Qiao-Yan Lian, Ao Chen, Jian-Heng Zhang, Xin Xu, Dan-Xia Huang, Qun Luo, Jian-Xing He, Chun-Rong Ju
Lung transplantation is an ultimate lifesaving treatment for many patients with end-stage lung disease, whereas whether it is an optional intervention for the anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (anti-MDA5)-positive dermatomyositis (DM)-associated rapid progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) remain controversial. We report two patients diagnosed with anti-MDA5-positive DM-associated RP-ILD, who were both bridging to lung transplant with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) after failing to respond to extensive immunosuppressants...
November 28, 2022: Clinical Rheumatology
Viengneesee Thao, Ruchita Dholakia, James P Moriarty, Bijan J Borah, Jvalini Dwarkasing, Alexander Meves
BACKGROUND: The Merlin assay for melanoma-risk assessment has become commercially available to reduce the rate of unnecessary sentinel lymph node biopsies (SLNB) in SLNB-eligible patients with cutaneous melanoma. Merlin low-risk patients are recommended to undergo wide local excision (WLE) of the primary tumor, whereas Merlin high-risk patients are recommended to undergo both SLNB and WLE. Here, we compared the cost of a Merlin testing strategy to that of a no-testing strategy (usual care) before prescribing SLNB...
November 28, 2022: International Journal of Dermatology
Shaocheng Bai, Shuaishuai Hu, Yingying Dai, Rongshuai Jin, Chen Zhang, Fan Yao, Qiaoqin Weng, Pin Zhai, Bohao Zhao, Xinsheng Wu, Yang Chen
Melanocytes play a major role in the formation of mammalian fur color and are regulated by several genes. Despite playing the pivotal role in the study of melanoma, the mechanistic role of NRAS (neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog) in the formation of mammalian epidermal color is still elusive. First of all, the expression levels of NRAS mRNA and protein in the dorsal skin of different colored Rex rabbits were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Then, the subcellular localization of NRAS was identified in melanocytes by indirect immunofluorescence...
November 28, 2022: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Qinran Zhang, Suoqin Jin, Xiufen Zou
Although single-cell sequencing has provided a powerful tool to deconvolute cellular heterogeneity of diseases like cancer, extrapolating clinical significance or identifying clinically-relevant cells remains challenging. Here, we propose a novel computational method scAB, which integrates single-cell genomics data with clinically annotated bulk sequencing data via a knowledge- and graph-guided matrix factorization model. Once combined, scAB provides a coarse- and fine-grain multiresolution perspective of phenotype-associated cell states and prognostic signatures previously not visible by single-cell genomics...
November 28, 2022: Nucleic Acids Research
Zeynep Baş, James Sharpe, Antonio Yaghy, Qiang Zhang, Carol L Shields, Leslie Hyman
PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence of eyelid cancers in the American Academy of Ophthalmology Intelligent Research in Sight (IRIS) Registry and evaluate the associated factors. DESIGN: Retrospective IRIS Registry database study. PARTICIPANTS: All patients in the IRIS Registry between December 1, 2010, and December 1, 2018, with International Classification of Disease, ninth and 10th revisions, codes for eyelid cancers (basal cell carcinoma [BCC], squamous cell carcinoma [SCC], malignant melanoma [MM], sebaceous carcinoma/other specified malignant neoplasm [SBC], melanoma in situ [MIS], and unspecified malignant neoplasm [UMN])...
March 2023: Ophthalmol Sci
Adeel S Zubair, Bhaskar Roy, Joachim M Baehring, Richard J Nowak
Use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) is increasing in patients with oncologic disease. Three classes of checkpoint inhibitors exist: anti-PD1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab), anti-CTLA4 (ipilimumab), and anti-PDL1 (atezolizumab, avelumab, durvalumab). ICI therapy has been used in multiple malignancies including renal cell cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer, and melanoma. These therapies have led to improved oncologic treatment and outcomes in patients but can lead to immune-related or inflammatory adverse effects...
October 2022: Curēus
Riyadh M Alqurashi, Husam H Tamim, Ziyad D Alsubhi, Alyazid A Alzahrani, Emad Tashkandi
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) in patients with solid tumors is a rare and potentially fatal condition associated with anti-cancer treatment. Its outcome depends on awareness, identification of high-risk patients, and implementation of appropriate preventive measures. A systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines of case reports describing the occurrence of TLS in patients with solid tumors, primarily to identify potentially unrecognized or unusual clinical findings and outcomes. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases and conference abstracts and performed manual searches for case reports and case series published in English and describing patients who developed TLS...
