Youxiang Cao, Lin Zhu, Jingxin Liu
OBJECTIVES: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is systemic metabolic disease that results from insulin resistance or obesity. Numerous meta-analyses have investigated the effect of exercise on different populations, but none were aimed at the effect of aerobic exercise alone on obese children. This review systematically assessed and performed a meta-analysis on the effect of aerobic exercise on obese children with MetS. CONTENT: MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane library were searched and screened from inception to 20 October 2020 for randomized controlled trials...
July 21, 2021: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Eric Perloff, Andrew D Posner, Stefanos Haddad, Abdul Arain, Kaushik Bagchi
CASE: Cuboid impaction fractures (nutcracker fractures) result from high-energy trauma and are exceedingly rare in children. We present a case of an 8-year-old boy who sustained a comminuted cuboid nutcracker fracture after a fall from height. The patient underwent open reduction and internal fixation with a locking plate. At 1 year postoperatively, lateral column length and articular congruency were maintained, and the patient return to full function and activity. CONCLUSION: Cuboid nutcracker fractures in children are rare and can be successfully treated with open reduction and internal fixation with locking plates, with excellent radiographic and functional outcomes...
July 22, 2021: JBJS Case Connector
Hannah Lovejoy, Lauren Nicole Geib, Camila B Walters
Patients with preexisting respiratory compromise are at risk for perioperative respiratory failure. Adult literature has shown benefit with prophylactic postoperative use of noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV). While pediatric literature has documented the increasing use of postoperative NIMV, there is no literature on prophylactic preoperative NIMV in patients with preexisting respiratory compromise. Further, surgical literature does not address preoperative prophylactic use of NIMV, as well as use of the newest modality of NIMV, average volume-assured pressure support (AVAPS)...
July 22, 2021: A&A Practice
Pavandeep Singh Sandhu, Sorin Bucur, Catriona Good, Mark Cutler, Saul Rajak
PURPOSE: To explore the anatomy, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and classification, current evidence on intervention and the surgical management of orbital roof fractures and defects (ORFD) for oculoplastic surgeons presented with such cases. METHODS: A review of the current literature through the MEDLINE database using the following search terms: "orbital roof fracture (+treatment/management)," "orbital roof defect (+treatment/management)," "orbital roof erosion (+treatment/management)," "orbital roof repair," "orbital roof," "orbital fracture," "pediatric orbital roof (defect/fracture/erosion)," "orbital anatomy," and "orbital roof anatomy" was conducted...
July 21, 2021: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Markus Pääkkönen
Although most malunions after pediatric distal radius fractures will remodel as the child grows, adolescent patients with severe malunion and limited growth require reduction to restore alignment. The authors technique for a mini-invasive osteotomy is presented. The apex of the malunion is approached from a single 2 cm volar incision through the flexor carpi radialis sheath. Open wedge osteotomy is performed. The osteosynthesis is secured with an individually contoured T-plate. The procedure was used to correct a severe visible malunion in a 12-year-old girl...
July 22, 2021: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
Ajit Mishra, Mohammed Nadeem, Andiperumal Raj Prabhuraj, Paramita Paul, Dhananjaya Bhat
INTRODUCTION: Split cord malformations (SCMs) are developmental anomalies that are associated with a number of congenital defects. However, a combination of SCM I with a neuroenteric cyst (NEC) is extremely rare, and only 11 cases have been described in the literature. To the best of authors' knowledge, the combination of the above two with dermoid cyst and thickened filum terminale has never been reported in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of the above combination in a 2-year-old child who underwent microsurgical excision of all 4 pathologies and complete recovery...
July 22, 2021: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Tomohiro Matsumura, Tomohiro Saito, Hideaki Watanabe, Ichiro Kikkawa, Katsushi Takeshita
INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE: Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) sometimes occur in children, however it is difficult to diagnose it at the early stage especially in the cases there are no complaints of symptoms. Femoral shaft fractures in children cause various complications such as leg-length discrepancy, nonunion and malunion, refracture, and osteonecrosis of the femoral head. We presented a rare case in which a pediatric patient developed LCPD after femoral shaft fracture. CASE PRESENTATION: A healthy 8-year-old boy sustained a left femoral diaphyseal fracture following a pedestrian car accident...
