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Mila Stefanova Zemyarska
In vitro fertilisation (IVF) 'add-ons' are therapeutic or diagnostic tools developed in an endeavour to improve the success rate of infertility treatment. However, there is no conclusive evidence that these interventions are a beneficial or effective adjunct of assisted reproductive technologies. Additionally, IVF add-ons are often implemented in clinical practice before their safety can be thoroughly ascertained. Yet, patients continue to request and pay large sums for such additional IVF tools. Hence, this essay set out to examine if it is ethical to provide IVF add-ons when there is no evidence of a benefit if the patient requests it...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Medical Ethics
Hye-Kyung Oh, Sunjoo Kang, Sung-Hyun Cho, Yeong-Ju Ju, Daouda Faye
BACKGROUND: Maternal undernutrition is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Furthermore, health statuses and habits of mothers influence health statuses of newborns as well as healthy habits and mortality of children. The Senegal government is aware of the severity of these issues and has devised a national policy goal of reducing maternal, infant, and adolescent mortality rates by the end of 2018. This study aimed to identify nutritional knowledge, attitudes, and practices of lactating women in Senegal, and determine factors related to nutritional practices to obtain basic data for developing a maternal and child nutrition project...
2019: PloS One
Meredith Nahm Zozus, Leslie W Young, Alan E Simon, Maryam Garza, Lora Lawrence, Songthip T Ounpraseuth, Megan Bledsoe, Sarah Newman-Norlund, J Dean Jarvis, Mary McNally, Kimberly R Harris, Russell McCulloh, Rachel Aikman, Sara Cox, Lacy Malloch, Anita Walden, Jessica Snowden, Irene Mangan Chedjieu, Chester A Wicker, Lauren Atkins, Lori A Devlin
Studies often rely on medical record abstraction as a major source of data. However, data quality from medical record abstraction has long been questioned. Electronic Health Records (EHRs) potentially add variability to the abstraction process due to the complexity of navigating and locating study data within these systems. We report training for and initial quality assessment of medical record abstraction for a clinical study conducted by the IDeA States Pediatric Clinical Trials Network (ISPCTN) and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Research Network (NRN) using medical record abstraction as the primary data source...
2019: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Juan Carlos Oyanedel S, Harry Ortúzar F
INTRODUCTION: Children and adolescents who are victims of sexual abuse or severe mistreatment are exposed to secondary victimization -understood as the revictimization resulting from the cons tant memory of the mistreatment or the abuse suffered when they are subject of multiple questions about what happened- when they have contact with the justice system. In 2012, the Chilean State implemented a pilot Gesell dome in order to reduce this risk and move towards a single interview process, with probative value in the context of the judicial process...
December 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Brian Lee, Danielle Hollenbeck-Pringle, Victoria Goldman, Eric Biondi, Brian Alverson
OBJECTIVES: The Child Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (C-HCAHPS) survey was developed to measure satisfaction levels of pediatric inpatients' caregivers. Studies in adults have revealed that certain demographic groups (people of color or who are multiracial and people with public insurance) respond to surveys at decreased rates, contributing to nonresponse bias. Our primary goal was to determine if results from the C-HCAHPS survey accurately reflect the intended population or reveal evidence of nonresponse bias...
February 1, 2019: Hospital Pediatrics
Esther Chor Leng Goh, Wan Har Chong, Jayashree Mohanty, Evelyn Chung Ning Law, Chin-Ying Stephen Hsu, Jan De Mol, Leon Kuczynski
BACKGROUND: This study aims to examine the adaptive process of children and mothers from multistressed low-income families in Singapore. It aims to bridge the knowledge gap left by existing poverty studies, which are predominately risk focused. Through a sequential longitudinal mixed-methods design, we will differentiate children and mothers who demonstrate varied social, developmental, and mental health trajectories of outcomes. Through utilizing the Latent Growth Curve Model (LGCM), we aim to detect the development and changes of the positive Family Agency and adaptive capacities of these families over time...
