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T Tony Yang, Minh Nguyet Thi Tran, Weng Man Chong, Chia-En Huang, Jung-Chi Liao
Primary cilia play a vital role in cellular sensing and signaling. An essential component of ciliogenesis is intraflagellar transport (IFT) involving in IFT-protein recruitment, axonemal engagement of IFT-protein complexes, etc. The mechanistic understanding of these processes at the ciliary base was largely missing, because it is challenging to observe the motion of IFT proteins in this crowded region using conventional microscopy. Here, we report short trajectory tracking of IFT proteins at the base of mammalian primary cilia by optimizing single-particle tracking photoactivated localization microscopy (sptPALM) for IFT88-mEOS4b in live human retinal pigment epithelial cells...
February 13, 2019: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Asfa Rizvi, Bilal Ahmed, Almas Zaidi, Mohd Saghir Khan
Heavy metal pollution destruct soil microbial compositions and functions, plant's performance and subsequently human health. Culturable microbes among many metal abatement strategies are considered inexpensive, viable and environmentally safe. In this study, nitrogen fixing bacterial strain CAZ3 recovered from chilli rhizosphere tolerated 100, 1000 and 1200 µg mL-1 of cadmium, chromium and nickel, respectively and was identified as Azotobacter chroococcum by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Under metal stress, cellular morphology of A...
February 13, 2019: Ecotoxicology
Melissa Danesh, Beverly Faulkner-Jones, Anupam Desai, Caroline C Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2019: JAMA Dermatology
Chunxiu Lin, Xiaoying Zhang, Jie Xiao, Qiqi Zhong, Yong Kuang, Yong Cao, Yunjiao Chen
The beneficial effects of carnosic acid (CA) on health in terms of antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-cancer and neuroprotective properties have long been recognized. However, the role of CA in aging remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects on longevity extension, as well as the mechanism of action, of CA in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). The results suggest that CA increased the lifespan of C. elegans. Meanwhile, CA was absorbed by the worms and promoted the healthspan of C...
February 13, 2019: Food & Function
Liang Zheng, Johan Ceusters, Marie-Christine Van Labeke
Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized photosynthetic pathway present in a variety of genera including many epiphytic orchids. CAM is under circadian control and can be subdivided into four discrete phases during a diel cycle. Inherent to this specific mode of metabolism, carbohydrate availability is a limiting factor for nocturnal CO2 uptake and biomass production. To evaluate the effects of light quality on the photosynthetic performance and diel changes in carbohydrates during the CAM cycle...
February 11, 2019: Photosynthesis Research
Arnaud de la Fouchardière, Claire Caillot, Julien Jacquemus, Emeline Durieux, Aurélie Houlier, Véronique Haddad, Daniel Pissaloux
Recent advances in genomics have improved the molecular classification of cutaneous melanocytic tumors. Among them, deep penetrating nevi (DPN) and plexiform nevi have been linked to joint activation of the MAP kinase and dysregulation of the β-catenin pathways. Immunohistochemical studies have confirmed cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of β-catenin and its downstream effector cyclin D1 in these tumors. We assessed nuclear β-catenin immunohistochemical expression in a large group of DPN as well as in the four most frequent differential diagnoses of DPN: "blue" melanocytic tumors, Spitz tumors, nevoid and SSM melanomas, and pigmented epithelioid melanocytomas (PEM)...
February 12, 2019: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Kausik Ganguly, Tania Saha, Arpan Saha, Tithi Dutta, Souradeep Banerjee, Debmalya Sengupta, Sreyashi Bhattacharya, Sampurna Ghosh, Mainak Sengupta
Skin pigmentation in human is a complex trait, which varies widely, both within and between human populations. The exact players governing the trait of skin pigmentation remain elusive till date. Various Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have shown the association of different genomic variants with normal human skin pigmentation, often indicating genes with no direct implications in melanin biosynthesis or distribution. Little has been explained in terms of the functionality of the associated Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) with respect to modulating the skin pigmentation phenotype...
