Neonatal diseases

Steven J Cassady, Anayansi Lasso-Pirot, Janaki Deepak
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), first described by Northway in 1967, is a process of neonatal lung injury that is most strongly associated with prematurity. The "old" form of the disease associated with the oxidative damage and volutrauma from perinatal mechanical ventilation has been increasingly supplanted by a "new" form resulting from interrupted growth of the lung at earlier stages of fetal development. Given the significant improvement in the survival of children with BPD since the 1980s, many more of these patients are living into adulthood and are being seen in adult pulmonary practices...
May 28, 2020: Chest
Sophie Bensing, Roberta Giordano, Alberto Falorni
Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) occurs in ~1/5000-1/7000 individuals and is in most cases caused by autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD). Around 10-20% of women with AAD develop premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) before the age of 40 years. 21-Hydroxylase autoantibodies (21OHAb) are the best single immune marker to classify AAD among PAI patients and autoimmune POI in hypergonadotropic hypogonadic women. In AAD, detection of steroid-cell autoantibodies (StCA) predicts future development of POI. AAD-related autoimmune POI is characterized by a selective destruction of theca cells with preservation of primary follicles and granulosa cells of secondary and tertiary follicles...
May 29, 2020: Endocrine
Alexander J Eason, Danielle Crethers, Santu Ghosh, Brian K Stansfield, Anastasios C Polimenakos
Central vascular thrombosis (CVT) in critically ill neonates carries significant clinical implications. Neonates with congenital heart disease (CHD) awaiting cardiac intervention might be associated with increased risk of thrombosis. Outcome analysis was undertaken. An analysis of 77 neonates with CHD who were admitted to the NICU prior to cardiac intervention between January 2015 and December 2016 was undertaken. Patients requiring extracorporeal life support prior to any cardiac intervention, or receiving prophylactic anticoagulation not related to central vascular catheter (CVC) were excluded...
May 29, 2020: Pediatric Cardiology
Jeanne Carroll, Kristen Wigby, Sarah Murray
Genetic disorders presenting in the neonatal period can have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis can facilitate timely prognostic counseling to families and possibility of precision care, which could improve outcome. As availability of diagnostic testing expands, the required knowledge base of the neonatologist must also expand to include proper application and understanding of genetic testing modalities, especially where availability of clinical genetics consultation is limited...
May 29, 2020: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Johannes P M Kramer, Tamara B Aigner, Jana Petzold, Kaveh Roshanbinfar, Thomas Scheibel, Felix B Engel
Cardiac tissue engineering is a promising approach to treat cardiovascular diseases, which are a major socio-economic burden worldwide. An optimal material for cardiac tissue engineering, allowing cardiomyocyte attachment and exhibiting proper immunocompatibility, biocompatibility and mechanical characteristics, has not yet emerged. An additional challenge is to develop a fabrication method that enables the generation of proper hierarchical structures and constructs with a high density of cardiomyocytes for optimal contractility...
May 29, 2020: Scientific Reports
Julian Rothen, Dulmini Nanayakkara Sapugahawatte, Carmen Li, Norman Lo, Guido Vogel, Frédéric Foucault, Valentin Pflüger, Joёl F Pothier, Jochen Blom, Claudia Daubenberger, Margaret Ip
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS), is a frequent human colonizer and a leading cause of neonatal meningitis as well as an emerging pathogen in non-pregnant adults. GBS possesses a broad animal host spectrum, and recent studies proved atypical GBS genotypes can cause human invasive diseases through animal sources as food-borne zoonotic infections. We applied a MALDI-TOF MS typing method, based on molecular weight variations of predefined 28 ribosomal subunit proteins (rsp) to classify GBS strains of varying serotypes into major phylogenetic lineages...
May 29, 2020: Scientific Reports
Evangelia Antoniou, Eirini Orovou, Angeliki Sarella, Maria Iliadou, Nikolaos Rigas, Ermioni Palaska, Georgios Iatrakis, Maria Dagla
The global epidemic of Zika virus has been a major public health problem affecting pregnant women and their infants. Zika virus causes a viral disease transmitted to humans mainly by the infected Aedes mosquito bite. The infection is not severe in most cases; however, there is evidence that infection during pregnancy may be associated with fetal genetic abnormalities (including microcephaly). In addition to microcephaly and other malformations, some specific lesions in the central nervous system have been reported...