July 17, 2021: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Anaïs Corgier-Pattberg, Marie Beylerian, Stephanie Clave, Mathilde Cailliez, Benoit Testud, Beatrice Desnous
BACKGROUND: Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is the most common cause of acute kidney failure in children younger than five years. Central nervous system involvement occurs in 15% of patients, with clinical manifestations including confusion, coma, seizures, stroke, and cortical blindness. Ocular involvement in children with HUS is rare, but retinal and choroidal hemorrhages as well as ischemic retinopathy due to thrombotic microangiopathic lesions have been documented. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: We describe a 26-month-old girl with typical HUS who experienced severe visual loss likely resulting from cytotoxic injury of both lateral geniculate nuclei with bilateral damage to optic pathways coupled with macular thrombotic microangiopathic lesions...
June 25, 2021: Pediatric Neurology
Brian LaGrant, Daniel M Goldenholz, Marvin Braun, Robert E Moss, Zachary M Grinspan
BACKGROUND: Use of electronic seizure diaries (e-diaries) by caregivers of children with epileptic spasms is not well understood. We describe the demographic and seizure-related information of children with epileptic spasms captured in a widely used e-diary and explore the potential biases in how caregivers report these data. METHODS: We analyzed children with epileptic spasms in an e-diary, Seizure Tracker, from 2007 to 2018. We described variables including sex, time of seizure, percentage of spasms occurring as individual spasms (versus in clusters), cluster duration, and number of spasms per cluster...
April 23, 2021: Pediatric Neurology
Siddhant Lalwani, Kavita Srivastava, Bina Thakor, Bijoy Kumar Panda, Harsimran Kaur, Suparna Karmarkar, Nirmala Dhumak, Surekha Rajadhyaksha
PURPOSE: To compare Melatonin with Triclofos for efficacy (proportion of successful EEG, need of augmentation, sleep onset latency (SOL), yield of discharges, duration of sleep, presence and grade of artifacts) and tolerability (adverse effect profile). METHODS: A randomized trial was performed (block randomization). All children were advised regarding sleep deprivation, EEG technician administered the drug. EEG was labelled successful if at least 30 min of record could be obtained (sleep with or without awake state)...
July 7, 2021: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Abdollah Moossavi, Saeideh Mehrkian, Nasrin Gohari, Mohammad Ali Nazari, Enayatollah Bakhshi, Claude Alain
OBJECTIVE: Speech perception in noise is a highly challenging situation experienced by hearing-impaired children (HIC). Despite advances in hearing aid technologies, speech perception in noise still poses challenges. Pitch-based training improves pitch discrimination and speech perception and may facilitate concurrent sound segregation. Considering the role of harmonics in the analysis of concurrent sounds, we performed a harmonic assessment, examined the role of harmonic training in the rehabilitation of moderate-to-severe HIC, and investigated its effect on their speech perception in noise...
July 17, 2021: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Makoto Hosoya, Masato Fujioka, Kiyomitsu Nara, Noriko Morimoto, Sawako Masuda, Tomoko Sugiuchi, Sayaka Katsunuma, Akira Takagi, Noriko Morita, Kaoru Ogawa, Kimitaka Kaga, Tatsuo Matsunaga
OBJECTIVE: Variants in GJB2 can cause autosomal recessive deafness (DFNB1). There is evidence for genotype-phenotype correlations of GJB2 variants; however, several genotypes can cause varying levels of hearing loss likely attributable to differences in genetic or environmental background. As siblings share approximately 50% of their genetic background and usually have a common environmental background, analysis of phenotypes of siblings with a specific GJB2 variant may reveal factors relevant to phenotypic variation...
July 12, 2021: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Sevasti Konstantinidou, Andrew Hall, Marie Pinkstone, Lesley Cochrane
OBJECTIVE: Paediatric velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is a known but rare complication following adenotonsillar surgery that can have significant adverse effects on the communication as well as psychological well-being of the patient and their family. We sought to assess risk factors, aetiology, assessment and management of these patients through a dedicated multidisciplinary clinic. METHODS: Retrospective data collection was performed for patients seen in the Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children multidisciplinary VPI clinic from the 1st of January 2015 until 30th of April 2020...