February 13, 2019: Archives of Dermatological Research
D Martín-Iglesias, J Artaraz, A Fonollosa, A Ugarte, A Arteagabeitia, G Ruiz-Irastorza
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this report is to analyse retinal changes over a five-year period, assessed by spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), in patients from the Lupus-Cruces cohort treated with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). METHODS: SD-OCT screening was performed annually between 2012 and 2017. Average macular thickness (AMT), ganglion cell layer thickness (GCLT) and qualitative data of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and external retina (ExtR) were collected prospectively...
February 12, 2019: Lupus
Thierry Léveillard, Nancy J Philp, Florian Sennlaub
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) forms the outer blood⁻retina barrier and facilitates the transepithelial transport of glucose into the outer retina via GLUT1. Glucose is metabolized in photoreceptors via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) but also by aerobic glycolysis to generate glycerol for the synthesis of phospholipids for the renewal of their outer segments. Aerobic glycolysis in the photoreceptors also leads to a high rate of production of lactate which is transported out of the subretinal space to the choroidal circulation by the RPE...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bong-Seon Lee, Changhun Lee, Sumin Yang, Eui Kyun Park, Sae-Kwang Ku, Jong-Sup Bae
Pelargonidin (PEL) is a well-known red pigment found in plants, and has been reported as having important biological activities that are potentially beneficial for human health. Here, we tested the possible use of PEL in the treatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated vascular inflammatory responses. The anti-inflammatory activities of PEL were determined by measuring permeability, neutrophils adhesion and migration, and activation of pro-inflammatory proteins in LPS-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mice...
February 9, 2019: Chemico-biological Interactions
Emanuele Marsili, Marwa H Farag, Xuchun Yang, Luca De Vico, Massimo Olivucci
In recent years the potential energy surfaces of the penta-2,4-dieniminium cation have been investigated using several electronic structure methods. The resulting pool of geometrical, electronic and energy data, provides the basis for the construction of a topographically correct analytical model of the molecule force field and, therefore, for a better understanding of these systems which include the chromophore of visual pigments. In the present contribution, we report the construction of such a model for regions of the force field driving the photochemical and thermal isomerization of the central double bound of the cation...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Marco Zarbin, Ilene Sugino, Ellen Townes-Anderson
Retinal cell therapy can have the objectives of rescue (i.e., modulation of metabolic abnormalities primarily for sight preservation) as well as replacement (i.e., replace cells lost due to injury or disease for sight restoration as well as preservation). The first clinical trials of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) transplantation for vision-threatening complications of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have begun with some preliminary signs of success (e.g., improvement in vision in some patients, anatomic evidence of transplant-host integration with some evidence of host photoreceptor recovery, long-term survival of autologous induced pluripotent stem cell-derived RPE transplants without immune suppression) as well as limitations (e...
February 12, 2019: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
May M Li, Lauren A Dalvin, Carol L Shields
The authors report a case of coexisting white and dark without pressure abnormalities surrounding a small congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium and showing corresponding hyperreflectivity and hyporeflectivity of the ellipsoid layer on optical coherence tomography. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2019;56:e5-e7.].
February 8, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Lingping Zhuang, Binbin Lin, Li Xu, Guoqiang Li, Chang-Jer Wu, Lianzhong Luo
A taxonomic study was carried out on strain HN-E23T , which was isolated from sponge collected from Yangpu Bay, Hainan, China. Cells of strain HN-E23T were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, orange-yellow-pigmented, short rods, that could grow at 10-40 °C (optimum, 28 °C), at pH 5-11 (optimun, pH 7) and in 0.5-12 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3 %). This isolate was positive for oxidase, catalase, and the hydrolysis of aesculin, but negative for indole production and the reduction of nitrate. The phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain HN-E23T formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage within the cluster comprising Erythrobacter strains...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
J Reuben Shipway, Marvin A Altamia, Gary Rosenberg, Gisela P Concepcion, Margo G Haygood, Daniel L Distel
Here we describe an anatomically divergent wood-boring bivalve belonging to the family Teredinidae. Specimens were collected off the coast of Mabini, Batangas, Philippines, in February 2018, from sunken driftwood at a depth of less than 2 m. A combination of characteristics differentiates these specimens from members of previously named teredinid genera and species. Most notable among these include: an enlarged cephalic hood which extends across the posterior slope of the shell valves and integrates into the posterior adductor muscle; a unique structure, which we term the 'cephalic collar', formed by protruding folds of the mantle immediately ventral to the foot and extending past the posterior margin of the valves; a large globular stomach located entirely posterior to the posterior adductor muscle and extending substantially beyond the posterior gape of the valves; an elongate crystalline style and style sac extending from the base of the foot, past the posterior adductor muscle, to the posteriorly located stomach; calcareous pallets distinct from those of described genera; a prominently flared mantle collar which extends midway along the stalk of the pallets; and, separated siphons that bear a pigmented pinstripe pattern with highly elaborate compound papillae on the incurrent siphon aperture...