October 2022: Curēus
Stephen R Ali, Huw Strafford, Thomas D Dobbs, Beata Fonferko-Shadrach, Arron S Lacey, William Owen Pickrell, Hayley A Hutchings, Iain S Whitaker
INTRODUCTION: Routinely collected healthcare data are a powerful research resource, but often lack detailed disease-specific information that is collected in clinical free text such as histopathology reports. We aim to use natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to extract detailed clinical and pathological information from histopathology reports to enrich routinely collected data. METHODS: We used the general architecture for text engineering (GATE) framework to build an NLP information extraction system using rule-based techniques...
2022: Frontiers in Surgery
Giulia Moretti, Alfredo Dentini, Francesca Beccati, Rolando Arcelli, Irene Di Matteo, Giuseppe Giovannini, Antonello Bufalari
Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a highly developed treatment for many solid tumours that provides good local control in 80% of neoplasms in dogs. ECT can be used to treat different types of tumours, particularly as an innovative approach for non-resectable masses. As reported in the literature, electroporation-based treatments are safe, simple, fast and cost-effective treatment alternatives for selected oral and maxillofacial tumours not involving the bone in dogs (e.g., small squamous cell carcinoma or malignant melanoma)...
2022: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Katharine Gurgel Dias Florêncio, Evelline Araújo Edson, Keilla Santana da Silva Fernandes, João Paulo Mesquita Luiz, Francisco das Chagas Lima Pinto, Otília Deusdênia Loiola Pessoa, Fernando de Queiroz Cunha, João Agostinho Machado-Neto, Diego Veras Wilke
PURPOSE: Some first-line cytotoxic chemotherapics, e.g. doxorubicin, paclitaxel and oxaliplatin, induce activation of the immune system through immunogenic cell death (ICD). Tumor cells undergoing ICD function as a vaccine, releasing damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which act as adjuvants, and neoantigens of the tumor are recognized as antigens. ICD induction is rare, however it yields better and long-lasting antitumor responses to chemotherapy. Advanced metastatic melanoma (AMM) is incurable for more than half of patients...
2022: Frontiers in Immunology
Xinlong Zheng, Kan Jiang, Weijin Xiao, Dongqiang Zeng, Wenying Peng, Jing Bai, Xiaohui Chen, Pansong Li, Longfeng Zhang, Xiaobin Zheng, Qian Miao, Haibo Wang, Shiwen Wu, Yiquan Xu, Haipeng Xu, Chao Li, Lifeng Li, Xuan Gao, Suya Zheng, Junhui Li, Deqiang Wang, Zhipeng Zhou, Xuefeng Xia, Shanshan Yang, Yujing Li, Zhaolei Cui, Qiuyu Zhang, Ling Chen, Xiandong Lin, Gen Lin
BACKGROUND: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) within the tumor microenvironment (TME) are critical for immune suppression by restricting immune cell infiltration in the tumor stromal zones from penetrating tumor islands and changing their function status, particularly for CD8+ T cells. However, assessing and quantifying the impact of CAFs on immune cells and investigating how this impact is related to clinical outcomes, especially the efficacy of immunotherapy, remain unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The TME was characterized using immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis using a large-scale sample size of gene expression profiles...
2022: Frontiers in Immunology
Emma Bigelow, Suchi Saria, Brian Piening, Brendan Curti, Alexa Dowdell, Roshanthi Weerasinghe, Carlo Bifulco, Walter Urba, Noam Finkelstein, Elana J Fertig, Alex Baras, Neeha Zaidi, Elizabeth Jaffee, Mark Yarchoan
Tumor mutational burden (TMB), a surrogate for tumor neoepitope burden, is used as a pan-tumor biomarker to identify patients who may benefit from anti-program cell death 1 (PD1) immunotherapy, but it is an imperfect biomarker. Multiple additional genomic characteristics are associated with anti-PD1 responses, but the combined predictive value of these features and the added informativeness of each respective feature remains unknown. We evaluated whether machine learning (ML) approaches using proposed determinants of anti-PD1 response derived from whole exome sequencing (WES) could improve prediction of anti-PD1 responders over TMB alone...
2022: Cancer Informatics
Yihui Xie, Ziqian Xu, Xingyu Mei, Weimin Shi
The prognosis of skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) remains poor, and patients with SKCM show a poor response to immunotherapy. Thus, we aimed to identify necroptosis-related biomarkers, which can help predict the prognosis of SKCM and improve the effectiveness of precision medicine. Data of SKCM were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and GEO databases. TCGA samples were classified into two clusters by consensus clustering of necroptosis-related genes. Univariate Cox and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression analyses led to the identification of 11 genes, which were used to construct a prognostic model...