February 1, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Gina Thornton-Evans, Michele L Junger, Mei Lin, Liang Wei, Lorena Espinoza, Eugenio Beltran-Aguilar
Fluoride use is one of the main factors responsible for the decline in prevalence and severity of dental caries and cavities (tooth decay) in the United States (1). Brushing children's teeth is recommended when the first tooth erupts, as early as 6 months, and the first dental visit should occur no later than age 1 year (2-4). However, ingestion of too much fluoride while teeth are developing can result in visibly detectable changes in enamel structure such as discoloration and pitting (dental fluorosis) (1)...
February 1, 2019: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Nicola Willis, Amos Milanzi, Mather Mawodzeke, Chengetai Dziwa, Alice Armstrong, Innocent Yekeye, Phangisile Mtshali, Victoria James
BACKGROUND: Engagement with community adolescent treatment supporters (CATS) improves adherence, psychosocial well-being, linkage and retention in care among adolescents living with HIV. However, there is an urgent need for empirical evidence of the effectiveness of this approach, in order to inform further programmatic development, national and international policy, guidelines and service delivery for adolescents living with HIV. This study set out to determine the effectiveness of CATS services on improving linkage to services and retention in care, adherence and psychosocial well-being among adolescents living with HIV in Zimbabwe...
January 28, 2019: BMC Public Health
Kathy Wagner-Mahler, Jean-Yves Kurzenne, Frederique Gastaud, Marie Hoflack, Patricia Panaia Ferrari, Etienne Berard, Fabienne Giuliano, Houda Karmous-Benailly, Pamela Moceri, Celine Jouannelle, Marine Bourcier, Elise Robart, Yves Morel
BACKGROUND: Chromosome 8p deletions are associated with a variety of conditions, including cardiac abnormalities, mental, behavioral problems with variable morphotype and genitourinary anomalies in boys. METHODS: We describe the follow-up over almost 15 years of a boy who initially presented with perineal hypospadias with a micropenis and cryptorchidism with 46,XY DSD. RESULTS: Imaging, pathology, and hormonal exploration suggested gonadal dysgenesis...
January 28, 2019: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Ruth Nightingale, Gretl McHugh, Susan Kirk, Veronica Swallow
BACKGROUND: Children and young people with long-term conditions (LTCs) are usually dependent on, or share management with their families and are expected to develop self-management skills as they mature. However, during adolescence young people can find it challenging to follow prescribed treatment regimens resulting in poor clinical outcomes. Though reviews have looked at children's and parents' experiences of self-management, none have explicitly examined the parent-to-child transfer of self-management responsibility...
January 28, 2019: Child: Care, Health and Development
Shelley H Liu, Jennifer F Bobb, Birgit Claus Henn, Lourdes Schnaas, Martha M Tellez-Rojo, Chris Gennings, Manish Arora, Robert O Wright, Brent A Coull, Matt P Wand
There is substantial interest in assessing how exposure to environmental mixtures, such as chemical mixtures, affect child health. Researchers are also interested in identifying critical time windows of susceptibility to these complex mixtures. A recently developed method, called lagged kernel machine regression (LKMR), simultaneously accounts for these research questions by estimating effects of time-varying mixture exposures, and identifying their critical exposure windows. However, LKMR inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC-LKMR) is computationally burdensome and time intensive for large datasets, limiting its applicability...
June 2018: Environmetrics
Justina Vaitkevičiūtė, Aušra Petrauskienė
Background and objective: Body mass index (BMI) is one of the key indicators used to measure the growth of children. It could be affected by the children's nutrition, which is essential for the proper development of the child. Nutrition of children could be affected by many environmental factors, for example, the socioeconomic environment of the family. The aim of this study was to identify the associations between the BMI of seven- and eight-year-old children, dietary behaviour and nutrition-related parenting practices...
January 21, 2019: Medicina
Donna Niemistö, Lisa Barnett, Marja Cantell, Taija Finni, Elisa Korhonen, Arja Sääkslahti
We investigated child, family and environmental factors associated with young children's perceptions of locomotor (LM) and object control (OC) skills. The participants comprised 472 children (6.22 ± 0.63) and their parents. The children were assessed for their perception of motor competence in LM and OC skills (using the pictorial scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence for young children), and actual motor competence (Test of Gross Motor Development 3rd edition and Körperkoordinationstest Für Kinder)...
