motion. This capacity-social visual engagement-shapes typical infant development from birth and is pathognomonically impaired in children affected by autism. Here we show that variation in viewing of social scenes, including levels of preferential attention and the timing, direction and targeting of individual eye movements, is strongly influenced by genetic factors, with effects directly traceable to the active seeking of social information...
July 20, 2017: Nature
Jennifer M Moriuchi, Ami Klin, Warren Jones
OBJECTIVE: Two hypotheses, gaze aversion and gaze indifference, are commonly cited to explain a diagnostic hallmark of autism: reduced attention to others' eyes. The two posit different areas of atypical brain function, different pathogenic models of disability, and different possible treatments. Evidence for and against each hypothesis is mixed but has thus far focused on older children and adults. The authors evaluated both mechanistic hypotheses in two sets of experiments at the time of initial diagnosis...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
Domenic V Cicchetti, Ami Klin, Fred R Volkmar
Cohen's (Educ Psychol Meth. 1960;23:37-40) kappa statistic has been criticized recently for providing low chance-corrected coefficients (<0.40) despite high levels of examiner agreement (e.g., ≥85%). The AC1 statistic (Series. 2002;2:1-9; BMC Med Res Methodol. 2013;13:61), the alpha statistic (J Clin Epidemiol. 1996;49:775-782), the B statistic (BMC Med Res Methodol. 2013;13:97), and the delta statistic (Commun Statist Theory Meth. 2008;37:760-772) were developed to "correct" this "problem." Each of these statistics produces inaccurate results because they either derive from levels of chance agreement that are incorrect (Gwet's AC1 statistic) or fail to correct for chance levels of agreement (the alpha, B, and delta approaches)...
January 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Rebecca Burger-Caplan, Celine Saulnier, Warren Jones, Ami Klin
The Social Attribution Task, Multiple Choice is introduced as a measure of implicit social cognitive ability in children, addressing a key challenge in quantification of social cognitive function in autism spectrum disorder, whereby individuals can often be successful in explicit social scenarios, despite marked social adaptive deficits. The 19-question Social Attribution Task, Multiple Choice, which presents ambiguous stimuli meant to elicit social attribution, was administered to children with autism spectrum disorder (N = 23) and to age-matched and verbal IQ-matched typically developing children (N = 57)...
November 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Ami Klin, Amy M Wetherby, Juliann Woods, Celine Saulnier, Jennifer Stapel-Wax, Cheryl Klaiman, Warren Jones, Emily Rubin, Lawrence Scahill, Nathan Call, Karen Bearss, Chris Gunter, Charles J Courtemanche, Anthony Lemieux, James C Cox, David S Mandell, James P Van Decar, Ronald A Miller, Cherri L Shireman
The burdens faced by military families who have a child with autism are unique. The usual challenges of securing diagnostic, treatment, and educational services are compounded by life circumstances that include the anxieties of war, frequent relocation and separation, and a demand structure that emphasizes mission readiness and service. Recently established military autism-specific health care benefits set the stage for community-viable and cost-effective solutions that can achieve better outcomes for children and greater well-being for families...
March 2015: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Ami Klin, Cheryl Klaiman, Warren Jones
Autism spectrum disorder (autism) is a highly prevalent and heterogeneous family of neurodevelopmental disorders of genetic origins with potentially devastating implications for child, family, health and educational systems. Despite advances in paper-and-pencil screening and in standardization of diagnostic procedures, diagnosis of autism in the US still hovers around the ages of four or five years, later still in disadvantaged communities, and several years after the age of two to three years when the condition can be reliably diagnosed by expert clinicians...
February 25, 2015: Revista de Neurologia
Natasha Marrus, Anne L Glowinski, Theodore Jacob, Ami Klin, Warren Jones, Caroline E Drain, Kieran E Holzhauer, Vaishnavi Hariprasad, Robert T Fitzgerald, Erika L Mortenson, Sayli M Sant, Lyndsey Cole, Satchel A Siegel, Yi Zhang, Arpana Agrawal, Andrew C Heath, John N Constantino
BACKGROUND: Reciprocal social behavior (RSB) is a developmental prerequisite for social competency, and deficits in RSB constitute a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although clinical screeners categorically ascertain risk of ASD in early childhood, rapid methods for quantitative measurement of RSB in toddlers are not yet established. Such measurements are critical for tracking developmental trajectories and incremental responses to intervention. METHODS: We developed and validated a 20-min video-referenced rating scale, the video-referenced rating of reciprocal social behavior (vrRSB), for untrained caregivers to provide standardized ratings of quantitative variation in RSB...
