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Sensitive Skin

Emanuel van den Broeke, Marjolein D Hartgerink, Joe Butler, Julien Lambert, André Mouraux
High frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of skin nociceptors triggers central sensitization (CS), manifested as increased pinprick sensitivity of the skin surrounding the site of HFS. Our aim was to assess the effect of CS on pinprick-evoked pupil dilation responses (PDRs) and pinprick-evoked brain potentials (PEPs). We hypothesized that the increase in the positive wave of PEPs following HFS would result from an enhanced pinprick-evoked phasic response of the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system (LC-NS), indicated by enhanced PDRs...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Neurophysiology
Akos Dobay, Cordula Haas, Geoffrey Fucile, Nora Downey, Hilary G Morrison, Adelgunde Kratzer, Natasha Arora
In the forensic reconstruction of crime scene activities, the identification of biological traces and their bodily origin are valuable evidence that can be presented in court. While several presumptive and confirmatory tests are currently available, the limitations in specificity and sensitivity have instigated a search for alternative methods. Bacterial markers have been proposed as a novel approach for forensic body fluid/tissue identification. Bacteria are not only ubiquitous throughout the human body, but also, as shown by recent microbiome sequencing studies of the 16S rRNA gene, bacterial community structures are distinct across body sites...
February 11, 2019: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Giun-Yi Hung, Ciao-Ling Wu, Yi-Ling Chou, Chiang-Ting Chien, Jiun-Lin Horng, Li-Yih Lin
This study aimed to assess the sublethal effects of a platinum-based compound, cisplatin, using a zebrafish model. Zebrafish embryos were incubated in different concentrations of cisplatin at 0-96 h post-fertilization. Using a non-invasive, scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET), we measured the functions of hair cells (Ca2+ influx) and ionocytes ([H+ ] gradients). The survival rate, hatching rate, phenotype, body length, whole-body ion (Na+ , Cl- , and Ca2+ ) and Pt contents were also determined...
February 13, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Yansong Feng, Yanni Wu, Jing Zuo, Langping Tu, Ivo Que, Yulei Chang, Luis J Cruz, Alan Chan, Hong Zhang
A perfect "off" to "on" switch of the therapeutic function is very important to minimize the phototoxicity of nanoplatforms assisted imaging-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. Current approaches rely on preloaded photosensitizers, where the off/on state of PDT is regulated by the sensitizing light of photosensitizers. However, the photoactivities inevitably occur when imaging/diagnosis or exposure to sunlight, etc. These preloading approaches will cause the damage to normal cells and the photosensitivity to the skin...
February 13, 2019: Biomaterials
Nudrat Nida, Aun Irtaza, Ali Javed, Muhammad Haroon Yousaf, Muhammad Tariq Mahmood
OBJECTIVE: Melanoma is a dangerous form of the skin cancer responsible for thousands of deaths every year. Early detection of melanoma is possible through visual inspection of pigmented lesions over the skin, treated with simple excision of the cancerous cells. However, due to the limited availability of dermatologists, the visual inspection alone has the limited and variable accuracy that leads the patient to undergo a series of biopsies and complicates the treatment. In this work, a deep learning method is proposed for automated Melanoma region segmentation using dermoscopic images to overcome the challenges of automated Melanoma region segmentation within dermoscopic images...
April 2019: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Claudio De Liberato, Federica Berrilli, Teresa Bossù, Adele Magliano, Margherita Montalbano Di Filippo, David Di Cave, Mariano Sigismondi, Annunziata Cannavacciuolo, Paola Scaramozzino
Swimmer's itch is caused by the penetration of free-swimming larvae of trematodes of the family Schistosomatidae in human skin. It is usually reported in people engaged in recreational water activities in freshwater bodies and in most of cases, it is provoked by bird schistosomes of the genus Trichobilharzia. In the summer 2017, many cases of dermatitis were recorded in people bathing in the waters of the Albano Lake (Rome, Italy) and a parasitological investigation was carried out in order to ascertain the causative agent of these cases...
February 19, 2019: Zoonoses and Public Health
Eva Oppel, Stefanie Kamann, Franz-Xaver Reichl, Christof Högg
BACKGROUND: Glucose monitoring systems, eg Freestyle Libre (Abott) and Dexcom (Nintamed) more and more replace conventional blood sugar measurement. However, many patients experienced adverse skin reactions such as severe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Finally, in August 2017 the culprit allergen in Freestyle Libre, isobornyl acrylate (IBOA), was identified. OBJECTIVES: After developing ACD it is not recommended to use their glucose monitoring system anymore...
