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Saksham Gupta, In Seok Kang
A nanoslit is a long, extremely narrow (nanometers apart) opening between two parallel plates. An overlapped electric double layer is formed when an electrolyte is present inside the slit and there exist distributions of the osmotic pressure and the Maxwell stress across the nanoslit, which lead to the electrocapillarity effect. This feature can be incorporated with the specific ion effects by considering the nonelectrostatic interactions between ions and confining walls, as they significantly influence the potential, electric field, and ion distributions across the nanoslit...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Kate Wicks, Clare Stretton, Amy Popple, Lorna Beresford, Jason Williams, Gavin Maxwell, John P Gosling, Ian Kimber, Rebecca J Dearman
BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest in understanding the immunological variables that have the greatest influence on the effectiveness of sensitization by contact allergens, particularly in the context of developing new paradigms for risk assessment of novel compounds OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between patch test score for 3 different contact allergens and the characteristics of T-cell responses. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: A total of 192 patients with confirmed nickel, p-phenylenediamine (PPD) or methylisothiazolinone allergy were recruited from the Contact Dermatitis Investigation Unit at Salford Royal Hospital...
February 18, 2019: Contact Dermatitis
Robert Gürkov, Claudia Jerin, Wilhelm Flatz, Rebecca Maxwell
In the original publication, Fig. 1 was incorrectly published with incomplete legends.
February 18, 2019: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Jordan G Kueneman, Molly C Bletz, Valerie J McKenzie, C Guilherme Becker, Maxwell B Joseph, Juan G Abarca, Holly Archer, Ana Lisette Arellano, Arnaud Bataille, Matthew Becker, Lisa K Belden, Angelica Crottini, Robert Geffers, Célio F B Haddad, Reid N Harris, Whitney M Holden, Myra Hughey, Michael Jarek, Patrick J Kearns, Jacob L Kerby, Jos Kielgast, Atsushi Kurabayashi, Ana V Longo, Andrew Loudon, Daniel Medina, José J Nuñez, R G Bina Perl, Adrián Pinto-Tomás, Falitiana C E Rabemananjara, Eria A Rebollar, Ariel Rodríguez, Louise Rollins-Smith, Robert Stevenson, Christoph C Tebbe, Gabriel Vargas Asensio, Bruce Waldman, Jenifer B Walke, Steven M Whitfield, Kelly R Zamudio, Ibrahim Zúñiga Chaves, Douglas C Woodhams, Miguel Vences
Animal-associated microbiomes are integral to host health, yet key biotic and abiotic factors that shape host-associated microbial communities at the global scale remain poorly understood. We investigated global patterns in amphibian skin bacterial communities, incorporating samples from 2,349 individuals representing 205 amphibian species across a broad biogeographic range. We analysed how biotic and abiotic factors correlate with skin microbial communities using multiple statistical approaches. Global amphibian skin bacterial richness was consistently correlated with temperature-associated factors...
February 18, 2019: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Yan-Li Chen, Rui Li, Tian-Wu Chen, Jing Ou, Xiao-Ming Zhang, Fan Chen, Lan Wu, Yu Jiang, Maxwell Laws, Kamran Shah, Bobby Joseph, Jiani Hu
OBJECTIVE: To identify whether whole-tumour histogram analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) could predict T-stage and regional lymph node metastasis (LNM) of resectable oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two consecutive patients with confirmed oesophageal SCC underwent thoracic DCE-MRI. Histogram metrics (median, mean, standard deviation [SD], skewness, kurtosis and entropy) of whole-tumour pharmacokinetic parameters including endothelial transfer constant (Ktrans ), reflux rate (Kep ) and fractional extravascular extracellular space volume (Ve ) were generated by the Omni-Kinetics software...
March 2019: European Journal of Radiology
Emma F France, Isabelle Uny, Nicola Ring, Ruth L Turley, Margaret Maxwell, Edward A S Duncan, Ruth G Jepson, Rachel J Roberts, Jane Noyes
BACKGROUND: Decision making in health and social care requires robust syntheses of both quantitative and qualitative evidence. Meta-ethnography is a seven-phase methodology for synthesising qualitative studies. Developed in 1988 by sociologists in education Noblit and Hare, meta-ethnography has evolved since its inception; it is now widely used in healthcare research and is gaining popularity in education research. The aim of this article is to provide up-to-date, in-depth guidance on conducting the complex analytic synthesis phases 4 to 6 of meta-ethnography through analysis of the latest methodological evidence...
February 18, 2019: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Matthew R Neth, Maxwell A Thompson, Courtney Blayke Gibson, John P Gullett, David C Pigott
Ruptured ectopic pregnancy is the leading cause of first trimester maternal mortality. The diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy should always be suspected in patients with abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding or syncope. While the use of an intrauterine device (IUD) markedly reduces the incidence of intrauterine pregnancy, it does not confer equal protection from the risk of ectopic pregnancy. In this report we discuss the case of a female patient who presented with a ruptured ectopic pregnancy and hemoperitoneum despite a correctly positioned IUD...