December 2015: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Katarzyna Chawarska, Frederick Shic, Suzanne Macari, Daniel J Campbell, Jessica Brian, Rebecca Landa, Ted Hutman, Charles A Nelson, Sally Ozonoff, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Gregory S Young, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Ira L Cohen, Tony Charman, Daniel S Messinger, Ami Klin, Scott Johnson, Susan Bryson
OBJECTIVE: Younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk (HR) for developing ASD as well as features of the broader autism phenotype. Although this complicates early diagnostic considerations in this cohort, it also provides an opportunity to examine patterns of behavior associated specifically with ASD compared to other developmental outcomes. METHOD: We applied Classification and Regression Trees (CART) analysis to individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in 719 HR siblings to identify behavioral features at 18 months that were predictive of diagnostic outcomes (ASD, atypical development, and typical development) at 36 months...
December 2014: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Ami Klin, Sarah Shultz, Warren Jones
Efforts to determine and understand the causes of autism are currently hampered by a large disconnect between recent molecular genetics findings that are associated with the condition and the core behavioral symptoms that define the condition. In this perspective piece, we propose a systems biology framework to bridge that gap between genes and symptoms. The framework focuses on basic mechanisms of socialization that are highly-conserved in evolution and are early-emerging in development. By conceiving of these basic mechanisms of socialization as quantitative endophenotypes, we hope to connect genes and behavior in autism through integrative studies of neurodevelopmental, behavioral, and epigenetic changes...
March 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Domenic V Cicchetti, Catherine Lord, Kathy Koenig, Ami Klin, Fred R Volkmar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Domenic V Cicchetti, Catherine Lord, Kathy Koenig, Ami Klin, Fred R Volkmar
In an earlier investigation, the authors assessed the reliability of the ADI-R when multiple clinicians evaluated a single case, here a female 3 year old toddler suspected of having an autism spectrum disorder (Cicchetti et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 38:764-770, 2008). Applying the clinical criteria of Cicchetti and Sparrow (Am J Men Def 86:127-137, 1981); and those of Cicchetti et al. (Child Neuropsychol 126-137, 1995): 74 % of the ADI-R items showed 100 % agreement; 6 % showed excellent agreement; 7 % showed good agreement; 3 % manifested average agreement; and the remaining 10 % evidenced poor agreement...
December 2014: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Warren Jones, Ami Klin
Deficits in eye contact have been a hallmark of autism since the condition's initial description. They are cited widely as a diagnostic feature and figure prominently in clinical instruments; however, the early onset of these deficits has not been known. Here we show in a prospective longitudinal study that infants later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) exhibit mean decline in eye fixation from 2 to 6 months of age, a pattern not observed in infants who do not develop ASD. These observations mark the earliest known indicators of social disability in infancy, but also falsify a prior hypothesis: in the first months of life, this basic mechanism of social adaptive action--eye looking--is not immediately diminished in infants later diagnosed with ASD; instead, eye looking appears to begin at normative levels prior to decline...
December 19, 2013: Nature
William G Sharp, Rashelle C Berry, Courtney McCracken, Nadrat N Nuhu, Elizabeth Marvel, Celine A Saulnier, Ami Klin, Warren Jones, David L Jaquess
We conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of research regarding feeding problems and nutrient status among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The systematic search yielded 17 prospective studies involving a comparison group. Using rigorous meta-analysis techniques, we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) with standard error and corresponding odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Results indicated children with ASD experienced significantly more feeding problems versus peers, with an overall SMD of 0...
September 2013: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Amanda Mossman Steiner, Grace W Gengoux, Ami Klin, Katarzyna Chawarska
Presently there is limited research to suggest efficacious interventions for infants at-risk for autism. Pivotal response treatment (PRT) has empirical support for use with preschool children with autism, but there are no reports in the literature utilizing this approach with infants. In the current study, a developmental adaptation of PRT was piloted via a brief parent training model with three infants at-risk for autism. Utilizing a multiple baseline design, the data suggest that the introduction of PRT resulted in increases in the infants' frequency of functional communication and parents' fidelity of implementation of PRT procedures...
January 2013: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Suzanne L Macari, Daniel Campbell, Grace W Gengoux, Celine A Saulnier, Ami J Klin, Katarzyna Chawarska
The study examined whether performance profiles on individual items of the Toddler Module of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule at 12 months are associated with developmental status at 24 months in infants at high and low risk for developing Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A nonparametric decision-tree learning algorithm identified sets of 12-month predictors of developmental status at 24 months. Results suggest that identification of infants who are likely to exhibit symptoms of ASD at 24 months is complicated by variable patterns of symptom emergence...
December 2012: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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