2019: PeerJ
Justis P Ehlers, Atsuro Uchida, Sunil K Srivastava, Ming Hu
Purpose: To establish a predictive model of macular hole (MH) closure speed. Methods: This study was a post hoc analysis of eyes that underwent full-thickness MH repair in the prospective PIONEER intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) study. The Bioptigen SDOIS system was used for iOCT imaging. All patients underwent standard small-gauge vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, gas tamponade, and postoperative facedown positioning. Before vitrectomy and after ILM peeling, various quantitative OCT measures related to MH were obtained, including MH geometry alterations and outer retinal features...
January 2019: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Thuong Nguyen Van, Trang Trinh Minh, Doanh Le Huu, Sau Nguyen Huu, Tung Vu Thanh, Nghi Dinh Huu, Van Tran Cam, My Le Huyen, Khang Tran Hau, Hao Nguyen Trong, Marco Gandolfi, Francesca Satolli, Claudio Feliciani, Michael Tirant, Aleksandra Vojvodic, Torello Lotti
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disease, that causes progressive loss of melanocytes, resulting in hypopigmented skin patches. Current treatments aim at stopping the disease progression and achieving repigmentation of the amelanotic areas. Corticosteroids, surgery, topical immunomodulators, total depigmentation of normal pigmented skin and phototherapy are current treatment options for vitiligo although phototherapy remains the treatment of choice. There is no documented evidence that herbal bio-active products may also be effective treatment options for vitiligo...
January 30, 2019: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Hao Feng, Xin Zhao, Qiqiang Guo, Yanling Feng, Mengtao Ma, Wendong Guo, Xiang Dong, Chengsi Deng, Chunlu Li, Xiaoyu Song, Shuai Han, Liu Cao
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is the most serious fibrous complication that causes vision loss after intraocular surgery, and there is currently no effective treatment in clinical. Autophagy is an important cell biological mechanism in maintaining the homeostasis of tissues and cells, resisting the process of EMT. However, it is still unclear whether autophagy could resist intraocular fibrosis and prevent PVR progression. In this study, we investigated the expression of mesenchymal biomarkers in autophagy deficiency cells and found these proteins were increased...
2019: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Mankul Goyal, Sujay Khandpur, M Ramam, Vinod Kumar Sharma, Manoj Kumar Singh
Background: Transverse sections of scalp biopsies are performed for the assessment of alopecias and are considered advantageous over vertical sections. Aim: The aim was to study the histopathological features of alopecias on transverse sections of scalp biopsies. Methods: It was a descriptive study. Clinically confirmed cases of noncicatricial and cicatricial alopecias were subjected to 4 mm scalp biopsies, which were sectioned transversely and analyzed...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Amanda Chaaban, Vinicius Sobrinho Richardi, Alessandra Regina Carrer, Juliana Sperotto Brum, Roger Raupp Cipriano, Carlos Eduardo Nogueira Martins, Mário Antônio Navarro Silva, Cicero Deschamps, Marcelo Beltrão Molento
Lucilia cuprina, known as the Australian blowfly, is of high medico-sanitary and veterinary importance due to its ability to induce myiasis. Synthetic products are the most frequent form of fly control, but their indiscriminate use has selected for resistant populations and accounted for high levels of residues in animal products. This study aimed to assess the effect of essential oil from leaves of Curcuma longa (CLLEO), and its major compound α-phellandrene against L. cuprina L3. An additional goal was to determine the morphological alterations in target organs/tissues through ultrastructural assessment (SEM) and light microscopy, as well as macroscopic damage to cuticle induced by CLLEO...
January 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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