February 19, 2019: Contact Dermatitis
S Kespohl, Monika Raulf
Asthmatic patients are suspected of having a higher risk of mold sensitization. Thus, precise diagnosis of fungal sensitization is important. Mold allergen extracts are difficult to standardize, but component-resolved allergy diagnosis may be an alternative to replace extract-based tests. In this research, asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects were studied for their sensitization to Aspergillus fumigatus (Asp f), Cladosporium herbarum (Cla h), Penicillium chrysogenum (Pen ch), Alternaria alternata (Alt a), and Aspergillus versicolor (Asp v)...
February 20, 2019: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sarah C J Jorgensen, Abdalhamid M Lagnf, Sahil Bhatia, Nivedita B Singh, Laila K Shammout, Susan L Davis, Michael J Rybak
INTRODUCTION: The emergence, spread and persistence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a causative pathogen in community-onset (CO) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) have resulted in substantial changes in the management of these infections. The indications for obtaining blood cultures in patients with CO-MRSA SSTIs remain poorly defined. The objectives of this study were to derive and validate a clinical decision rule that predicts the probability of MRSA bacteremia in CO-MRSA SSTIs and to identify a low-risk population for whom blood cultures may be safely omitted...
February 19, 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Jian Xu, Bin Wang, Lei Fu, Hui Zhu, Shaochen Guo, Haihong Huang, Dali Yin, Ye Zhang, Yu Lu
The riminophenazine agent clofazimine (CFZ) is repurposed as an important component of the new short-course multidrug-resistant tuberculosis regimen and significantly shortens first-line regimen for drug-susceptible tuberculosis in mice. However, CFZ use is hampered by its unwelcome skin discoloration in patients. A new riminophenazine analog TBI-166 was selected as a potential next-generation antituberculosis riminophenazine following an extensive medicinal chemistry effort. Here, we evaluated the activity of TBI-166 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its potential to accumulate and discolor skin...
February 19, 2019: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Sang-Won Park, Chang-Seop Lee, Jeong-Han Kim, In-Gyu Bae, Chisook Moon, Yee Gyung Kwak, Baek-Nam Kim, Jae Hoon Lee, Seong Yeol Ryu, Hee-Chang Jang, Jian Hur, Jae-Bum Jun, Younghee Jung, Hyun-Ha Chang, Young Keun Kim, Jeong-Hwan Hwang, Yeon-Sook Kim, Hye Won Jeong, Kyoung-Ho Song, Wan Beom Park, Eu Suk Kim, Myoung-Don Oh
BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is emerging in Asian 3 countries, China, Japan and Korea, which are scrub typhus endemic areas, and its incidence is increasing. As the two infections overlap epidemiologically and clinically and the accessibility or sensitivity of diagnostic tests is limited, early clinical prediction may be useful for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. METHODS: Patients aged ≥16 years who were clinically suspected and laboratory-confirmed to be infected with Orientia tsutsugamushi or the SFTS virus in South Korea were enrolled...
February 19, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Xiaozhou Lü, Jiayi Yang, Liang Qi, Weimin Bao, Liang Zhao, Renjie Chen
Electronic skin with high sensitivity, rapid response, and long-term stability has great value in robotics, biomedicine, and in other fields. However, electronic skin still has challenges in terms of sensitivity and response time. In order to solve this problem, flexible electronic skin with high sensitivity and the fast response was proposed, based on piezoresistive graphene films. The electronic skin was a pressure sensor array, composed of a 4 × 4 tactile sensing unit. Each sensing unit contained three layers: The underlying substrate (polyimide substrate), the middle layer (graphene/polyethylene terephthalate film), and the upper substrate bump (polydimethylsiloxane)...
February 15, 2019: Sensors
Ting-Hsiang Chang, Yuan Tian, Changsheng Li, Xiaoyi Gu, Kerui Li, Haitao Yang, Parita Sanghani, Chwee Ming Lim, Hongliang Ren, Po-Yen Chen
Stretchable skin-like pressure sensing with minimized and distinguishable strain-induced interference is essential for the development of collision-aware surgical robotics to improve the safety and efficiency of minimally invasive surgery in a confined space. Inspired by the multi-dimensional wrinkles of Shar-Pei dog's skin for tactile sensing, we developed a stretchable pressure sensor consisting of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) electrodes with biomimetic topographies to improve the robot-tissue collision detections...
