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Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

Jenny A Cresswell, Rasmané Ganaba, Sophie Sarrassat, Henri Somé, Abdoulaye Hama Diallo, Simon Cousens, Veronique Filippi
BACKGROUND: The benefits of exclusive breastfeeding on mortality, health, and development of children have been well documented. In Burkina Faso, the Alive & Thrive initiative combined interpersonal communication and community mobilisation activities with the aim of improving knowledge, beliefs, skills, and, ultimately, breastfeeding outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the Alive & Thrive initiative on exclusive breastfeeding in Boucle du Mouhoun, Burkina Faso...
March 2019: Lancet Global Health
John D Anderson, Karoun H Bagamian, Farzana Muhib, Mirna P Amaya, Lindsey A Laytner, Thomas Wierzba, Richard Rheingans
BACKGROUND: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and shigella are two major pathogens that cause moderate-to-severe diarrhoea in children younger than 5 years. Diarrhoea is associated with an increased risk of stunting, which puts children at risk of death due to other infectious diseases. METHODS: We modelled ETEC-related and shigella-related mortality and the effect of moderate-to-severe diarrhoea episodes to determine the number of children with stunting due to these infections in 79 low-income and lower middle-income countries...
March 2019: Lancet Global Health
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Seizures and their consequences contribute to the burden of epilepsy because they can cause health loss (premature mortality and residual disability). Data on the burden of epilepsy are needed for health-care planning and resource allocation. The aim of this study was to quantify health loss due to epilepsy by age, sex, year, and location using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study. METHODS: We assessed the burden of epilepsy in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016...
February 14, 2019: Lancet Neurology
Megan E Carey, Zoey I Diaz, Anita K M Zaidi, A Duncan Steele
Recognizing that enteric fever disproportionately affects the poorest and the most vulnerable communities that have limited access to improved sanitation, safe water sources, and optimal medical care, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has funded efforts to augment global understanding of the disease since the foundation's inception. At the turn of the century, early efforts focused on characterizing the burden of disease in Asia and evaluating use of the available Vi-polysaccharide vaccines through the Diseases of the Most Impoverished projects at the International Vaccine Institute (IVI)...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
James A Church, Edward P Parker, Beth D Kirkpatrick, Nicholas C Grassly, Andrew J Prendergast
BACKGROUND: Oral vaccines underperform in low-income and middle-income countries compared with in high-income countries. Whether interventions can improve oral vaccine performance is uncertain. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions designed to increase oral vaccine efficacy or immunogenicity. We searched Ovid-MEDLINE and Embase for trials published until Oct 23, 2017. Inclusion criteria for meta-analysis were two or more studies per intervention category and available seroconversion data...
February 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
G Justus Hofmeyr, Ana Pilar Betrán, Mandisa Singata-Madliki, Gabriela Cormick, Stephen P Munjanja, Susan Fawcus, Simpiwe Mose, David Hall, Alvaro Ciganda, Armando H Seuc, Theresa A Lawrie, Eduardo Bergel, James M Roberts, Peter von Dadelszen, José M Belizán
BACKGROUND: Reducing deaths from hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is a global priority. Low dietary calcium might account for the high prevalence of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in low-income countries. Calcium supplementation in the second half of pregnancy is known to reduce the serious consequences of pre-eclampsia; however, the effect of calcium supplementation during placentation is not known. We aimed to test the hypothesis that calcium supplementation before and in early pregnancy (up to 20 weeks' gestation) prevents the development of pre-eclampsia METHODS: We did a multicountry, parallel arm, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Argentina...
January 26, 2019: Lancet
Cynthia Schuck-Paim, Robert J Taylor, Wladimir J Alonso, Daniel M Weinberger, Lone Simonsen
BACKGROUND: Understanding the real-world effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) on pneumonia mortality is crucial because of the expectation that increased PCV use will substantially reduce the burden of pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years. However, few post-vaccine introduction studies have estimated the benefits of PCV use on childhood mortality and results have been inconsistent. Therefore, we set out to assess the effect of introduction of ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) on pneumonia mortality in children in Brazil...
February 2019: Lancet Global Health
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is the most common inflammatory neurological disease in young adults. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) provides a systematic method of quantifying various effects of a given condition by demographic variables and geography. In this systematic analysis, we quantified the global burden of multiple sclerosis and its relationship with country development level. METHODS: We assessed the epidemiology of multiple sclerosis from 1990 to 2016...