May 27, 2020: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Maria Weigand, Roxane L Degroote, Barbara Amann, Simone Renner, Eckhard Wolf, Stefanie M Hauck, Cornelia A Deeg
INSC94Y transgenic pigs develop a stable diabetic phenotype early after birth and therefore allow studying the influence of hyperglycemia on primary immune cells in an early stage of diabetes mellitus in vivo. Since immune response is altered in diabetes mellitus, with deviant neutrophil function discussed as one of the possible causes in humans and mouse models, we investigated these immune cells in INSC94Y transgenic pigs and wild type controls at protein level. A total of 2371 proteins were quantified by label-free LC-MS/MS...
May 26, 2020: Journal of Proteomics
Melina J Saavedra, Alfredo Eymann, Lucía Pérez, Julio Busaniche, Natalia Nápoli, Pablo Marantz, Julián Llera
INTRODUCTION: Advances in diagnostic methods, surgical techniques and postoperative intensive care have significantly increased the survival rates for children with congenital heart disease. In this context, long term sequelae acquired greater relevance. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a concept that helps to measure the impact of chronic diseases. The purpose of the current study was to describe HRQOL in children with congenital heart disease that undergo cardiac surgery during their first year of life...
June 2020: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Rauf Bhat, Mohamed A Farrag, Fahad N Almajhdi
Natural killer cells play a vital role in the rejection of tumors and pathogen-infected cells. NK cells are indispensable in the early immune response against viral infections by directly targeting infected cells. Furthermore, NK cells influence adaptive immunity by driving virus-specific T-cell responses. Respiratory syncytial virus, a highly contagious virus that causes bronchiolitis, is the main reason for mortality in infants and elderly patients. RSV infection triggers both innate and adaptive immune responses...
May 29, 2020: International Reviews of Immunology
Kristel K Leung, Parul Tandon, Vivek Govardhanam, Cynthia Maxwell, Vivian Huang
BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be at increased risk of adverse neonatal outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine pooled incidences and risk factors for these outcomes. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched through May 2019 for studies reporting adverse neonatal outcomes in IBD. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: The pooled incidence of preterm birth, low birth weight, congenital anomalies, and infants transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit was 8...
May 29, 2020: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Danilo Buonsenso, Gino Soldati, Antonietta Curatola, Rosa Morello, Cristina De Rose, Maria Eugenia Vacca, Ilaria Lazzareschi, Anna Maria Musolino, Piero Valentini
OBJECTIVES: Lung ultrasound (LUS) has gained a primary role in the diagnosis and management of pleuropulmonary disorders in pediatric practice. However, normal and pathologic patterns are translated from adult studies and have never been specifically studied in children, particularly in infants. This was a prospective observational pilot study aiming to define the normal LUS pattern in healthy infants during the first 6 months of life. METHODS: We recruited healthy neonates at 7 to 10 days of life, and these were followed until the sixth month of life (times: 7-10 days, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months)...
May 29, 2020: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Alessandra Coscia, Agata Leone, Carlotta Rubino, Ganna Galitska, Matteo Biolatti, Enrico Bertino, Chiara Peila, Francesco Cresi
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of congenital infection. Its occurrence is phenotypically heterogeneous. The type of maternal infection, primary or non-primary, is an important factor related to the symptomatic disease, the primary infection was long considered the only cause of severe neonatal disease. We aimed to analyze the association of primary and non-primary infection with pathological outcomes in infants and with long-term sequelae at follow-up. This was a monocentric retrospective observational study on a population of 91 infants diagnosed with a CMV infection at the Neonatal Care Unit of Neonatology at the Sant'Anna Hospital of Turin during the period of June 2005 to December 2018...
May 25, 2020: Microorganisms
Ki-Back Chu, Hae-Ahm Lee, Hae-Ji Kang, Eun-Kyung Moon, Fu-Shi Quan
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection affects the lives of neonates throughout the globe, causing a high rate of mortality upon hospital admission. Yet, therapeutic options to deal with this pulmonary pathogen are currently limited. Helminth therapy has been well received for its immunomodulatory role in hosts, which are crucial for mitigating a multitude of diseases. Therefore, in this study, we used the helminth Trichinella spiralis and assessed its capabilities for modulating RSV infection as well as the inflammatory response induced by it in mice...