July 17, 2021: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Marco Zaffanello, Giorgio Piacentini, Luana Nosetti, Stefania Ganzarolli, Massimo Franchini
OBJECTIVE: Coagulation and inflammatory parameters are mildly altered in children with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection, and laboratory evidence of a proinflammatory and procoagulant state has been noted in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). It is not clear whether this pediatric condition is related to thrombotic events. With this study we reviewed the literature for thrombotic complications in children with COVID-19 infection and MIS-C. DATA SOURCES: We searched the Medline PubMed Advanced Search Builder, Scopus, Web Of Science, and Google Scholar electronic databases (until 1 January 2021) using the medical subject headings (MeSH) terms and text words (their combinations and truncated synonyms): (THROMBOSIS OR THROMBOPHILIA) AND (CHILD OR CHILDREN OR INFANT) AND (COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2)...
July 16, 2021: Thrombosis Research
Caroline Gahm, Anders Näsman, Georgios Papatziamos
Congenital deficiency of tracheal rings in the cervical trachea is a rare anomaly and only one case has previously been reported in the literature (Wineland et al., 2017) [1]. Here we report a case in a newborn female transferred to our department at 11 weeks of age for management of stridor. The patent was successfully treated with a tracheal resection with an end to end anastomosis. Presentation of symptoms, endoscopic findings, surgical approach, histological findings, and literature review are described...
July 17, 2021: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Rutherford Exius, Sofianne Gabrielli, Elissa M Abrams, Andrew O'Keefe, Jennifer Lp Protudjer, Elana Lavine, Tracy Pitt, Adelle Atkinson, Thomas Eiwegger, Christine McCusker, Moshe Ben-Shoshan
BACKGROUND: Data on the diagnostic properties of direct oral challenges without the use of skin tests in children with suspected amoxicillin allergy is sparse. OBJECTIVE: Assess the use of direct oral challenges. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted between March 2013 and March 2020, in Montreal and Winnipeg. All children referred with reported history of benign reactions (i.e., limited to the skin with no mucosal lesions and no vesicles) to amoxicillin were recruited and a two-step graded oral challenge (GOC) was conducted...
July 19, 2021: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Mason Nistel, Nathalie Nguyen, Dan Atkins, Heather Miyazawa, Cassandra Burger, Glenn T Furuta, Calies Menard-Katcher
BACKGROUND: - Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic allergen-mediated disease of the esophagus. Pharmacologic treatment has largely relied on repurposing corticosteroids. Ciclesonide (CIC) is a corticosteroid for the treatment of asthma with biochemical properties that improve topical potency. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine if CIC decreased clinicopathological features of EoE. METHODS: - We performed a retrospective cohort study of EoE patients treated with CIC at a pediatric hospital from 2010-2019...
July 19, 2021: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Meredith Holt, Matthew Zerden
BACKGROUND: Adolescents and young adults are responsible for the majority of new genital herpes virus infections. Historically, primary genital herpes infections were thought to be caused by herpes simplex virus-2, however, recent studies suggest that up to 50% of incident episodes of genital herpes are caused by herpes simplex virus-1. CASE: This case discusses an 18-year-old G1P0010 female who presented with a primary genital HSV-1 outbreak that resulted in sepsis secondary to Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia...
July 19, 2021: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Amy L Peterson, Xiao Zhang, Ann Dodge, Jens Eickhoff, Kathleen DeSantes, Magnolia Larson, Megan Moreno
Conflicting guidelines regarding universal pediatric cholesterol screening were released between 2011 and 2019, but the impact on screening rates remains understudied. The purpose of this study was to examine trends in pediatric cholesterol screening rates within a single institution in the United States and their association with release of national guidelines, local educational tools, and electronic health record (EHR) modifications. Order placement was defined as ordering a high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in a patient aged 9-21 years with ≥1 well visit in prior 3 years...
July 19, 2021: Preventive Medicine
Michal Yackobovitch-Gavan, Aviva Mimouni-Bloch, Uri Gabbay, Doron Carmi, BatEl Goldstein, Lital Keinan-Boker, Stav Bloch, Joseph Meyerovitch
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the sex-specific effects of stimulants in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on body mass index (BMI)-Z and Height-Z trajectories. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study utilizing the database of Israel Clalit Health Services. Participants included 5-18-year-old insureds with documentation of at least two consecutive prescriptions of stimulant drugs for ADHD. Participants were further compared with sex and age matched non-ADHD insureds...
July 19, 2021: Journal of Pediatrics
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