February 19, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Linda J Bingham, Mei M Tam, Amanda M Palmer, Jennifer L Cahill, Rosemary L Nixon
BACKGROUND: Lavender is commonly used in aromatherapy and in a broad range of personal and household products. It has been identified as a contact sensitizer and has been reported to cause allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). OBJECTIVES: To report our experience with contact allergy and ACD to lavender and to raise awareness of lavender as a potential contact allergen. METHOD: A retrospective database review was performed of patients attending patch testing clinics at the Skin and Cancer Foundation, Victoria, Australia, from January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2017...
February 18, 2019: Contact Dermatitis
Kate Wicks, Clare Stretton, Amy Popple, Lorna Beresford, Jason Williams, Gavin Maxwell, John P Gosling, Ian Kimber, Rebecca J Dearman
BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest in understanding the immunological variables that have the greatest influence on the effectiveness of sensitization by contact allergens, particularly in the context of developing new paradigms for risk assessment of novel compounds OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between patch test score for 3 different contact allergens and the characteristics of T-cell responses. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: A total of 192 patients with confirmed nickel, p-phenylenediamine (PPD) or methylisothiazolinone allergy were recruited from the Contact Dermatitis Investigation Unit at Salford Royal Hospital...
February 18, 2019: Contact Dermatitis
Ouissam Ayachi, Meltem Barlin, Pia Nora Broxtermann, Hamid Kashkar, Cornelia Mauch, Paola Zigrino
BACKGROUND: The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) is a potent cellular inhibitor of apoptosis, based on its unique capability to bind and to inhibit caspases. However, XIAP is also involved in a number of additional cellular activities independent of its caspase inhibitory function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether modulation of XIAP expression affects apoptosis-independent functions of XIAP in melanoma cells, restores their sensitivity to apoptosis and/or affects their invasive and metastatic capacities...
February 18, 2019: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Olivier Reelfs, Vincenzo Abbate, Agostino Cilibrizzi, Mark A Pook, Robert C Hider, Charareh Pourzand
Mitochondrial labile iron (LI) is a major contributor to the susceptibility of skin fibroblasts to ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced oxidative damage leading to necrotic cell death via ATP depletion. Mitochondria iron overload is a key feature of the neurodegenerative disease Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). Here we show that cultured primary skin fibroblasts from FRDA patients are 4 to 10-fold more sensitive to UVA-induced death than their healthy counterparts. We demonstrate that FRDA cells display higher levels of mitochondrial LI (up to 6-fold on average compared to healthy counterparts) and show higher increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation after UVA irradiation (up to 2-fold on average), consistent with their differential sensitivity to UVA...
February 19, 2019: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Masaharu Fujira, Yusuke Yamamoto, Sayaka Wanibuchi, Yasuhiro Katsuoka, Toshihiko Kasahara
The Amino acid Derivative Reactivity Assay (ADRA) is an in chemico alternative to animal testing for skin sensitization potential that uses two different nucleophilic reagents and it is known that ADRA hardly exhibts co-elution compared with the Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA) based on the same scientific principles. In this study, we have analyzed the factors underlying why co-elution, which is sometimes an issue during DPRA testing, virtually never occurs during ADRA testing. Chloramine T and dimethyl isophthalate both exhibited co-elution during DPRA testing, but when quantified at both DPRA's 220 nm and ADRA's 281 nm, we found that when the later detection wavelength was used, these test chemicals produced extremely small peaks that did not interfere with quantification of the peptides...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Xu Feng, Matthew C Fox, Jason S Reichenberg, Fabiana C P S Lopes, Katherine R Sebastian, Mia K Markey, James W Tunnell
Achieving adequate margins during tumor margin resection is critical to minimize the recurrence rate and maximize positive patient outcomes during skin cancer surgery. Although Mohs micrographic surgery is by far the most effective method to treat nonmelanoma skin cancer, it can be limited by its inherent required infrastructure, including time-consuming and expensive on-site histopathology. Previous studies have demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy can accurately detect basal cell carcinoma (BCC) from surrounding normal tissue; however, the biophysical basis of the detection remained unclear...
January 1, 2019: Biomedical Optics Express
Martin Mowitz, Anne Herman, Marie Baeck, Marléne Isaksson, Annarita Antelmi, Nils Hamnerius, Ann Pontén, Magnus Bruze
BACKGROUND: Isobornyl acrylate (IBOA) has recently been identified as one sensitizer in the FreeStyle Libre glucose sensor. Analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have indicated the presence of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAA) in the sensor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven patients were referred for patch testing after developing skin reactions when using FreeStyle Libre. All patients were patch-tested with IBOA and DMAA. Two patients were tested with adhesive patches which had been removed from the sensors "as is" and two patients were tested with acetone extracts of materials from the sensor...
February 18, 2019: Contact Dermatitis
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