May 25, 2020: Cells
Laurent M A Favié, Timo R de Haan, Yuma A Bijleveld, Carin M A Rademaker, Toine C G Egberts, Debbie H G M Nuytemans, Ron A A Mathôt, Floris Groenendaal, Alwin D R Huitema
Drug dosing in encephalopathic neonates treated with therapeutic hypothermia is challenging; exposure is dependent on body size and maturation but can also be influenced by factors related to disease and treatment. A better understanding of underlying pharmacokinetic principles is essential to guide drug dosing in this population. The prospective multicenter cohort study PharmaCool was designed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of commonly used drugs in neonatal encephalopathy. In the present study, all data obtained in the PharmaCool study were combined to study the structural system specific effects of body size, maturation, recovery of organ function and temperature on drug clearance using nonlinear mixed effects modelling...
May 28, 2020: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Folashade Omole, Walkitria Smith, Kitty Carter-Wicker
Newborn male circumcision is a common elective surgical procedure for the removal of foreskin covering the glans penis. The American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Academy of Family Physicians recognize that there are health benefits of newborn male circumcision but do not universally recommend the procedure. Performing male circumcision during the neonatal period has several advantages, including a lower risk of complications, faster healing, and lower cost...
June 1, 2020: American Family Physician
Ali Aamer Habib, Ghazaleh Ahmadi Jazi, Tahseen Mozaffar
With the exception of thymectomy, immune modulatory treatment strategies and clinical trials in myasthenia gravis over the past 50 y were mainly borrowed from experience in other nonneurologic autoimmune disorders. The current experimental therapy paradigm has significantly changed such that treatments directed against the pathological mechanisms specific to myasthenia gravis are being tested, in some cases as the initial disease indication. Key advances have been made in three areas: (i) the expanded role and long-term benefits of thymectomy, (ii) complement inhibition to prevent antibody-mediated postsynaptic membrane damage, and (iii) neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) inhibition as in vivo apheresis, removing pathogenic antibodies...
May 28, 2020: Muscle & Nerve
Tsige Shushay Gebremedhin, Fissaha Tekulu Welay, Meresa Berwo Mengesha, Natnael Etsay Assefa, Weldu Mammo Werid
Background: Maternal tetanus is defined as tetanus acquired during pregnancy or within 6 weeks after the end of conception. As tetanus is a vaccine-preventable disease, immunization of pregnant mothers with a TT (tetanus toxoid) dose is one of the most effective ways to protect against the disease. Some studies showed that 94% of neonatal mortality reduction could be achieved through immunization of pregnant and childbearing-age mothers with at least two doses of TT vaccination. Objective: To assess the uptake of tetanus toxoid vaccine and associated factors among mothers who gave birth in the last 12 months in Errer district, Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia, 2017...
2020: BioMed Research International
Inês M S Guerra, Helena Beatriz Ferreira, Bruna Neves, Tânia Melo, Luísa M Diogo, M Rosário Domingues, Ana S P Moreira
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most prevalent inborn error of amino acid metabolism. The disease is due to the deficiency of phenylalanine (Phe) hydroxylase activity, which causes the accumulation of Phe. Early diagnosis through neonatal screening is essential for early treatment implementation, avoiding cognitive impairment and other irreversible sequelae. Treatment is based on Phe restriction in the diet that should be maintained throughout life. High dietary restrictions can lead to imbalances in specific nutrients, notably lipids...
May 24, 2020: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Jason Silverman, Justine Turner, Paul W Wales
Currently, in North America we are fortunate to have a number of available options for lipid emulsions to be used in the parenteral nutrition regimens for infants and children, including for long term parenteral nutrition given intestinal failure. Neonates and infants in particular are at risk for intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). The choice of parenteral lipid emulsion will influence the risk and severity of IFALD. The purpose of this review is to discuss the rationale for the composite lipid emulsion (CLE) SMOFlipid® that includes soybean, medium chain triglycerides, olive and fish oils for IFALD, with focus on the Canadian practice and experience...
May 26, 2020: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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