Kin Wing Chan, Alison M Bard, Katherine E Adam, Gwen M Rees, Lisa Morgans, Liz Cresswell, Stephen Hinchliffe, David C Barrett, Kristen K Reyher, Henry Buller
BACKGROUND: This paper explores the current role and place of diagnostic tests in the treatment of farm animal disease. With the growing focus on reduced reliance on antibiotic medicines in both animal and human patient care, attention is increasingly being focused on the practice, the technology and the function of diagnostic tests and how these can support responsible antimicrobial use. Emerging diagnostic technologies offer the possibility of more rapid testing for bacterial disease, while food chain actors and others are increasingly seeking to make diagnostic tests mandatory before the use of critically important antibiotics...
September 18, 2020: Veterinary Record
V K O'Donnell, S J Pauszek, L Xu, K Moran, D Vierra, T Boston, K A Dodd, B Faburay, R W Barrette
We report the genomes of three vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) isolates collected from naturally infected bovines in Wyoming and Colorado during the 2019 outbreak in the United States. These genomes support molecular diagnostic efforts and provide data on the spread and ecology of VSIV in the United States.
September 17, 2020: Microbiology Resource Announcements
Lumír Kunovský, Zdeněk Kala, Radek Kroupa, Tomáš Grolich, Jiří Dolina, Milan Dastych, Jitka Vaculová, Jakub Vlažný, Petr Moravčík, Lydie Izakovičová Hollá, Petra Bořilová Linhartová, Petr Jabandžiev, Vladimír Prochazka
BACKGROUND: Probebased confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is a novel diagnostic technique for endoscopy which enables a microscopic view at a cellular resolution in realtime. Endoscopic detection of early neoplasia in the distal esophagus is difficult and often these lesions can be missed. The aim of the pilot study was to obtain characteristic pCLE figures in esophageal diseases for following studies, and to evaluate the possible future role of pCLE in the diagnostics of dysplastic Barretts esophagus (BE) or early esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC)...
2020: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Vishnu Charan Suresh Kumar, Prateek Harne, Venkata Suresh Patthipati, Abinash Subedi, Umair Masood, Anuj Sharma, Faith Goyal, Nancy Aggarwal, Bishnu Sapkota
BACKGROUND: Wide-area transepithelial sampling (WATS) is a new technique that uses an abrasive brush to obtain samples from a larger surface area of the oesophagus. Studies have shown promising results that WATS in adjunct to forceps biopsy (FB) increases the detection rate of Barrett's oesophagus (BE) as well as oesophageal dysplasia (ED). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the detection rates of BE and ED between FB and WATS in adjunct to FB. METHODS: A Literature search was done using electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane and CINAHL from inception to 26 April 2020...
September 2020: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
Christopher D Barrett, Hunter B Moore, Navin Vigneshwar, Sanjeev Dhara, James Chandler, Michael P Chapman, Angela Sauaia, Ernest E Moore, Michael B Yaffe
BACKGROUND: Trauma patients with hyperfibrinolysis and depletion of fibrinolytic inhibitors(DFI) measured by thrombelastography(TEG) gain clot strength with TXA, but TEG results take nearly an hour. We aimed to develop an assay, plasmin TEG(P-TEG), to more expeditiously stratify risk for massive transfusion(MT), mortality and hyperfibrinolysis. METHODS: Trauma patients(n=148) were assessed using TEG assays without exogenous additives(rapid/native), with exogenous plasmin(P-TEG) or tissue plasminogen activator(tPA TEG)...
September 9, 2020: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Juan Liu, Yao Luo, Jun Wang, Chunhui Xi, Yu Chen, Guodong Yang, Ying Ling
BACKGROUND: Reflux esophagitis (RE) impairs the squamous epithelium that normally lines the esophagus, and contributes to the replacement of the damaged squamous lining by the intestinal metaplasia of Barrett's esophagus (BE), which is considered as a precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma. This study aimed to investigate the changes in the balance of Th17/Treg and the related key molecules in the pathogenesis of RE and BE and evaluate the diagnostic and predictive value of the molecules in patients with these diseases...
September 13, 2020: Esophagus: Official Journal of the Japan Esophageal Society
Jana Krajciova, Marek Kollar, Jana Maluskova, Martin Janicko, Zuzana Vackova, Julius Spicak, Jan Martinek
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients after endoscopic treatment of Barrett's esophagus (BE) related neoplasia (BORN) should enter endoscopic surveillance with biopsies to detect persistent or recurrent neoplasia or intestinal metaplasia (IM). Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) serves as a virtual biopsy and could replace standard biopsies. However, the role of pCLE in patients after endoscopic treatment of BORN has not been systematically assessed. The aim of this study was to compare pCLE with biopsies in detecting persistent/recurrent IM/neoplasia...
