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Lymphoid organ

Naomi A Yudanin, Frederike Schmitz, Anne-Laure Flamar, Joseph J C Thome, Elia Tait Wojno, Jesper B Moeller, Melanie Schirmer, Isabel J Latorre, Ramnik J Xavier, Donna L Farber, Laurel A Monticelli, David Artis
Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) play critical roles in regulating immunity, inflammation, and tissue homeostasis in mice. However, limited access to non-diseased human tissues has hindered efforts to profile anatomically-distinct ILCs in humans. Through flow cytometric and transcriptional analyses of lymphoid, mucosal, and metabolic tissues from previously healthy human organ donors, here we have provided a map of human ILC heterogeneity across multiple anatomical sites. In contrast to mice, human ILCs are less strictly compartmentalized and tissue localization selectively impacts ILC distribution in a subset-dependent manner...
February 11, 2019: Immunity
Armando Ganoza, George V Mazariegos, Ajai Khanna
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past decades, visceral transplantation has become the standard of care for patients with irreversible intestinal failure who suffer complications of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after solid organ transplantation is a rare but often fatal complication with high mortality. GVHD after intestinal transplantation, given the large lymphoid content of the graft, is more frequent compared with other solid organs. It is a complex condition that may have varied clinical presentations...
February 11, 2019: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Reinhard Pabst
The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ where T lymphocyte proliferation and selection takes place. The different subsets of lymphocytes leave the thymus as recent thymic emigrants. Peripheral dendritic cells migrate to the thymus. In addition to the homing of hematopoietic progenitor cells to the thymus, there is evidence for lymphocyte entry from peripheral lymphoid tissues mainly into the medulla. The entry sites are the venules in the medullary part near to the cortex with a higher endothelium. Furthermore, there are also B lymphocytes in the thymus...
February 14, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Jacoba C Graver, Annemieke M H Boots, Erlin A Haacke, Arjan Diepstra, Elisabeth Brouwer, Maria Sandovici
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) can be classified into Cranial(C)-GCA and Large Vessel(LV)-GCA. Based on analysis of temporal arteries, GCA is postulated to be T-cell-mediated. Recently, a disturbed B-cell homeostasis was documented in newly diagnosed GCA patients. In the current study, we assessed the presence of B-cells and their level of ectopic organization in the aorta of LV-GCA patients. Aorta tissue samples of 9 histologically-proven LV-GCA patients and 22 age- and sex-matched atherosclerosis patients who underwent aortic aneurysm surgery were studied by immunohistochemistry...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Umberto Aimasso, Valentina D'onofrio, Chiara D'eusebio, Andrea Devecchi, Costanza Pira, Fabio D Merlo, Antonella De Francesco
Helicobacter pylori (HP) is a gram negative flagellated pathogen acid-resistant bacterium; it belongs to the order Campylobacterales that is wide spread all over the world, infecting more than 50% of the world population. HP infection is etiologically associated with non-atrophic and atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer and with 3 to 6-fold increased relative risk for developing gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MA LT) lymphoma. For this reason HP is recognized by the World Health Organization as a Class I human carcinogen...
February 12, 2019: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Hisako Kayama, Haruka Tani, Shoko Kitada, Anunya Opasawatchai, Ryu Okumura, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Kiyoshi Takeda
Inappropriate activation of the interleukin (IL)-23 signaling pathway causes chronic inflammation through the induction of immunopathological Th17 cells in several tissues including the intestine, whereas adequate Th17 responses are essential for host defense against harmful organisms. In the intestinal lamina propria, IL-23 is primarily produced by innate myeloid cells including dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (Ms). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of IL-23 production by these cells remains poorly understood...
February 12, 2019: International Immunology
Jian Chen, Cheryl Goss, Scott T Avecilla, Hong Hong, Eileen Walsh, David Wuest, Peter Maslak, Melissa S Pessin
BACKGROUND: Adoptive immunotherapy using engineered lymphocytes has shown promising results in treating cancers even in patients who have failed other treatments. As the first essential step, the number of peripheral mononuclear cell (MNC) collection procedures is rapidly increasing. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the collection results to determine factors that affect MNC collection. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We reviewed 184 collections that were performed on 169 adult allogenic donors and patients with acute lymphoid leukemia, chronic lymphoid leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, or solid-organ tumors...