January 21, 2019: Lancet Neurology
John S Ji, Anna Zhu, Chen Bai, Chih-Da Wu, Lijing Yan, Shenglan Tang, Yi Zeng, Peter James
BACKGROUND: Exposure to natural vegetation, or greenness, might affect health through several pathways, including increased physical activity and social engagement, improved mental health, and reductions in exposure to air pollution, extreme temperatures, and noise. Few studies of the effects of greenness have focused on Asia, and, to the best of our knowledge, no study has assessed the effect on vulnerable oldest-old populations. We assessed the association between residential greenness and mortality in an older cohort in China...
January 2019: Lancet. Planetary Health
Robert J Commons, Julie A Simpson, Kamala Thriemer, Mohammad S Hossain, Nicholas M Douglas, Georgina S Humphreys, Carol H Sibley, Philippe J Guerin, Ric N Price
BACKGROUND: A 14-day course of primaquine is used for radical cure of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malaria only. We quantified the risk of P vivax parasitaemia after treatment of Plasmodium falciparum with commonly used antimalarial drugs to assess the potential benefits of radical cure for all patients with uncomplicated malaria in co-endemic regions. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for prospective clinical studies in any language, published between Jan 1, 1960, and Jan 5, 2018, assessing drug efficacy in patients with uncomplicated P falciparum malaria in countries co-endemic for P vivax...
January 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Chama Mulubwa, Bernadette Hensen, Mwelwa M Phiri, Kwame Shanaube, Albertus J Schaap, Sian Floyd, Comfort R Phiri, Chiti Bwalya, Virginia Bond, Musonda Simwinga, Lawrence Mwenge, Sarah Fidler, Richard Hayes, Alwyn Mwinga, Helen Ayles
BACKGROUND: The HPTN 071 (PopART) cluster-randomised trial provided door-to-door HIV testing services to a large proportion of individuals residing in 21 intervention communities in Zambia and South Africa from 2014 to 2017 and reached the UNAIDS first 90 target among women in Zambia, yet gaps remained among men and young adults. This cluster-randomised study nested in the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial sought to increase knowledge of HIV status across all groups by offering the choice of oral HIV self-testing in addition to routine door-to-door HIV testing services...
December 21, 2018: Lancet HIV
Valery L Feigin, Grant Nguyen, Kelly Cercy, Catherine O Johnson, Tahiya Alam, Priyakumari G Parmar, Amanuel A Abajobir, Kalkidan H Abate, Foad Abd-Allah, Ayenew N Abejie, Gebre Y Abyu, Zanfina Ademi, Gina Agarwal, Muktar B Ahmed, Rufus O Akinyemi, Rajaa Al-Raddadi, Leopold N Aminde, Catherine Amlie-Lefond, Hossein Ansari, Hamid Asayesh, Solomon W Asgedom, Tesfay M Atey, Henok T Ayele, Maciej Banach, Amitava Banerjee, Aleksandra Barac, Suzanne L Barker-Collo, Till Bärnighausen, Lars Barregard, Sanjay Basu, Neeraj Bedi, Masoud Behzadifar, Yannick Béjot, Derrick A Bennett, Isabela M Bensenor, Derbew F Berhe, Dube J Boneya, Michael Brainin, Ismael R Campos-Nonato, Valeria Caso, Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela, Jacquelin C Rivas, Ferrán Catalá-López, Hanne Christensen, Michael H Criqui, Albertino Damasceno, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Kairat Davletov, Barbora de Courten, Gabrielle deVeber, Klara Dokova, Dumessa Edessa, Matthias Endres, Emerito J A Faraon, Maryam S Farvid, Florian Fischer, Kyle Foreman, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Seana L Gall, Tsegaye T Gebrehiwot, Johanna M Geleijnse, Richard F Gillum, Maurice Giroud, Alessandra C Goulart, Rahul Gupta, Rajeev Gupta, Vladimir Hachinski, Randah R Hamadeh, Graeme J Hankey, Habtamu A Hareri, Rasmus Havmoeller, Simon I Hay, Mohamed I Hegazy, Desalegn T Hibstu, Spencer L James, Panniyammakal Jeemon, Denny John, Jost B Jonas, Jacek Jóźwiak, Rizwan Kalani, Amit Kandel, Amir Kasaeian, Andre P Kengne, Yousef S Khader, Abdur R Khan, Young-Ho Khang, Jagdish Khubchandani, Daniel Kim, Yun J Kim, Mika Kivimaki, Yoshihiro Kokubo, Dhaval Kolte, Jacek A Kopec, Soewarta Kosen, Michael Kravchenko, Rita Krishnamurthi, G Anil Kumar, Alessandra Lafranconi, Pablo M Lavados, Yirga Legesse, Yongmei Li, Xiaofeng Liang, Warren D Lo, Stefan Lorkowski, Paulo A Lotufo, Clement T Loy, Mark T Mackay, Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek, Mahdi Mahdavi, Azeem Majeed, Reza Malekzadeh, Deborah C