September 9, 2020: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Ritin Fernandez, Laura Ellwood, David Barrett, James Weaver
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the best available evidence on the effect of various radiation protection strategies on radiation dose received by proceduralists performing cardiac catheterization procedures involving fluoroscopy. INTRODUCTION: Cardiac catheterization procedures under fluoroscopy are the gold standard diagnostic and treatment method for patients with coronary artery disease. The growing demand of procedures means that proceduralists are being exposed to increasing amounts of radiation, resulting in an increased risk of deterministic and stochastic effects...
August 29, 2020: JBI evidence synthesis
Sarah J Carrington, Sarah L Barrett, Umapathy Sivagamasundari, Christine Fretwell, Ilse Noens, Jarymke Maljaars, Susan R Leekam
The original version of this article unfortunately contained two labelling errors in Fig. 3 and Figure S4.
August 27, 2020: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Duc T Quach, Quyen T T Pham, Truc L T Tran, Nhu T H Vu, Quang D Le, Doan T N Nguyen, Ngoc L B Dang, Huy M Le, Nhan Q Le, Prateek Sharma, Khek-Yu Ho
The current barrier for investigation of Barrett esophagus (BE) in Asia is diagnostic standardization, which is a challenge to identify its true risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, clinical characteristics and risk factors of BE in Vietnamese patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms.A cross-sectional study was conducted on consecutive outpatients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Endoscopically suspected esophageal metaplasia (ESEM) which was clearly visible at least 1 cm above the gastroesophageal junction at endoscopy was taken biopsy...
August 21, 2020: Medicine (Baltimore)
Catherine R G Jones, Sarah L Barrett, Ieva Bite, Maria Legzdina, Kristina Arina, Andrea Higgins, Kyla Honey, Sarah J Carrington, Dale Hay, Johanna Condon, Susan R Leekam
BACKGROUND: Recognising the signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be a challenge for frontline professionals. The use of brief parent-completed questionnaires for recording the signs of ASD in school-aged children may be an important and efficient contributor to professional insight. However, to date, such questionnaires have not been designed to be used in coordination with current standardised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) diagnostic tools. Furthermore, the measurement characteristics of such questionnaires have been unexplored across countries that differ in levels of national autism service provision and cultural interpretation of the signs of ASD...
August 15, 2020: Molecular Autism
Rebecca C Fitzgerald, Massimiliano di Pietro, Maria O'Donovan, Roberta Maroni, Beth Muldrew, Irene Debiram-Beecham, Marcel Gehrung, Judith Offman, Monika Tripathi, Samuel G Smith, Benoit Aigret, Fiona M Walter, Greg Rubin, Peter Sasieni
BACKGROUND: Treatment of dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus prevents progression to adenocarcinoma; however, the optimal diagnostic strategy for Barrett's oesophagus is unclear. The Cytosponge-trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is a non-endoscopic test for Barrett's oesophagus. The aim of this study was to investigate whether offering this test to patients on medication for gastro-oesophageal reflux would increase the detection of Barrett's oesophagus compared with standard management. METHODS: This multicentre, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial was done in 109 socio-demographically diverse general practice clinics in England...
August 1, 2020: Lancet
Pavol Ďurč, Věra Dosedělová, František Foret, Jiří Dolina, Štefan Konečný, Markus Himmelsbach, Wolfgang Buchberger, Petr Kubáň
A fast, non-invasive, high-performance liquid chromatographic screening method with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection was developed for the analysis of three major glycine-conjugated bile acids in human saliva. Using a mobile phase composed of 80% methanol and 0.1% formic acid, glycocholic, glycodeoxycholic, and glycochenodeoxycholic acids were separated in less than 4 minutes with sensitivity in the low nM range. Bile acids are thought to contribute to the pathology of various complications in gastroesophageal reflux disease, for instance, Barrett's esophagus, which may eventually lead to esophageal carcinoma...
August 16, 2020: Journal of Chromatography. A
Daniela Cornelia Lazăr, Mihaela Flavia Avram, Alexandra Corina Faur, Adrian Goldiş, Ioan Romoşan, Sorina Tăban, Mărioara Cornianu
In the gastroenterology field, the impact of artificial intelligence was investigated for the purposes of diagnostics, risk stratification of patients, improvement in quality of endoscopic procedures and early detection of neoplastic diseases, implementation of the best treatment strategy, and optimization of patient prognosis. Computer-assisted diagnostic systems to evaluate upper endoscopy images have recently emerged as a supporting tool in endoscopy due to the risks of misdiagnosis related to standard endoscopy and different expertise levels of endoscopists, time-consuming procedures, lack of availability of advanced procedures, increasing workloads, and development of endoscopic mass screening programs...
