Narayan Ramamurthy, Dinesh C Pathak, Ajai Lawrence D'Silva, Rahul Batheja, Asok Kumar Mariappan, Vikram N Vakharia, Madhan Mohan Chellappa, Sohini Dey
Recombinant Newcastle disease virus vectors have gained a lot of interest for its oncolytic virus therapy and cancer immune therapeutic properties due to its selective replication to high titers in cancer cells. The aim of this study was to find out the oncolytic effects of mesogenic recombinant NDV strain R2B-GFP on murine mammary tumor cell line 4T1 and murine melanoma cell line B16-F10. The anti-tumor effects of R2B-GFP virus were studied via expression of virus transgene GFP in cancer cells, evaluating its cytotoxicity and cell migration efficacies by MTT and wound healing assays respectively...
July 25, 2021: Research in Veterinary Science
Sitong Wang, Linaer Gu, Lili Huang, Juemin Fang, Zhuqing Liu, Qing Xu
PYCR2 has previously been shown to be related to a range of malignancies including hepatocellular carcinoma and melanoma, but its mechanistic functions and prognostic relevance in colon cancer patients remain to be defined. Herein, we used the Oncomine, Human Protein Atlas, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and UALCAN databases to explore the expression of this gene in different human cancer, after which the relationship between PYCR2 expression and patient clinicopathologic characteristics was evaluated. We utilized an in vitro approach to evaluate the association between PYCR2 expression and colon cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumor microsphere formation...
July 28, 2021: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
P Trillo Aliaga, F Spada, G Peveri, V Bagnardi, C Fumagalli, A Laffi, M Rubino, L Gervaso, E Guerini Rocco, E Pisa, G Curigliano, N Fazio
BACKGROUND: Temozolomide (TEM) is an active treatment in metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Patients affected by glioblastoma multiforme or advanced melanoma treated with TEM who have deficiency of O6 -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) have a better responses and survival. However, the predictive role of MGMT in patients with NETs treated with TEM is still debated. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis, based on PRISMA methodology, searching in the main databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and clinical trial...
July 22, 2021: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Cristian V A Munteanu, Gabriela N Chirițoiu, Marioara Chirițoiu, Simona Ghenea, Andrei-Jose Petrescu, Ștefana M Petrescu
Various pathologies result from disruptions to or stress of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis, such as Parkinson's disease and most neurodegenerative illnesses, diabetes, pulmonary fibrosis, viral infections and cancers. A critical process in maintaining ER homeostasis is the selection of misfolded proteins by the ER quality-control system (ERQC) for destruction via ER-associated degradation (ERAD). One key protein proposed to act during the first steps of misfolded glycoprotein degradation is the ER degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase-like protein 2 (EDEM2)...
July 28, 2021: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
S Atilla, Ö Gököz, S Özer, G Elçin
BACKGROUND: Mohs micrographic surgery is the gold standard treatment for high-risk non-melanoma skin cancers. The success of Mohs relies on accurate histopathologic evaluation. Due to law restrictions in some European countries Mohs surgeons are not permitted to report on histopathology, therefore a pathologist evaluates the frozen sections. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively assess the concordance between the certified Mohs surgeon and the pathologist in evaluating the Mohs slides that were intraoperatively evaluated by the pathologist...
July 31, 2021: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Laura Serra-García, Sebastian Podlipnik, Juliana Bedoya, Sumeyre Seda Ertekin, Elena Manubens, Cristina Carrera, Antonio José Zalacain-Vicuña, Josep Malvehy, Susana Puig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2021: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
Shaoyun Wang, Baohui Chen, Liping Ouyang, Donghui Wang, Ji Tan, Yuqin Qiao, Shengfang Ge, Jing Ruan, Ai Zhuang, Xuanyong Liu, Renbing Jia
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most prevalent primary intraocular malignant tumor with a high lethal rate. Patients who undergo conventional enucleation treatments consistently suffer permanent blindness, facial defects, and mental disorders, therefore, novel therapeutic modalities are urgently required. Herein, an injectable and stimuli-responsive drug delivery antibacterial hydrogel (CP@Au@DC_AC50) is constructed via a facile grinding method that is inspired by the preparation process of traditional Chinese medicine...
July 31, 2021: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Jesús García-Foncillas, Jesús Argente, Luis Bujanda, Victoria Cardona, Bonaventura Casanova, Ana Fernández-Montes, José A Horcajadas, Andrés Iñiguez, Alberto Ortiz, José L Pablos, María Vanessa Pérez Gómez
Although the concept of precision medicine, in which healthcare is tailored to the molecular and clinical characteristics of each individual, is not new, its implementation in clinical practice has been heterogenous. In some medical specialties, precision medicine has gone from being just a promise to a reality that achieves better patient outcomes. This is a fact if we consider, for example, the great advances made in the genetic diagnosis and subsequent treatment of countless hereditary diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, which have improved the life expectancy of many of the affected children...