Malta, Abdullah A Mamun, Lorenzo G Mantovani, Sheila C O Martins, Kedar K Mate, Mohsen Mazidi, Suresh Mehata, Toni Meier, Yohannes A Melaku, Walter Mendoza, George A Mensah, Atte Meretoja, Haftay B Mezgebe, Tomasz Miazgowski, Ted R Miller, Norlinah M Ibrahim, Shafiu Mohammed, Ali H Mokdad, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Andrew E Moran, Kamarul I Musa, Ruxandra I Negoi, Minh Nguyen, Quyen L Nguyen, Trang H Nguyen, Tung T Tran, Thanh T Nguyen, Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum, Bo Norrving, Jean J Noubiap, Martin J O’Donnell, Andrew T Olagunju, Oyere K Onuma, Mayowa O Owolabi, Mahboubeh Parsaeian, George C Patton, Michael Piradov, Martin A Pletcher, Farshad Pourmalek, V Prakash, Mostafa Qorbani, Mahfuzar Rahman, Muhammad A Rahman, Rajesh K Rai, Annemarei Ranta, David Rawaf, Salman Rawaf, Andre MN Renzaho, Stephen R Robinson, Ramesh Sahathevan, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Joshua A Salomon, Paola Santalucia, Itamar S Santos, Benn Sartorius, Aletta E Schutte, Sadaf G Sepanlou, Azadeh Shafieesabet, Masood A Shaikh, Morteza Shamsizadeh, Kevin N Sheth, Mekonnen Sisay, Min-Jeong Shin, Ivy Shiue, Diego A S Silva, Eugene Sobngwi, Michael Soljak, Reed J D Sorensen, Luciano A Sposato, Saverio Stranges, Rizwan A Suliankatchi, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, David Tanne, Cuong Tat Nguyen, J S Thakur, Amanda G Thrift, David L Tirschwell, Roman Topor-Madry, Bach X Tran, Luong T Nguyen, Thomas Truelsen, Nikolaos Tsilimparis, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Kingsley N Ukwaja, Olalekan A Uthman, Yuri Varakin, Tommi Vasankari, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Vasiliy V Vlassov, Wenzhi Wang, Andrea Werdecker, Charles D A Wolfe, Gelin Xu, Yuichiro Yano, Naohiro Yonemoto, Chuanhua Yu, Zoubida Zaidi, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Maigeng Zhou, Boback Ziaeian, Ben Zipkin, Theo Vos, Mohsen Naghavi, Christopher J L Murray, Gregory A Roth
BACKGROUND: The lifetime risk of stroke has been calculated in a limited number of selected populations. We sought to estimate the lifetime risk of stroke at the regional, country, and global level using data from a comprehensive study of the prevalence of major diseases. METHODS: We used the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016 estimates of stroke incidence and the competing risks of death from any cause other than stroke to calculate the cumulative lifetime risks of first stroke, ischemic stroke, or hemorrhagic stroke among adults 25 years of age or older...
December 20, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Andrew J Prendergast, Bernard Chasekwa, Ceri Evans, Kuda Mutasa, Mduduzi N N Mbuya, Rebecca J Stoltzfus, Laura E Smith, Florence D Majo, Naume V Tavengwa, Batsirai Mutasa, Goldberg T Mangwadu, Cynthia M Chasokela, Ancikaria Chigumira, Lawrence H Moulton, Robert Ntozini, Jean H Humphrey
BACKGROUND: Children exposed to HIV have a high prevalence of stunting and anaemia. We aimed to test the effect of improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF) and improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) on child linear growth and haemoglobin concentrations. METHODS: We did a cluster randomised 2 × 2 factorial trial in two districts in rural Zimbabwe. Women were eligible for inclusion if they permanently lived in the trial clusters (ie, the catchment area of between one and four village health workers employed by the Zimbabwean Ministry of Health and Child Care) and were confirmed pregnant...
December 17, 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Juan Liang, Xiaohong Li, Chuyun Kang, Yanping Wang, Xie Rachel Kulikoff, Matthew M Coates, Marie Ng, Shusheng Luo, Yi Mu, Xiaodong Wang, Rong Zhou, Xinghui Liu, Yali Zhang, Yubo Zhou, Maigeng Zhou, Qi Li, Zheng Liu, Li Dai, Mingrong Li, Yiyi Zhang, Kui Deng, Xinying Zeng, Changfei Deng, Ling Yi, Jun Zhu, Christopher J L Murray, Haidong Wang
BACKGROUND: As one of only a handful of countries that have achieved both Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5, China has substantially lowered maternal mortality in the past two decades. Little is known, however, about the levels and trends of maternal mortality at the county level in China. METHODS: Using a national registration system of maternal mortality at the county level, we estimated the maternal mortality ratios for 2852 counties in China between 1996 and 2015...