January 21, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
V K Lopez, B T West, P J Clarke, E Quentin, J N S Eisenberg
BACKGROUND: Globally, diarrhea is a leading cause of child morbidity and mortality. Although latrines are integral for reducing enteric pathogen transmission, several studies have shown no evidence that latrine ownership improved child health. There are a number of explanations for these results. One explanation is that latrine access does not equate to latrine use. Latrine use, however, is difficult to accurately ascertain, as defecation behavior is often stigmatized. To address this measurement issue, we measure latrine use as a latent variable, indicated by a suite of psychosocial variables...
January 19, 2019: BMC Public Health
Charlotte Jelleyman, Julia McPhee, Mariana Brussoni, Anita Bundy, Scott Duncan
The potential for risky play and independent mobility to increase children's physical activity, and enhance cognitive development and emotional wellbeing has been recognised for some time. The aim of this study was to describe the attitudes of New Zealand parents towards such risky play practices and independent mobility, the barriers preventing them from allowing their children to participate, and how often their children engaged in risky play activities. An online survey comprised mostly of validated scales and standardised questions was completed by a nationally representative sample of 2003 parents...
January 17, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sophie Bolt, Diny Postema, Anouk van der Heij, A Janneke B M Maas
This study examined the motivations of anonymous Dutch sperm donors to release their identity. It aimed to increase knowledge and encourage donors to become identifiable through a more informed decision, allowing more donor-conceived persons to contact their donors. Since 2010, anonymous sperm donors in the Netherlands can register in the Fiom KID-DNA Database developed by Fiom and Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital (CWZ). An online survey was sent to donors who registered in the database (May 2015-August 2017). A total of 179 male respondents participated in this study...
January 17, 2019: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
Jennifer Hilger-Kolb, Claudia Ganter, Maren Albrecht, Catherin Bosle, Joachim E Fischer, Laura Schilling, Claudia Schlüfter, Maria Steinisch, Kristina Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: As health is influenced by the social, economic and environmental conditions in which individuals live, local communities are an ideal setting to promote health and wellbeing. However, up to now various health promotion interventions at the community level have had limited success, perhaps related to an incomplete understanding of local contexts and priorities. We therefore aimed to develop a broader and deeper understanding of topics or issues that were most salient to residents of a South-West German community by exploring their perceptions of needs, challenges, barriers and existing resources related to health and well-being...
January 16, 2019: BMC Public Health
Kimberly C Thomson, Chris G Richardson, Anne M Gadermann, Scott D Emerson, Jean Shoveller, Martin Guhn
Importance: More than 50% of lifetime mental health disorders develop by early adolescence, and yet it is not well understood how early childhood social-emotional functioning varies in populations or how differences in functioning may be associated with emerging mental health conditions. Objectives: To identify profiles of social-emotional functioning at kindergarten school entry (age 5 years) and to examine to what extent profiles are related to early-onset mental health conditions (ages 6-14 years)...
January 4, 2019: JAMA network open
Sarah C Bath
It is well known that severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy may cause impaired brain development in the child, with effects on cognitive and motor function, hearing and speech. Whether mild-to-moderate deficiency also affects neurological development is less well known, but in the past decade a number of observational studies have been conducted to answer this question and these studies are reviewed in this article. The picture is now emerging that even mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy may be associated with subtle impairments in cognition and school performance, although the evidence from randomised controlled trials is still lacking...
January 15, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Morgan R Chojnacki, Hannah D Holscher, Alaina R Balbinot, Lauren B Raine, John R Biggan, Anne M Walk, Arthur F Kramer, Neal J Cohen, Charles H Hillman, Naiman A Khan
BACKGROUND: Cesarean delivery (CS) is an increasingly common mode of delivery comprising over 30% of all deliveries in the U.S. The long-term impact of this delivery mode on child development remains unclear. AIMS: We investigated the relationship between mode of delivery (vaginal vs. CS) and timing of developmental milestones and adiposity in preadolescence, as well as additional milestones beyond motor/language development including toilet training, dressing, and feeding self...
January 11, 2019: Early Human Development
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