July 30, 2021: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Nicol Mecozzi, Olga Vera, Florian A Karreth
Non-coding RNAs are emerging as critical molecules in the genesis, progression, and therapy resistance of cutaneous melanoma. This includes circular RNAs (circRNAs), a class of non-coding RNAs with distinct characteristics that forms through non-canonical back-splicing. In this review, we summarize the features and functions of circRNAs and introduce the current knowledge of the roles of circRNAs in melanoma. We also highlight the various mechanisms of action of the well-studied circRNA CDR1as and describe how it acts as a melanoma tumor suppressor...
July 30, 2021: Oncogene
Shuning He, Mark W Zimmerman, Hillary M Layden, Alla Berezovskaya, Julia Etchin, Megan W Martel, Grace Thurston, Chang-Bin Jing, Ellen van Rooijen, Charles K Kaufman, Scott J Rodig, Leonard I Zon, E Elizabeth Patton, Marc R Mansour, A Thomas Look
Melanomas driven by loss of the NF1 tumor suppressor have a high risk of treatment failure and effective therapies have not been developed. Here we show that loss-of-function mutations of nf1 and pten result in aggressive melanomas in zebrafish, representing the first animal model of NF1-mutant melanomas harboring PTEN loss. MEK or PI3K inhibitors show little activity when given alone due to cross-talk between the pathways, and high toxicity when given together. The mTOR inhibitors, sirolimus, everolimus, and temsirolimus, were the most active single agents tested, potently induced tumor-suppressive autophagy, but not apoptosis...
July 30, 2021: Oncogene
Varun Monga, Benjamin J Miller, Munir Tanas, Sarag Boukhar, Bryan Allen, Carryn Anderson, Laura Stephens, Stacey Hartwig, Steven Varga, Jon Houtman, Lei Wang, Weizhou Zhang, Omar Jaber, Jon Thomason, David Kuehn, Maheen Rajput, Catherine Metz, K D Zamba, Sarah Mott, Chinemerem Abanonu, Sudershan Bhatia, Mohammed Milhem
BACKGROUND: Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) in the extremities and trunk treated with standard-of-care preoperative external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) followed by surgical resection are associated with local and distant relapses. In preclinical studies, oncolytic virotherapy in sarcoma has demonstrated antitumor effects via direct intratumoral oncolysis and cytotoxic T-cell-mediated immune responses. Talimogene laherparepvec (TVEC) is a replication-competent, immune-enhanced, oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 engineered for intratumoral injection; it has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic melanoma...
July 2021: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Seung-Gi Jin, Dean Pettinga, Jennifer Johnson, Peipei Li, Gerd P Pfeifer
Sunlight-associated melanomas carry a unique C-to-T mutation signature. UVB radiation induces cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) as the major form of DNA damage, but the mechanism of how CPDs cause mutations is unclear. To map CPDs at single-base resolution genome wide, we developed the circle damage sequencing (circle-damage-seq) method. In human cells, CPDs form preferentially in a tetranucleotide sequence context (5'-Py-T<>Py-T/A), but this alone does not explain the tumor mutation patterns. To test whether mutations arise at CPDs by cytosine deamination, we specifically mapped UVB-induced cytosine-deaminated CPDs...
July 2021: Science Advances
Xuan Zhang, Yan Zhang, Haiping Zheng, Yufeng He, Honglin Jia, Liyuan Zhang, Chunjie Lin, Shuang Chen, Junfeng Zheng, Qunfang Yang, Tao Liu, Xichun Pan, Haigang Zhang, Chenhui Wang, Lei Ren, Wenjun Shan
Metastasis is the leading cause of death in cancer patients. Eliciting anti-tumor immune responses against lung metastasis is hindered by the immunosuppressive microenvironment. This study explored a biomimetic nanoformulation, comprising a nanovaccine (OP) that delivers tumor antigens and adjuvants spatially and temporally in a virus-like manner, and a pulmonary surfactant-biomimetic liposome with an immunomodulator, JQ1 (PS-JQ1). The findings of this study showed that intratracheal administration of OP+PS-JQ1 activated lung immune cells without concomitant excess inflammation, enhanced tumor antigen cross-presentation, generated a significantly high antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response, and reshaped the immunocellular composition in B16 melanoma tumor-bearing lung...
