Eirini Christodoulou, Mamunur Rashid, Clare Pacini, Droop Alastair, Holly Robertson, Tim van Groningen, Amina F A S Teunisse, Francesco Iorio, A G Jochemsen, David J Adams, Remco van Doorn
Targeting the MAPK signaling pathway has transformed the treatment of metastatic melanoma. CRISPR-Cas9 viability screens provide a genome-wide approach to uncover novel genetic dependencies. Here we analyzed recently reported CRISPR-Cas9 screens comparing data from 28 melanoma cell lines and 313 cell lines of other tumor types in order to identify fitness genes related to melanoma. We found an average of 1,494 fitness genes in each melanoma cell line. We identified 33 genes inactivation of which specifically reduced the fitness of melanoma...
August 7, 2020: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Rebecca Justiniano, Lohanna de Faria Lopes, Jessica Perer, Anh Hua, Sophia L Park, Jana Jandova, Maurício S Baptista, Georg T Wondrak
UV-chromophores contained in human skin may act as endogenous sensitizers of photooxidative stress and can be employed therapeutically for the photodynamic elimination of malignant cells. Here we report that 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), a tryptophan-derived photoproduct and endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist, displays activity as a nanomolar sensitizer of photooxidative stress, causing the photodynamic elimination of human melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...
August 7, 2020: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Cecilia A Larocca, Nicole R LeBoeuf, Ann W Silk, Howard L Kaufman
Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is the first agent approved for cancer in the emerging class of oncolytic viral therapies. While T-VEC was approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma in 2015, clinical utilization has been hampered by rapid changes in the therapeutic landscape of melanoma related to advances in both immune checkpoint blockade and targeted therapy, cumbersome logistics involved in T-VEC administration, biosafety concerns, and a perception that T-VEC has limited impact on uninjected, visceral disease...
August 7, 2020: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Isabela Bartelli Fonseca, Marcus Vitor Nunes Lindote, Marcus Rodrigo Monteiro, Eduardo Doria Filho, Clovis Antonio Lopes Pinto, Andrea Schiavinato Jafelicci, Matheus de Melo Lôbo, Vinicius Fernando Calsavara, Eduardo Bertolli, João Pedreira Duprat Neto
BACKGROUND: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) for melanoma patients has been questioned. We aimed to study high-risk stage II melanoma patients who underwent SNB to determine what the prognostic factors regarding recurrence and mortality were, and evaluate how relevant SNB status is in this scenario. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of clinical stage IIB/IIC melanoma patients who underwent SNB from 2000 to 2015 in a single institution. Prognostic factors related to distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS) and melanoma-specific survival (MSS) were assessed from multiple Cox regression...
August 7, 2020: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Kritika Krishnamurthy, Ana Maria Medina, Lydia Howard
OBJECTIVE: Because of its wide tissue distribution, elevation of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LD) is a nonspecific finding. Although serum LD is still included in the prognosis and staging of metastatic melanoma and germ cell tumors, its nonspecificity has led to decreased usefulness. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed the serum LD assays performed in a 726-bed hospital during a 1-year period and reviewed charts of patients with serum LD of >3 standard deviations (SD)...
August 7, 2020: Laboratory Medicine
Sierra M Barone, Alberta G A Paul, Lyndsey M Muehling, Joanne A Lannigan, William W Kwok, Ronald B Turner, Judith A Woodfolk, Jonathan M Irish
For an emerging disease like COVID-19, systems immunology tools may quickly identify and quantitatively characterize cells associated with disease progression or clinical response. With repeated sampling, immune monitoring creates a real-time portrait of the cells reacting to a novel virus before disease specific knowledge and tools are established. However, single cell analysis tools can struggle to reveal rare cells that are under 0.1% of the population. Here, the machine learning workflow Tracking Responders Expanding (T-REX) was created to identify changes in both very rare and common cells in diverse human immune monitoring settings...
August 1, 2020: the Preprint Server for Biology
Diana Giannuzzi, Luca Aresu
Approximately 10-15% of worldwide human cancers are attributable to viral infection. When operating as carcinogenic elements, viruses may act with various mechanisms, but the most important is represented by viral integration into the host genome, causing chromosome instability, genomic mutations, and aberrations. In canine species, few reports have described an association between viral integration and canine cancers, but more comprehensive studies are needed. The advancement of next-generation sequencing and the cost reduction have resulted in a progressive increasing of sequencing data in veterinary oncology offering an opportunity to study virome in canine cancers...