February 12, 2019: Transfusion
Jillian L Barlow, Andrew N J McKenzie
Although, as the major organ of gas exchange, the lung is considered a nonlymphoid organ, an interconnected network of lung-resident innate cells, including epithelial cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells is crucial for its protection. These cells provide defense against a daily assault by airborne bacteria, viruses, and fungi, as well as prevent the development of cancer, allergy, and the outgrowth of commensals. Our understanding of this innate immune environment has recently changed with the discovery of a family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs): ILC1s, ILC2s, and ILC3s...
February 10, 2019: Annual Review of Physiology
Ji Yeon Noh, Jung U Shin, Ji Hye Kim, Seo Hyeong Kim, Bo-Mi Kim, Young Hwan Kim, Semin Park, Tae-Gyun Kim, Kyong-Oh Shin, Kyungho Park, Kwang Hoon Lee
Adipokines modulate immune responses and lipid metabolism in allergic disease; however, little is known about its role in the skin barrier and atopic dermatitis (AD). We identified zinc-alpha-2 glycoprotein (ZAG), an adipokine that regulates lipid mobilization, as a biomarker for AD. ZAG levels were consistently decreased in sera, T cells, and skin in human AD patients compared with healthy controls. ZAG was primarily detected in the stratum corneum along with filaggrin (FLG) and loricrin (LOR). Knockdown of ZAG with shRNA resulted in decreased FLG and increased thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Norma Sue Kenyon
Mixed chimerism is associated with allograft acceptance and tolerance. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Fu et al. (2019) provide evidence that functional, donor-derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the intestinal allograft can persist long-term, contribute to multi-lineage chimerism in the circulation, and result in T cell tolerance through host lymphoid organ selection.
February 7, 2019: Cell Stem Cell
Carlos O Schild, Federico Giannitti, Rosane M T Medeiros, Caroline da Silva Silveira, Rubén D Caffarena, Robert H Poppenga, Franklin Riet-Correa
We describe and illustrate lesions in an outbreak of lead arsenate poisoning in beef cattle that ingested pesticide residues stored in an abandoned building of a former orange orchard. Of 70 exposed cattle, 14 had diarrhea, paresis, ataxia, recumbency, and/or seizures. Ten of the affected animals died after a clinical course of 12-18 h. Pathologic findings in 3 steers included extensive necrohemorrhagic, ulcerative rumenitis, omasitis, and abomasitis; lymphocytolysis in lymphoid organs; and nephrosis. Hepatic arsenic and lead levels in cases 1-3 were 20, 24, and 31 ppm, and 8...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Heba M A Abdelrazek, Manal M A Mahmoud, Hend M Tag, Sahar M Greish, Dalia A Eltamany, Mohammed T A Soliman
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can alleviate estrogen deficiency symptoms especially during menopause. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of soy isoflavones as HRT on immunological and bone health-related parameters with a special focus on the interactions between immunological status and metabolism. Thirty healthy cyclic female Wistar rats were used in this experiment. Ten females were sham-operated, and 20 females were subjected to ovariectomy. Overiectomized (OVX) female rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: the control group (G1, OVX/casein) was fed a casein-based diet, and the second group (G2, OVX/soy) was fed a high soy isoflavone diet...
2019: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Raffaella Fontana, Laura Raccosta, Lucrezia Rovati, Knut R Steffensen, Aida Paniccia, Tomas Jakobsson, Giulio Melloni, Alessandro Bandiera, Giorgia Mangili, Alice Bergamini, Daniela Maggioni, Claudio Doglioni, Roberto Crocchiolo, Marina Cella, Michela Mattioli, Cristina Battaglia, Marco Colonna, Vincenzo Russo
Dendritic cells (DCs) initiate adaptive immune responses after their migration to secondary lymphoid organs. The LXR ligands/oxysterols and the RXR ligand 9-cis Retinoic Acid (9-cis RA) were shown to dampen DC migration to lymphoid organs through the inhibition of CCR7 expression. We performed transcriptomics of DCs undergoing maturation in the presence of the LXR ligand 22R-Hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC). The analysis highlighted more than 1500 genes modulated by 22R-HC treatment, including the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1, which was found markedly up-regulated...