December 13, 2018: Lancet
Patience A Afulani, Beth Phillips, Raymond A Aborigo, Cheryl A Moyer
BACKGROUND: Several qualitative studies have described disrespectful, abusive, and neglectful treatment of women during facility-based childbirth, but few studies document the extent of person-centred maternity care (PCMC)-ie, responsive and respectful maternity care-in low-income and middle-income countries. In this Article, we present descriptive statistics on PCMC in four settings across three low-income and middle-income countries, and we examine key factors associated with PCMC in each setting...
January 2019: Lancet Global Health
Cynthia Chen, Francisco Cervero Liceras, Stefan Flasche, Sucitro Sidharta, Joanne Yoong, Neisha Sundaram, Mark Jit
BACKGROUND: Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has substantially reduced disease burden due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. However, PCVs are among the most expensive vaccines, hindering their introduction in some settings and threatening sustainability in others. We aimed to assess the effect and cost-effectiveness of introduction of 13-valent PCV (PCV13) vaccination globally. METHODS: We assessed the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of PCV13 introduction by integrating two models: an ecological model (a parsimonious, mechanistic model validated with data from post-seven-valent PCV introduction in 13 high-income settings) to predict the effect of PCV on childhood invasive pneumococcal disease, and a decision-tree model to predict a range of clinical presentations and economic outcomes under vaccination and no-vaccination strategies...
January 2019: Lancet Global Health
Jean H Humphrey, Mduduzi N N Mbuya, Robert Ntozini, Lawrence H Moulton, Rebecca J Stoltzfus, Naume V Tavengwa, Kuda Mutasa, Florence Majo, Batsirai Mutasa, Goldberg Mangwadu, Cynthia M Chasokela, Ancikaria Chigumira, Bernard Chasekwa, Laura E Smith, James M Tielsch, Andrew D Jones, Amee R Manges, John A Maluccio, Andrew J Prendergast
BACKGROUND: Child stunting reduces survival and impairs neurodevelopment. We tested the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), and improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF) on stunting and anaemia in in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We did a cluster-randomised, community-based, 2 × 2 factorial trial in two rural districts in Zimbabwe. Clusters were defined as the catchment area of between one and four village health workers employed by the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care...
January 2019: Lancet Global Health
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Although the burden of influenza is often discussed in the context of historical pandemics and the threat of future pandemics, every year a substantial burden of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) and other respiratory conditions (like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are attributable to seasonal influenza. The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2017 is a systematic scientific effort to quantify the health loss associated with a comprehensive set of diseases and disabilities...
December 12, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Mark W Moses, Paola Pedroza, Ranju Baral, Sabina Bloom, Jonathan Brown, Abby Chapin, Kelly Compton, Erika Eldrenkamp, Nancy Fullman, John Everett Mumford, Vishnu Nandakumar, Katherine Rosettie, Nafis Sadat, Tom Shonka, Abraham Flaxman, Theo Vos, Chris J L Murray, Marcia R Weaver
BACKGROUND: To inform plans to achieve universal health coverage (UHC), we estimated utilisation and unit cost of outpatient visits and inpatient admissions, did a decomposition analysis of utilisation, and estimated additional services and funds needed to meet a UHC standard for utilisation. METHODS: We collated 1175 country-years of outpatient data on utilisation from 130 countries and 2068 country-years of inpatient data from 128 countries. We did meta-regression analyses of annual visits and admissions per capita by sex, age, location, and year with DisMod-MR, a Bayesian meta-regression tool...
December 11, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
Janet Saul, Gretchen Bachman, Shannon Allen, Nora F Toiv, Caroline Cooney, Ta'Adhmeeka Beamon
In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) are 5 to 14 times more likely to be infected with HIV than their male peers. Every day, more than 750 AGYW are infected with HIV. Many factors make girls and young women particularly vulnerable to HIV, including gender-based violence, exclusion from economic opportunities, and a lack of access to secondary school. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is dedicating significant resources through the Determined, Resilient, Empowered, AIDS-free, Mentored, and Safe (DREAMS) partnership to impact the lives of women and girls based on PEPFAR's mission to help countries achieve epidemic control of HIV/AIDS...
2018: PloS One
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