2020: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Bo Zhang, Kaibo Guo, Xueer Zheng, Leitao Sun, Minhe Shen, Shanming Ruan
Background: Second primary malignancy (SPM) attracts a growing attention. However, the clinical features of colon cancer (CC) survivors with SPMs are not clear and could help guide clinicians to develop a better surveillance strategy. Methods: We reviewed 56,930 CC survivors treated with colectomy from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database during 1998-2011. Competing risk models and nomograms were conducted for predicting the risk of occurring SPMs. The clinical utility of the models was measured by decision curve analysis (DCA) using net benefit approaches...
2020: Frontiers in Oncology
Raman J Sohal, Sandeep Sohal, Ali Wazir, Sam Benjamin
Mucosal melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma representing around 1% of total cases of melanoma diagnosed. The usual sites of mucosal involvement are the sino-nasal passages, the oral cavity, and less commonly the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It also has been reported to occur in vulvovaginal and anorectal mucosa.  We present a rare case of mucosal melanoma that presented as recurrent epistaxis, headache, and sinus pressure. CT maxillofacial imaging revealed a large mass right nasal cavity. This was biopsied by ENT and shown to be mucosal melanoma...
July 30, 2020: Curēus
Nirmish Singla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2020: Kidney Cancer Journal: Official Journal of the Kidney Cancer Association
Fedele Lembo, Liberato Roberto Cecchino, Domenico Parisi, Aurelio Portincasa
Radical ablative surgery is the gold standard treatment of head skin cancer. The authors expose their experience with a new artificial dermis (Pelnac®), analyzing retrospectively the overall morbidity and aesthetic outcomes. 16 consecutive patients underwent two surgical procedures under local anesthesia. The first involved the tumor removal and application of the ADM. In the second, the exposed tissue was covered with a split-thickness skin graft. On follow-up (6 months), tumor recurrences, quality of scars (using the Vancouver Scar Scale), and patient reported outcomes (using FACE-Q Skin Cancer Module) were evaluated...
2020: Dermatology Research and Practice
Stephanie Hawthorne, Linda Zhao, Madelyn Hanson, Gena Kanas, Christine Davis, David Robinson, Matthew Turnure, Otavio Clark
Context: Melanoma treatment has substantially changed over the last several years, yet little information regarding physician's preferences around treatment exists. Objective: Our aim is to describe the results of the CancerMPact (CMP) survey performed in 2019 about the treatment of advanced/metastatic melanoma. Methods: CMP is a data source from Kantar, Health Division, containing data on cancer epidemiology and treatment. Once a year, Kantar performs a series of surveys with specialists in the field of interest in the United States of America (USA), Western Europe (WE), Japan, and China...
2020: Cancer Management and Research
William A Hal, Michael W Straza, Xinfeng Chen, Nikolai Mickevicius, Beth Erickson, Chris Schultz, Musaddiq Awan, Ergun Ahunbay, X Allen Li, Eric S Paulson
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: Recently a 1.5 Tesla MR Linac has been FDA approved and is commercially available. Clinical series describing treatment methods and outcomes for upper abdominal tumors using a 1.5 Tesla MR Linac are lacking. We present the first clinical series of upper abdominal tumors treated using a 1.5 Tesla MR Linac along with the acquisition of intra-treatment quantitative imaging. MATERIALS/METHODS: 10 patients with abdominal tumors were treated at our institution...
2020: PloS One
Emmanuel M Gabriel, Minhyung Kim, Daniel T Fisher, Colin Powers, Kristopher Attwood, Sanjay P Bagaria, Keith L Knutson, Joseph J Skitzki
Despite advances in therapy for melanoma, heterogeneous responses with limited durability represent a major gap in treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether alteration in tumor blood flow could augment drug delivery and improve antitumor responses in a regional model of melanoma. This approach to altering tumor blood flow was termed "dynamic control." Dynamic control of tumor vessels in C57BL/6 mice bearing B16 melanoma was performed using volume expansion (saline bolus) followed by phenylephrine...
August 6, 2020: Scientific Reports
Nabanita Mukherjee, Carol M Amato, Jenette Skees, Kaleb J Todd, Karoline A Lambert, William A Robinson, Robert Van Gulick, Ryan M Weight, Chiara R Dart, Richard P Tobin, Martin D McCarter, Mayumi Fujita, David A Norris, Yiqun G Shellman
There is an urgent need to develop treatments for patients with melanoma who are refractory to or ineligible for immune checkpoint blockade, including patients who lack BRAF-V600E/K mutations. This is often the case in patients diagnosed with rare melanoma subtypes such as mucosal and acral melanoma. Here, we analyzed data from the cutaneous melanoma The Cancer Genome Atlas Network (TCGA) transcriptomic and proteomic databases for differential expression of apoptosis molecules between melanomas with or without BRAF hotspot mutations...