February 2019: Clinical practice and cases in emergency medicine
Nicolas Kahl, Christopher Gabriel, Shadi Lahham, Maxwell Thompson, Wirachin Hoonpongsimanont
A 95-year-old female with a history of dementia and atrial fibrillation (not on anticoagulation) presented to the emergency department (ED) by ambulance from her skilled nursing facility due to hypoxia. Point-of-care ultrasound was performed, and showed evidence of a large mobile thrombus in the right ventricle on apical four-chamber view. Further evidence of associated right heart strain was seen on the corresponding parasternal short-axis view. These ultrasound findings in combination with the patient's clinical presentation are diagnostic of acute pulmonary embolism with right heart strain...
February 2019: Clinical practice and cases in emergency medicine
Justin Yanuck, Sagar Shah, Maxwell Jen, Rakhi Dayal
Migraines are consistently among the top 20 primary coded diagnoses in emergency departments, constituting 4.5% of all chief complaints. In a significant subset of these, pain arises from the occipital region innervated by the greater (GON) and lesser occipital nerve. In this case series, we present three patients with occipital migraines who received GON blockade with 1% lidocaine. The blockade was performed only after first-line treatment with metoclopramide and possibly additional medications as ordered by triage physician, failed to adequately alleviate pain by 40 minutes after medication administration...
February 2019: Clinical practice and cases in emergency medicine
Deepti Singh, Sonali P McDermid, Benjamin I Cook, Michael J Puma, Larissa Nazarenko, Maxwell Kelley
Anthropogenic land use and land cover change is primarily represented in climate model simulations through prescribed transitions from natural vegetation to cropland or pasture. However, recent studies have demonstrated that land management practices, especially irrigation, have distinct climate impacts. Here we disentangle the seasonal climate impacts of land cover change and irrigation across areas of high agricultural intensity using climate simulations with three different land surface scenarios: (1) natural vegetation cover/no irrigation, (2) year 2000 crop cover/no irrigation, and (3) year 2000 crop cover and irrigation rates...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Obiageli Nnodu, Hezekiah Isa, Maxwell Nwegbu, Chinatu Ohiaeri, Samuel Adegoke, Reuben Chianumba, Ngozi Ugwu, Biobele Brown, John Olaniyi, Emmanuel Okocha, Juliet Lawson, Abdul-Aziz Hassan, Ijeoma Diaku-Akinwumi, Anazoeze Madu, Osita Ezenwosu, Yohanna Tanko, Umar Kangiwa, Ahmed Girei, Yetunde Israel-Aina, Adama Ladu, Perpetua Egbuzu, Usman Abjah, Angela Okolo, Nagihan Akbulut-Jeradi, Maria Fernandez, Frédéric B Piel, Adekunle Adekile
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a neglected burden of growing importance. >312,000 births are affected annually by sickle cell anaemia (SCA). Early interventions such as newborn screening, penicillin prophylaxis and hydroxyurea can substantially reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with SCD. Nevertheless, their implementation in African countries has been mostly limited to pilot projects. Recent development of low-cost point-of-care testing (POCT) devices for sickle haemoglobin (HbS) could greatly facilitate the diagnosis of those affected...
February 8, 2019: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
Bocar Baya, Chad J Achenbach, Bourahima Kone, Yacouba Toloba, Djeneba K Dabitao, Bassirou Diarra, Drissa Goita, Seydou Diabaté, Mamoudou Maiga, Dianguina Soumare, Khadidia Ouattara, Tenin Kanoute, Gaoussou Berthe, Youssouf M Kamia, Yeya Dit Sadio Sarro, Moumine Sanogo, Antieme C G Togo, Bindongo P P Dembele, Nadie Coulibaly, Amadou Kone, Maxwell Akanbi, Michael Belson, Sounkalo Dao, Susan Orsega, Sophia Siddiqui, Seydou Doumbia, Robert L Murphy, Souleymane Diallo
BACKGROUND: MDR-TB is a major threat to global TB control. In 2015, 580,000 were treated for MDR-TB worldwide. The worldwide roll-out of GeneXpert MTB/RIF® has improved diagnosis of MDR-TB; however, in many countries laboratories are unable to assess drug resistance and clinical predictors of MDR-TB could help target suspected patients. In this stud, we aimed to determine the clinical factors associated with MDR-TB in Bamako, Mali. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 214 patients with presumed MDR-TB admitted to University of Bamako Teaching Hospital, Point-G between 2007 and 2016...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
ZhongTao Yin, Ling Lian, Feng Zhu, Zhen-He Zhang, Maxwell Hincke, Ning Yang, Zhuo-Cheng Hou
The avian embryo develops within a specialized biological container (eggshell) that contains crucial nutritional compartments (albumen, yolk). We analyzed the transcriptome of ovary and three segments of oviduct, including magnum, isthmus and uterus in the chicken during egg formation. RNA-Seq libraries (42 in total) for ovary and three different parts of the oviduct were sequenced for two different phases of egg formation. We obtained 8365 novel transcripts with an mRNA length longer than 200 bp; of these, 6832 were long intergenic non-coding RNA transcripts...
