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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30786243/adolescent-suicide-as-a-failure-of-acute-stress-response-systems
#1
Adam Bryant Miller, Mitchell J Prinstein
Suicide is the second leading cause of death worldwide for adolescents. Despite decades of research on correlates and risk factors for adolescent suicide, we know little about why suicidal ideation and behavior frequently emerge in adolescence and how to predict, and ultimately prevent, suicidal behavior among youths. In this review, we first discuss knowledge regarding correlates, risk factors, and theories of suicide. We then review why adolescence is a period of unique vulnerability, given changing biology and social network reorganization...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30786140/genetic-association-of-dnmt-variants-can-play-a-critical-role-in-defining-the-methylation-patterns-in-autism
#2
Ann Mary Alex, Korammannil R Saradalekshmi, Neena Shilen, Poovathinal A Suresh, Moinak Banerjee
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with impairments in social communication, restricted, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. Both genetic and environmental factors are known to contribute toward pathophysiology of Autism. Environmental influences on gene expression can be mediated by methylation patterns which are established and maintained by DNA methyltransferases. Several studies in the past have investigated the role of global methylations in Autism. The present study is aimed to investigate the role of genetic variations in the DNA methyltransferase which might be critical in defining the threshold for environmental factors toward susceptibility to autism...
February 20, 2019: IUBMB Life
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30786038/intelligence-as-a-predictor-of-social-mobility-in-estonia
#3
Kätlin Anni, René Mõttus
The purpose of this study was to explore how individual and environmental predictors of intergenerational social mobility intersect in rarely studied post-communist developing society of Estonia. We used a contemporary cross-sectional dataset (n = 759) to assess the influence of cognitive ability and parental socioeconomic status to the participants' educational and occupational attainment. Our results indicated that cognitive ability and one's own educational level mediated the association of parental socioeconomic status with one's own occupational success...
February 20, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785933/transition-to-middle-school-self-concept-changes
#4
Wanesa Onetti, José Carlos Fernández-García, Alfonso Castillo-Rodríguez
Self-concept influences identity and the way that people behave, and it fluctuates over time. The main purpose of this study was to analyze fluctuations in the dimensions of self-concept as a function of gender, educational level, grade, age, physical activity, and weight. In total, 712 Spanish adolescents who were in the 5th and 8th grades (354 boys and 358 girls) and 10 to 14 years old (M = 11.9; SD = 1.3) participated in this study. The Self-Concept Questionnaire, Form 5 was used to analyze several dimensions of self-concept (academic, social, emotional, family, and physical), using the average scores in each dimension...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785930/the-risk-factors-for-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-a-meta-analysis
#5
Xiuxiu Liu, Yuyan Xu, Miaomiao An, Qibing Zeng
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), the most common chronic complication of diabetes, has become an important public health crisis worldwide. Given that DPN is extremely difficult to treat, determining its risk factors and controlling it at an early stage is critical to preventing its serious consequences and the burden of social disease. Current studies suggest that the risk factors for diabetic peripheral neuropathy are the duration of diabetes, age, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), diabetic retinopathy (DR), smoking, and body mass Index (BMI)...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785926/towards-a-universal-concept-of-vulnerability-broadening-the-evidence-from-the-elderly-to-perinatal-health-using-a-delphi-approach
#6
Nynke de Groot, Gouke J Bonsel, Erwin Birnie, Nicole B Valentine
BACKGROUND: The concept 'vulnerability' is prevalent in the public domain, health care, social institutions and multidisciplinary research. Conceptual heterogeneity is present, hampering the creation of a common evidence-base of research achievements and successful policies. Recently an international expert group combined a specific literature review with a 2-stage Delphi procedure, arriving at a seemingly universal concept of vulnerability for the elderly with applications for research instruments...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785901/white-noise-speech-illusions-in-the-general-population-the-association-with-psychosis-expression-and-risk-factors-for-psychosis
#7
E Schepers, J van Os, R Lousberg
INTRODUCTION: Positive psychotic experiences are associated with increased rate of white noise speech illusions in patients and their relatives. However, findings have been conflicting to what degree speech illusions are associated with subclinical expression of psychosis in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between speech illusions and positive psychotic experiences in a general population sample. In addition, the hypothesis that speech illusions are on the pathway from known risk factors for psychosis (childhood adversity and recent life events) to subthreshold expression of psychosis, was examined...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785539/the-association-between-adolescent-suicide-rates-and-socioeconomic-indicators-in-brazil-a-10-year-retrospective-ecological-study
#8
Denisse Jaen-Varas, Jair J Mari, Elson Asevedo, Rohan Borschmann, Elton Diniz, Carolina Ziebold, Ary Gadelha
OBJECTIVE: To examine suicide rates among adolescents from six large cities in Brazil and to analyze the relationship between adolescent suicide rates and socioeconomic indicators between 2006 and 2015. METHODS: Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the impact of socioeconomic factors - including social inequality and unemployment rates - on adolescent suicide rates. RESULTS: The rate of adolescent suicide increased by 24% over the course of the study period...