August 5, 2020: Cancers
Joana Lopes, João Miguel Pinto Coelho, Pedro Manuel Cardoso Vieira, Ana Silveira Viana, Maria Manuela Gaspar, Catarina Reis
Cancer like melanoma is a complex disease, for which standard therapies have significant adverse side effects that in most cases are ineffective and highly unspecific. Thus, a new paradigm has come with the need of achieving alternative (less invasive) and effective therapies. In this work, biocompatible gold nanoparticles (GNPs) coated with hyaluronic acid and oleic acid were prepared and characterized in terms of size, morphology and cytotoxicity in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , and two cell lines, the keratinocytes (healthy skin cells, HaCat) and the melanoma cells (B16F10)...
August 5, 2020: Nanomaterials
R Kurokawa, Y Ota, W Gonoi, A Hagiwara, M Kurokawa, H Mori, E Maeda, S Amemiya, Y Usui, N Sato, Y Nakata, T Moritani, O Abe
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hypophysitis is one of the well-known adverse effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced hypophysitis frequently causes irreversible hypopituitarism, which requires long-term hormone replacement. Despite the high frequency and clinical significance, characteristic MR imaging findings of immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced hypophysitis have not been established. In the present study, we aimed to review and extract the MR imaging features of immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced hypophysitis...
August 6, 2020: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Michiel C T van Zeijl, Florine L Boer, Mariëtte I E van Poelgeest, Alfons J M van den Eertwegh, Michel W J M Wouters, Liesbeth C de Wreede, Maureen J B Aarts, Franchette W P J van den Berkmortel, Jan Willem B de Groot, Geke A P Hospers, Djura Piersma, Rozemarijn S van Rijn, Karijn P M Suijkerbuijk, Albert J Ten Tije, Astrid A M van der Veldt, Gerard Vreugdenhil, Marye J Boers-Sonderen, Ellen H W Kapiteijn, John B A G Haanen
BACKGROUND: Mucosal melanoma (MM) is rare and has a poor prognosis. Since 2011, new effective treatments are available for advanced melanoma. It is unclear whether patients with mucosal melanoma equally benefit from these new treatments compared with patients with cutaneous melanoma (CM). METHODS: Patients with advanced MM and CM diagnosed between 2013 and 2017 were included from a nationwide population-based registry - the Dutch Melanoma Treatment Registry. Overall survival (OS) was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method (also for a propensity score-matched cohort)...
August 4, 2020: European Journal of Cancer
Ryosuke Satoh, Naoya Hamada, Ami Yamada, Yuki Kanda, Fumihiro Ishikawa, Teruaki Takasaki, Genzoh Tanabe, Reiko Sugiura
The recent discovery that an ERK signaling modulator [ACA-28 (2a)] preferentially kills human melanoma cell lines by inducing ERK-dependent apoptosis has generated significant interest in the field of anti-cancer therapy. In the first SAR study on 2a, here, we successfully developed candidates (2b, 2c) both of which induce more potent and selective apoptosis towards ERK-active melanoma cells than 2a, thus revealing the structural basis for inducing the ERK-dependent apoptosis and proposing the therapeutic prospect of these candidates against ERK-dependent cancers represented by melanoma...
July 25, 2020: Bioorganic Chemistry
U Keilholz, P A Ascierto, R Dummer, C Robert, P Lorigan, A van Akkooi, A Arance, C U Blank, V Chiarion Sileni, M Donia, M B Faries, C Gaudy-Marqueste, H Gogas, J J Grob, M Guckenberger, J Haanen, A J Hayes, C Hoeller, C Lebbé, I Lugowska, M Mandalà, I Márquez-Rodas, P Nathan, B Neyns, R Olofsson Bagge, S Puig, P Rutkowski, B Schilling, V K Sondak, H Tawbi, A Testori, O Michielin
The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) held a consensus conference on melanoma on 5-7 September 2019 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The conference included a multidisciplinary panel of 32 leading experts in the management of melanoma. The aim of the conference was to develop recommendations on topics that are not covered in detail in the current ESMO Clinical Practice Guideline and where available evidence is either limited or conflicting. The main topics identified for discussion were: (1) the management of locoregional disease; (2) targeted versus immunotherapies in the adjuvant setting; (3) targeted versus immunotherapies for the first-line treatment of metastatic melanoma; (4) when to stop immunotherapy or targeted therapy in the metastatic setting; and (5) systemic versus local treatment for brain metastases...
July 22, 2020: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
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