July 21, 2020: Medicina
Wladyslaw Januszewicz, Vinod V Subhash, William Waldock, Daniel I Fernando, Giorgio Bartalucci, Hamza Chettouh, Ahmad Miremadi, Maria O'Donovan, Rebecca C Fitzgerald, Massimiliano di Pietro
BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an effective treatment for dysplastic Barrett's esophagus (BE), but recurrence can occur after initial response. Currently there is uncertainty about how to best define histological remission. A DNA methylation panel on esophageal samples was previously shown to have high diagnostic accuracy for BE. We aimed to investigate this biomarker panel in the assessment of response to RFA treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed esophageal and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) biopsies from patients with BE before and after RFA treatment...
July 21, 2020: EBioMedicine
David J Saxby, Bryce Adrian Killen, C Pizzolato, C P Carty, L E Diamond, L Modenese, J Fernandez, G Davico, M Barzan, G Lenton, S Brito da Luz, E Suwarganda, D Devaprakash, R K Korhonen, J A Alderson, T F Besier, R S Barrett, D G Lloyd
Many biomedical, orthopaedic, and industrial applications are emerging that will benefit from personalized neuromusculoskeletal models. Applications include refined diagnostics, prediction of treatment trajectories for neuromusculoskeletal diseases, in silico design, development, and testing of medical implants, and human-machine interfaces to support assistive technologies. This review proposes how physics-based simulation, combined with machine learning approaches from big data, can be used to develop high-fidelity personalized representations of the human neuromusculoskeletal system...
July 16, 2020: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Shraddha Gulati, Andrew Emmanuel, Mehul Patel, Sophie Williams, Amyn Haji, Bu'Hussain Hayee, Helmut Neumann
Artificial intelligence is a strong focus of interest for global health development. Diagnostic endoscopy is an attractive substrate for artificial intelligence with a real potential to improve patient care through standardisation of endoscopic diagnosis and to serve as an adjunct to enhanced imaging diagnosis. The possibility to amass large data to refine algorithms makes adoption of artificial intelligence into global practice a potential reality. Initial studies in luminal endoscopy involve machine learning and are retrospective...
January 2020: Therapeutic advances in gastrointestinal endoscopy
M R Struyvenberg, A J de Groof, A Kahn, B L A M Weusten, D E Fleischer, E K Ganguly, V J A Konda, C J Lightdale, D K Pleskow, A Sethi, M S Smith, A J Trindade, M B Wallace, H C Wolfsen, G J Tearney, S L Meijer, C L Leggett, J J G H M Bergman, W L Curvers
Volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) has been shown to improve detection of early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE). However, diagnostic performance using histopathology-correlated VLE regions of interest (ROIs) has not been adequately studied. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of VLE assessors for identification of early BE neoplasia in histopathology-correlated VLE ROIs. In total, 191 ROIs (120 nondysplastic and 71 neoplastic) from 50 BE patients were evaluated in a random order using a web-based module...
July 1, 2020: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Matteo Ghisa, Brigida Barberio, Vincenzo Savarino, Elisa Marabotto, Mentore Ribolsi, Giorgia Bodini, Fabiana Zingone, Marzio Frazzoni, Edoardo Savarino
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a complex disorder with heterogeneous symptoms and a multifaceted pathogenetic basis, which prevent a simple diagnostic algorithm or any categorical classification. Clinical history, questionnaires and response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy are insufficient tools to make a conclusive diagnosis of GERD and further investigations are frequently required. The Lyon Consensus goes beyond the previous classifications and defines endoscopic and functional parameters able to establish the presence of GERD...
July 30, 2020: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Thomas Kl Lui, Vivien Wm Tsui, Wai K Leung
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted detection is increasingly use in upper endoscopy. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the diagnostic accuracy of AI on detection of gastric and esophageal neoplastic lesions and Helicobacter pylori (HP) status. METHOD: We searched Embase, PubMed, Medline, Web of Science and Cochrane databases for studies on AI detection of gastric or esophageal neoplastic lesions and HP status. After assessment of study quality by Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool, a bivariate meta-analysis following a random effects model to summarize the data and plotted hierarchical summary receiver-operating characteristic (HSROC) curves...
June 17, 2020: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
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