February 18, 2019: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785411/causal-relationships-among-pollen-counts-tweet-numbers-and-patient-numbers-for-seasonal-allergic-rhinitis-surveillance-retrospective-analysis
#9
Shoko Wakamiya, Shoji Matsune, Kimihiro Okubo, Eiji Aramaki
BACKGROUND: Health-related social media data are increasingly used in disease-surveillance studies, which have demonstrated moderately high correlations between the number of social media posts and the number of patients. However, there is a need to understand the causal relationship between the behavior of social media users and the actual number of patients in order to increase the credibility of disease surveillance based on social media data. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to clarify the causal relationships among pollen count, the posting behavior of social media users, and the number of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis in the real world...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785055/factors-associated-with-seizure-related-motor-vehicle-accidents-among-patients-with-epilepsy-in-west-china
#10
Sisi Li, Jiani Chen, Xin Tong, Ammar Taha Abdullah Abdulaziz, Xu Liu, Minglian Su, Chiyi Wang, Zhengchi Li, Dong Zhou
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the relevant demographics and clinical factors contributing to seizure-related motor vehicle accidents in west China. METHODS: All driving patients who visited our epilepsy clinic in the West China Hospital, between October 2012 and October 2016, were invited to participate. Data on social demographics, clinical features, and motor vehicle accidents were collected during structured interviews. Binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with seizure-related motor vehicle accidents...
January 30, 2019: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785007/examining-the-nonresponse-phenomenon-factors-associated-with-treatment-response-in-a-national-sample-of-veterans-undergoing-residential-ptsd-treatment
#11
Rebecca K Sripada, Frederic C Blow, Sheila A M Rauch, Dara Ganoczy, Rani Hoff, Ilan Harpaz-Rotem, Kipling M Bohnert
OBJECTIVE: Although several treatments for PTSD have demonstrated efficacy, a substantial portion of patients do not experience clinically significant improvement. Predictors of treatment response are poorly understood. The current study was designed to investigate predictors of PTSD symptom change in a large national sample of treatment-seeking Veterans with PTSD. METHOD: We analyzed predictors of treatment response among Veterans engaged in residential PTSD treatment from 2012 to 2013 (N = 2715)...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784994/extraversion-modulates-cortisol-responses-to-acute-social-stress-in-chronic-major-depression
#12
Kevin Chopra, Jasmin L Katz, Lena C Quilty, Stephen Matthews, Arun Ravindran, Robert D Levitan
BACKGROUND: Chronic Major Depressive Disorder (CMDD) is a common, disabling illness that is often complicated by high reactivity to social stress. To further elucidate the nature of this reactivity, the current study evaluated whether the personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion influenced cortisol responses to a social challenge in CMDD patients vs. controls. METHODS: Fifty participants with CMDD and 58 healthy controls completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) using a standard protocol...
February 8, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784919/mechanistic-insight-into-diabetic-wounds-pathogenesis-molecular-targets-and-treatment-strategies-to-pace-wound-healing
#13
REVIEW
Satish Patel, Shikha Srivastava, Manju Rawat Singh, Deependra Singh
Wound management in diabetic patient is of an extreme clinical and social concern. The delayed and impaired healing makes it more critical for research focus. The research on impaired healing process is proceeding hastily evident by new therapeutic approaches other than conventional such as single growth factor, dual growth factor, skin substitutes, cytokine stimulators, cytokine inhibitors, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, gene and stem cell therapy, extracellular matrix and angiogenesis stimulators. Although numerous studies are available that support delayed wound healing in diabetes but detailed mechanistic insight including factors involved and their role still needs to be revealed...
February 19, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784297/study-on-the-psychological-health-and-related-risk-factors-in-245-patients-with-psoriasis-in-inner-mongolia
#14
Qiang Zhang, Jianwen Han, Yan Zhang, Changxing Li, Pingjiao Chen, Jing Zhang, Kang Zeng
To investigate the psychological health and related risk factors in patients suffering from psoriasis. A total of 245 inpatients and outpatients with psoriasis were selected from January 2014 to December 2015. Patients with psoriasis were assessed a homemade questionnaire as well as the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), Selfrating Anxiety Scale, Self-rating Depression Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and Social Avoidance and Distress Scale.Differences in sex, age, marital status, type of medical payment, occupation, economic situation, disease severity, and type of psychological state of psoriasis patients were significant, there was no significant difference in psychological health between psoriasis patients with different levels of educational attainment...