July 27, 2021: Acta Biomaterialia
Stephen L Shiao, Kathleen M Kershaw, Jose J Limon, Sungyong You, Junhee Yoon, Emily Y Ko, Jlenia Guarnerio, Alka A Potdar, Dermot P B McGovern, Shikha Bose, Tahir B Dar, Paul Noe, Jung Lee, Yuzu Kubota, Viviana I Maymi, Madison J Davis, Regina M Henson, Rachel Y Choi, Wensha Yang, Jie Tang, Matthew Gargus, Alexander D Prince, Zachary S Zumsteg, David M Underhill
Studies suggest that the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy and immunotherapy is influenced by intestinal bacteria. However, the influence of the microbiome on radiation therapy is not as well understood, and the microbiome comprises more than bacteria. Here, we find that intestinal fungi regulate antitumor immune responses following radiation in mouse models of breast cancer and melanoma and that fungi and bacteria have opposite influences on these responses. Antibiotic-mediated depletion or gnotobiotic exclusion of fungi enhances responsiveness to radiation, whereas antibiotic-mediated depletion of bacteria reduces responsiveness and is associated with overgrowth of commensal fungi...
July 29, 2021: Cancer Cell
Daltry L Snider, Stacy M Horner
A new study in PLOS Biology finds that interferon (IFN)-induced adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) mRNA is N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modified to promote its translation, enabling ADAR1 to modify self-double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) generated during the IFN response and preventing activation of the melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5)-mediated host antiviral response.
July 2021: PLoS Biology
Zhengjie Meng, Hao Wang, Xue Fang, Zhangya Liu, Zheng Yang, Jiahui Yong, Qingqing Yang, Yunhao Bai, Hao Ren, Hao Xu, Xueming Li
The vascular wall is the first physiologic barrier that circulating nanoparticles (NPs) encounter, which also is a key biological barrier to cancer drug delivery. NPs can continually scavenge the endothelium for biomarkers of cancer, and the chance of NPs' extravasation into the tumors can be enhanced. Here, we envision P-selectin as a target for specific delivery of drug nanocrystals to tumors. The cupric diethyldithiocarbamate nanocrystals (CuET NCs) were first prepared by an antisolvent method, and then nanocrystals were coated with fucoidan via physical interaction...
July 30, 2021: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Anji Ju, Jiaze Tang, Shuohua Chen, Yan Fu, Yongzhang Luo
Skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) is a chronically malignant tumor with a high mortality rate. Pyroptosis, a kind of pro-inflammatory programmed cell death, has been linked to cancer in recent studies. However, the value of pyroptosis in the diagnosis and prognosis of SKCM is not clear. In this study, it was discovered that 20 pyroptosis-related genes (PRGs) differed in expression between SKCM and normal tissues, which were related to diagnosis and prognosis. Firstly, based on these genes, nine machine-learning algorithms were shown to perform well in constructing diagnostic classifiers, including K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), logistic regression, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), decision tree, random forest, XGBoost, LightGBM, and CatBoost...
2021: Frontiers in Oncology
Rebecca M Harsten, Rebecca Fisher, Nazar Al-Sanjari, Philip Idaewor, Abdalla Saad Abdalla Al-Zawi
Skin malignant melanoma (MM) is a malignant neoplasm that arises from the melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis. It is considered an aggressive neoplasm and is responsible for 75% of skin cancer deaths. Here we present a case of a young female patient who presented with a left breast mass and investigations revealed multiple disease foci from an occult MM.
June 2021: Curēus
Andrew V Doodnauth, Miriam M Klar, Zohra R Malik, Krunal H Patel, Samy I McFarlane
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have opened a new era in treating advanced malignancies, resulting in a rapid increase in utilization, given the remarkable clinical outcomes. The incidence of immune-related adverse events increased due to the immunologic effects of these therapeutic agents. However, immune-related renal adverse events remain low, representing only a small incidence of reported cases. Common renal toxicity described includes acute interstitial nephritis, minimal change disease, and immune complex glomerulonephritis...
2021: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Ali Asadian, Mojtaba Fattahi Ardakani, Ahmad Sotoudeh, Moradali Zareipour, Ehsan Movahed
Introduction: The growing rate of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma has been a great challenge for global health system. The present research aims to determine sailors' protective behaviors against the risks of sunlight and skin cancer in Iran. Materials and Methods: The present research was qualitative in type, and its data were collected from August to December 2019. To this aim, 23 participants were recruited with whom semistructured interviews were held...
2021: Journal of Skin Cancer
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