2019: Oncoimmunology
Denise van Uden, Karin Boomars, Mirjam Kool
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a cardiopulmonary disease characterized by an incurable condition of the pulmonary vasculature, leading to increased pulmonary vascular resistance, elevated pulmonary arterial pressure resulting in progressive right ventricular failure and ultimately death. PAH has different underlying causes. In approximately 30-40% of the patients no underlying risk factor or cause can be found, so-called idiopathic PAH (IPAH). Patients with an autoimmune connective tissue disease (CTD) can develop PAH [CTD-associated PAH (CTD-PAH)], suggesting a prominent role of immune cell activation in PAH pathophysiology...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Irun R Cohen, Sol Efroni
Here, we outline an overview of the mammalian immune system that updates and extends the classical clonal selection paradigm. Rather than focusing on strict self-not-self discrimination, we propose that the system orchestrates variable inflammatory responses that maintain the body and its symbiosis with the microbiome while eliminating the threat from pathogenic infectious agents and from tumors. The paper makes four points: The immune system classifies healthy and pathologic states of the body-including both self and foreign elements-by deploying individual lymphocytes as cellular computing machines; immune cells transform input signals from the body into an output of specific immune reactions...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Alice E Denton, Silvia Innocentin, Edward J Carr, Barry M Bradford, Fanny Lafouresse, Neil A Mabbott, Urs Mörbe, Burkhard Ludewig, Joanna R Groom, Kim L Good-Jacobson, Michelle A Linterman
Ectopic lymphoid structures form in a wide range of inflammatory conditions, including infection, autoimmune disease, and cancer. In the context of infection, this response can be beneficial for the host: influenza A virus infection-induced pulmonary ectopic germinal centers give rise to more broadly cross-reactive antibody responses, thereby generating cross-strain protection. However, despite the ubiquity of ectopic lymphoid structures and their role in both health and disease, little is known about the mechanisms by which inflammation is able to convert a peripheral tissue into one that resembles a secondary lymphoid organ...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Kangni Wu, Haijun Zhao, Yanghui Xiu, Zhifeng Li, Jintao Zhao, Shiting Xie, Hanyan Zeng, Haiping Zhang, Lian Yu, Bing Xu
Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are the main γδ T subset in the peripheral blood and lymphoid organs. Previous studies have shown that Vγ9Vδ2 T cells could expand in the presence of phosphoantigens and IL-2 and exert antitumor functions. However, their potency was limited because sustained proliferation could not be achieved, possibly due to exhaustion caused by prolonged antigenic stimulation. In this study, we examined the proliferative response of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells to IL-21, a cytokine previously shown to promote NK cell and CD8 T cell cytotoxicity...
January 29, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Yang Seok Kim, Young Cheon Na, Woo Hoe Huh, Ji Min Kim
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is an uncommon form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Most commonly affected organ is the stomach. But, it could affect almost every organ in the whole body. If they have suspicious lesion, excision biopsy could be made. For staging, blood test including blood smear, abdomen and chest tomography or scan will be checked. Also, bone marrow test can be done if it is needed. The patient had visited the clinic for palpable mass on right lower eyelid...
February 1, 2019: Archives of Craniofacial Surgery
Yixuan Ren, Lele Huang, Yuping Han, Zhencun Cui, Jicheng Li, Chi Dong, Jiangyan Liu
RATIONALE: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is an extranodal low-grade B cell lymphoma that generally exhibits an indolent clinical course. Currently, the application of F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-FDG PET/CT) in MALT lymphoma is still controversial. Herein, we reported a case of using F-FDG PET/CT for staging and response assessment of primary parotid MALT lymphoma with multiple sites involvement. As far as we know, there are no similar case reports have been published before...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Konrad Gronke, Pedro P Hernández, Jakob Zimmermann, Christoph S N Klose, Michael Kofoed-Branzk, Fabian Guendel, Mario Witkowski, Caroline Tizian, Lukas Amann, Fabian Schumacher, Hansruedi Glatt, Antigoni Triantafyllopoulou, Andreas Diefenbach
Environmental genotoxic factors pose a challenge to the genomic integrity of epithelial cells at barrier surfaces that separate host organisms from the environment. They can induce mutations that, if they occur in epithelial stem cells, contribute to malignant transformation and cancer development1-3 . Genome integrity in epithelial stem cells is maintained by an evolutionarily conserved cellular response pathway, the DNA damage response (DDR). The DDR culminates in either transient cell-cycle arrest and DNA repair or elimination of damaged cells by apoptosis4,5 ...
January 30, 2019: Nature
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