February 20, 2019: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783761/comparison-of-microclimate-measurements-and-perceptions-as-part-of-a-global-evaluation-of-environmental-quality-at-neighbourhood-scale
#15
A Lemonsu, A Amossé, D Chouillou, N Gaudio, S Haouès-Jouve, J Hidalgo, J Le Bras, D Legain, S Marchandise, B Tudoux
The EUREQUA project raises the issue of the definition and evaluation of the environmental quality of neighbourhoods. The approach consists of integrating and cross-referencing observable data characterising the physical environment and people's perception of their quality of life. The study area is a neighbourhood in Toulouse (France) with high social and typo-morphological diversity, subject to noise and air pollution nuisances. Three 3-day field campaigns were organised in January, April, and June 2014. Instrumented and commented walks took place three times per day...
February 19, 2019: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783535/a-systematic-review-of-tailored-ehealth-interventions-for-weight-loss
#16
Kathleen Ryan, Samantha Dockray, Conor Linehan
Objective: The aim of this study is to review the evidence for tailored eHealth weight-loss interventions, describing in detail: 1. how tailoring was implemented in these studies and 2. whether these tailored approaches were effective in producing weight loss compared with generic or inactive controls. Methods: A systematic review was carried out. Five databases were searched up until 15 March, 2018, including: EBSCO, Science Direct, Pubmed, EMBASE and Web of Science, using combinations of the concepts 'tailoring', 'eHealth' and 'overweight'...
January 2019: Digital Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783308/factors-associated-with-depression-among-school-going-adolescent-girls-in-a-district-of-northern-india-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Mukesh Shukla, Siraj Ahmad, Jai Vir Singh, Nirpal Kaur Shukla, Ram Shukla
Context: Depression among adolescents, especially among girls, is a rising public health problem worldwide. It has been associated with a profound negative impact on their physical, social, and mental well-being. Aim of the Study: To ascertain the factors associated with depression among school-going adolescent girls in district Barabanki of Uttar Pradesh. Settings and Design: School-based cross-sectional study. Subject and Methods: The study was conducted among 2187 school-going adolescent girls (10-19 years) in Barabanki district from September 2016 to September 2017 using multistage sampling...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30782935/healthcare-professionals-perceptions-of-learning-communication-in-the-healthcare-workplace-an-australian-interview-study
#18
Charlotte Denniston, Elizabeth K Molloy, Chee Yan Ting, Qi Fei Lin, Charlotte E Rees
OBJECTIVES: The literature focuses on teaching communication skills in the 'classroom', with less focus on how such skills are informally learnt in the healthcare workplace. We grouped healthcare work based on the cure:care continuum to explore communication approaches based on work activities. This study asks: 1) How do healthcare professionals believe they learn communication in the workplace? 2) What are the differences (if any) across the 'type of work' as represented by the cure:care continuum? DESIGN: This qualitative study used semi-structured individual interviews...
February 19, 2019: BMJ Open
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30782905/the-influence-of-perceived-medical-risks-and-psychosocial-concerns-on-photoprotection-behaviours-among-adults-with-xeroderma-pigmentosum-a-qualitative-interview-study-in-the-uk
#19
Myfanwy Morgan, Rebecca Anderson, Jessica Walburn, John Weinman, Robert Sarkany
BACKGROUND: A high level of photoprotection is required by people with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a rare skin disease, to reduce skin cancer and other risks. However poor photoprotection is thought to be widespread. PURPOSE: This study examines the influences on photoprotection behaviours in adults with XP. DESIGN: Inductive qualitative study with semistructured interviews. Analysis employed a framework approach. SETTING: National sample recruited through a specialist XP centre in London...
February 19, 2019: BMJ Open
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30782892/place-specific-factors-associated-with-adverse-maternal-and-perinatal-outcomes-in-southern-mozambique-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Prestige Tatenda Makanga, Charfudin Sacoor, Nadine Schuurman, Tang Lee, Faustino Carlos Vilanculo, Khatia Munguambe, Helena Boene, Ugochinyere Vivian Ukah, Marianne Vidler, Laura A Magee, Esperanca Sevene, Peter von Dadelszen, Tabassum Firoz
OBJECTIVES: To identify and measure the place-specific determinants that are associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in the southern region of Mozambique. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. Choice of variables informed by literature and Delphi consensus. SETTING: Study conducted during the baseline phase of a community level intervention for pre-eclampsia that was led by community health workers. PARTICIPANTS: A household census identified 50 493 households that were home to 80 483 women of reproductive age (age 12-49 years)...
February 19, 2019: BMJ Open
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