February 14, 2019: Genomics
Maxwell M Sakyiamah, Takuya Kobayakawa, Masayuki Fujino, Makoto Konno, Tetsuo Narumi, Tomohiro Tanaka, Wataru Nomura, Naoki Yamamoto, Tsutomu Murakami, Hirokazu Tamamura
The chemokine receptor CXCR4/stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1: CXCL12) signaling axis represents a crucial drug target due to its relevance to several diseases such as HIV-1 infection, cancer, leukemia, and rheumatoid arthritis. With the aim of enhancing the binding affinity and anti-HIV activity of a potent CXCR4 ligand as a lead, 23 low molecular weight compounds containing dipicolylamine (Dpa) and cyclam cationic moieties with varying spacers and spatial positioning were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated...
February 6, 2019: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
B E Bass, T Tsai, H Yang, V Perez, D Holzgraefe, J Chewning, J W Frank, C V Maxwell
A study was conducted using 3 groups of gestating gilts and sows (n = 98) to determine the effects of Pichia guilliermondii (Pg), a whole cell inactivated yeast product (CitriStim; ADM Alliance Nutrition), on performance and immune parameters of dams and litters. Within 24 h of breeding, gilts and sows were allotted to 1 of 3 treatments consisting of a control (SC) diet or SC diet supplemented with 0.1 (S1) or 0.2% (S2) Pg. Dietary treatments were maintained through lactation. Colostrum and milk (d 14) samples were collected for IgA, IgG, and IgM analysis...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Alí Duarte-García, Ying Ying Leung, Laura C Coates, Dorcas Beaton, Robin Christensen, Ethan T Craig, Maarten de Wit, Lihi Eder, Lara Fallon, Oliver FitzGerald, Dafna D Gladman, Niti Goel, Richard Holland, Chris Lindsay, Lara Maxwell, Philip Mease, Ana Maria Orbai, Bev Shea, Vibeke Strand, Douglas J Veale, William Tillett, Alexis Ogdie
OBJECTIVE: The psoriatic arthritis (PsA) core domain set for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and longitudinal observational studies (LOS) has recently been updated. The joint counts are central to the measurement of the peripheral arthritis component of the musculoskeletal (MSK) disease activity domain. We report the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 2018 meeting approaches to seek endorsement of the 66/68-swollen and tender joint count (SJC66/TJC68) for inclusion in the PsA Core Outcome Measurement Set...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Rheumatology
Maarten Boers, Dorcas E Beaton, Beverley J Shea, Lara J Maxwell, Susan J Bartlett, Clifton O Bingham, Philip G Conaghan, Maria Antonietta D'Agostino, Maarten P de Wit, Laure Gossec, Lyn March, Lee S Simon, Jasvinder A Singh, Vibeke Strand, George A Wells, Peter Tugwell
OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter 2.0 framework was developed in 2014 to aid core outcome set development by describing the full universe of "measurable aspects of health conditions" from which core domains can be selected. This paper provides elaborations and updated concepts (OMERACT Filter 2.1). METHODS: At OMERACT 2018, we discussed challenges in the framework application caused by unclear or ambiguous wording and terms and incompletely developed concepts...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Rheumatology
Susan Humphrey-Murto, Richard Crew, Beverley Shea, Susan J Bartlett, Lyn March, Peter Tugwell, Lara J Maxwell, Dorcas Beaton, Shawna Grosskleg, Maarten de Wit
OBJECTIVE: Developing international consensus on outcome measures for clinical trials is challenging. The following paper will review consensus building in Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT), with a focus on the Delphi. METHODS: Based on the literature and feedback from delegates at OMERACT 2018, a set of recommendations is provided in the form of the OMERACT Delphi Consensus Checklist. RESULTS: The OMERACT delegates generally supported the use of the checklist as a guide...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Rheumatology
Lara J Maxwell, Dorcas E Beaton, Beverley J Shea, George A Wells, Maarten Boers, Shawna Grosskleg, Clifton O Bingham, Philip G Conaghan, Maria Antonietta D'Agostino, Maarten P de Wit, Laure Gossec, Lyn March, Lee S Simon, Jasvinder A Singh, Vibeke Strand, Peter Tugwell
OBJECTIVE: To describe the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter 2.1 methodology for core domain set selection. METHODS: The "OMERACT Way for Core Domain Set selection" framework consists of 3 stages: first, generating candidate domains through literature reviews and qualitative work, then a process of consensus to obtain agreement from those involved, and finally formal voting on the OMERACT Onion. The OMERACT Onion describes the placement of domains in layers/circles: mandatory in all trials/mandatory in specific circumstances (inner circle); important but optional (middle circle); or research agenda (outer circle)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Rheumatology
Hideo Iizuka, Shanhui Fan
Optical force between two lossless waveguides has been described by two approaches. One approach is the explicit description of the force by the Maxwell stress tensor. Another approach is to describe the modal force in terms of the derivative of the eigenmode frequency with respect to the distance variation. Here, we analytically prove the equivalence of these two approaches for lossless waveguides having arbitrary cross sections through the use of transformation optics formalism. Our derivation is applicable to both pressure and shear forces...
February 15, 2019: Optics Letters
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