2022: Disease Markers
Ciro Francesco Ruggiero, Luigi Fattore, Irene Terrenato, Francesca Sperati, Valentina Salvati, Gabriele Madonna, Mariaelena Capone, Fabio Valenti, Simona Di Martino, Chiara Mandoj, Domenico Liguoro, Vittorio Castaldo, Giordana Cafaro, Ester Simeone, Vito Vanella, Michelangelo Russillo, Laura Conti, Giovanni Cuda, Diana Giannarelli, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Rita Mancini, Gennaro Ciliberto
Rationale: Metastatic melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer. The introduction of immunotherapy with Immune checkpoint Inhibitors (ICI) and of targeted therapy with BRAF and MEK inhibitors for BRAF mutated melanoma, has greatly improved the clinical outcome of these patients. Nevertheless, response to therapy remains highly variable and the development of drug resistance continues to be a daunting challenge. Within this context there is a need to develop diagnostic tools capable of predicting response or resistance to therapy in order to select the best therapeutic approach...
2022: Theranostics
Bolei Dai, Ren Zhang, Shuhong Qi, Lei Liu, Xian Zhang, Deqiang Deng, Jie Zhang, Yilun Xu, Fanxuan Liu, Zheng Liu, Qingming Luo, Zhihong Zhang
Tumor antigens (TAs)-induced humoral immune responses or TAs-specific antibodies have great application prospects for tumor therapy. However, more than half of TAs are intracellular antigens (intra-Ags) that are hardly recognized by antibodies. It is worthy to develop immunotherapeutic strategies for targeting intra-Ags. Methods: We used the far-red fluorescent protein tfRFP as an intracellular antigen to immunize mice and generated a liver metastasis model by injecting tfRFP-expressing B16 melanoma cells (tfRFP-B16) via the spleen...
2022: Theranostics
Boyan Stoykov, Dimitar Velev, Ali Ali, Lidiya Velichkova, Ivan Malkodanski, Vladislav Dunev
We present a rare malignant melanoma of the right adrenal gland and periureteral adipose tissue leading to ureteral stenosis with the subsequent hydronephrotic transformation of the right kidney and pyonephrosis in a 67-year-old man.
November 2022: Urology Case Reports
Shuting Chen, Qinchao Hu, Xiaoan Tao, Juan Xia, Tong Wu, Bin Cheng, Juan Wang
Retinoids, natural and synthetic derivatives of vitamin A, have many regulatory functions in human body, including regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis. Moreover, retinoids have been used successfully for the treatment of certain malignancies, especially acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in adults and neuroblastoma in children. However, retinoids have not yet been translated into effective systemic treatments for most solid cancers. Some recent studies have shown that retinoids promote tumorigenesis...
2022: Frontiers in Genetics
Lu Diao, Lin Ma, Junping Cheng, Yunzhi Pan, Zuofu Peng, Lianjun Zhang, Minghao Xu, Yupei Li, Xuenong Zhang, Honglv Jiang, Guoqiang Xu, Fenghua Meng, Zhiyuan Zhong, Mi Liu
Metastatic cancers and recurrent cancers are diverse, different from primary cancers, and organ-dependent. However, how strong are across-cancer immune responses among different types of cancers remain unclear. Herein, vaccines-encapsulated-whole-components-of-tumor-tissue (VEWCOTT) were applied to demonstrate the across-cancer immune responses, thanks to inducing pan-clones T-cell immune responses. Either lung-cancer-tissue- or melanoma-tissue-based VEWCOTT simultaneously prevented melanoma, lung cancer, hepatoma, and metastatic cancer, which showed that strong across-cancer immune responses were induced...
December 22, 2022: IScience
John Abou-Hamad, Jonathan J Hodgins, Christiano T de Souza, Brennan Garland, Cédrik Labrèche, Marie Marotel, Cameron Gibson, Samuel Delisle, Julia Pascoal, Rebecca C Auer, Michele Ardolino, Luc A Sabourin
SOX10 is a key regulator of melanoma progression and promotes a melanocytic/differentiated state. Here we identified melanoma cell lines lacking SOX10 expression which retain their in vivo growth capabilities. More importantly, we find that SOX10 can regulate T-cell infiltration in melanoma while also decreasing common cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. We show that SOX10 regulates CEACAM1, a surface protein with immunomodulatory properties. SOX10 directly binds to a distal CEACAM1 promoter region approximately 3-4kbps from the CEACAM1 transcriptional start site...
December 22, 2022: IScience
Hamza Abu Owida
Skin cancer has shown a sharp increase in prevalence over the past few decades and currently accounts for one-third of all cancers diagnosed. The most lethal form of skin cancer is melanoma, which develops in 4% of individuals. The rising prevalence and increased number of fatalities of skin cancer put a significant burden on healthcare resources and the economy. However, early detection and treatment greatly improve survival rates for patients with skin cancer. Since the rising rates of both the incidence and mortality have been particularly noticeable with melanoma, significant resources have been allocated to research aimed at earlier diagnosis and a deeper knowledge of the disease...
2022: Journal of Skin Cancer
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