Ji An Kang, Young Joo Jeon
Eukaryotic proteomes are enormously sophisticated through versatile post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins. A large variety of code generated via PTMs of proteins by ubiquitin (ubiquitination) and ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls), such as interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) and neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 8 (NEDD8), not only provides distinct signals but also orchestrates a plethora of biological processes, thereby underscoring the necessity for sophisticated and fine-tuned mechanisms of code regulation...
September 17, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ángela-Patricia Hernández, Paula Díez, Pablo A García, Martín Pérez-Andrés, Pablo Ortega, Pablo G Jambrina, David Díez, María Ángeles Castro, Manuel Fuentes
Natural products are the ideal basis for the design of novel efficient molecular entities. Podophyllotoxin, a naturally occurring cyclolignan, is an example of natural product which displays a high versatility from a biological activity point of view. Based on its unique chemical structure, different derivatives have been synthesized presenting the original antitumoral properties associated with the compound, i.e., the tubulin polymerization inhibition and arising anti-topoisomerase II activity from structural modifications on the cyclolignan skeleton...
September 17, 2020: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Debolina Ganguly, Raghav Chandra, John Karalis, Martha Teke, Todd Aguilera, Ravikanth Maddipati, Megan B Wachsmann, Dario Ghersi, Giulia Siravegna, Herbert J Zeh, Rolf Brekken, David T Ting, Matteo Ligorio
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are indispensable architects of the tumor microenvironment. They perform the essential functions of extracellular matrix deposition, stromal remodeling, tumor vasculature modulation, modification of tumor metabolism, and participation in crosstalk between cancer and immune cells. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the principal differences between normal fibroblasts and CAFs, the origin of CAFs, their functions, and ultimately, highlight the intimate connection of CAFs to virtually all of the hallmarks of cancer...
September 17, 2020: Cancers
Piotr Białas, Aleksandra Śliwa, Anna Szczerba, Anna Jankowska
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a well-known hormone produced by the trophoblast during pregnancy as well as by both trophoblastic and non-trophoblastic tumors. hCG is built from two subunits: α (hCGα) and β (hCGβ). The hormone-specific β subunit is encoded by six allelic genes: CGB3 , CGB5 , CGB6 , CGB7 , CGB8 , and CGB9 , mapped to the 19q13.32 locus. This gene cluster also encompasses the CGB1 and CGB2 genes, which were originally considered to be pseudogenes, but as documented by several studies are transcriptionally active...
September 17, 2020: Genes
Kazuaki Nagayama, Shigeaki Ohata, Shota Obata, Akiko Sato
Many experimental techniques have been reported to provide knowledge of the mechanical behavior of cells from biomechanical viewpoints, however, it is unclear how the intercellular structural differences influence macroscopic and microscopic mechanical properties of cells. The aim of our study is to clarify the comprehensive mechanical properties and cell-substrate adhesion strength of cells, and the correlation with intracellular structure in different cell types. We developed an originally designed micro tensile tester, and performed a single cell tensile test to estimate whole cell tensile stiffness and adhesion strength of normal vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and cervical cancer HeLa cells: one half side of the specimen cell was lifted up by a glass microneedle, then stretched until the cell detached from the substrate, while force was simultaneously measured...
October 2020: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Hong-Jie Zhu, Te Xu, Yong-Ming Yan, Yong-Xian Cheng
Five new nitrogen-containing compounds (1-3, 5, and 6), two compounds which was firstly isolated from natural origin (7 and 10), along with six known ones, were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole bodies of Polyphaga plancyi. The structures of the new compounds including their absolute configurations at stereogenic centers were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and computational methods. Racemic 10 was separated by chiral HPLC. Biological activities of these isolates against extracellular matrix components in rat renal proximal tubular cells, EV71, COX-2, ROCK2, JAK3, and tuberculosis were evaluated...
September 2, 2020: Bioorganic Chemistry
Agathe Quesnel, George S Karagiannis, Panagiota S Filippou
Gliomas encompass highly invasive primary central nervous system (CNS) tumours of glial cell origin with an often poor clinical prognosis. Of all gliomas, glioblastoma is the most aggressive form of primary brain cancer. Current treatments in glioblastoma are insufficient due to the invasive nature of brain tumour cells, which typically results in local tumour recurrence following treatment. The latter represents the most important cause of mortality in glioblastoma and underscores the necessity for an in-depth understanding of the underlying mechanisms...
September 18, 2020: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Reviews on Cancer
Johan Gustafsson, Felix Held, Jonathan L Robinson, Elias Björnson, Rebecka Jörnsten, Jens Nielsen
Cell-type specific gene expression profiles are needed for many computational methods operating on bulk RNA-Seq samples, such as deconvolution of cell-type fractions and digital cytometry. However, the gene expression profile of a cell type can vary substantially due to both technical factors and biological differences in cell state and surroundings, reducing the efficacy of such methods. Here, we investigated which factors contribute most to this variation. We evaluated different normalization methods, quantified the variance explained by different factors, evaluated the effect on deconvolution of cell type fractions, and examined the differences between UMI-based single-cell RNA-Seq and bulk RNA-Seq...
2020: PloS One
Adil Mohamed, Prathyusha Konda, Heather E Eaton, Shashi Gujar, James R Smiley, Maya Shmulevitz
The Dearing isolate of Mammalian orthoreovirus (T3D) is a prominent model of virus-host relationships and a candidate oncolytic virotherapy. Closely related laboratory strains of T3D, originating from the same ancestral T3D isolate, were recently found to exhibit significantly different oncolytic properties. Specifically, the T3DPL strain had faster replication kinetics in a panel of cancer cells and improved tumor regression in an in vivo melanoma model, relative to T3DTD. In this study, we discover that T3DPL and T3DTD also differentially activate host signalling pathways and downstream gene transcription...
September 21, 2020: PLoS Pathogens
Martin Jakubec, Jodi Maple-Grødem, Saleha Akbari, Susanne Nesse, Øyvind Halskau, Astrid Elisabeth Mork-Jansson
Exosomes are vesicles involved in intercellular communication. Their membrane structure and core content is largely dependent on the cell of origin. Exosomes have been investigated both for their biological roles and their possible use as disease biomarkers and drug carriers. These potential technological applications require the rigorous characterization of exosomal blood brain barrier permeability and a description of their lipid bilayer composition. To achieve these goals, we have established a 3D static blood brain barrier system based on existing systems for liposomes and a complementary LC-MS/MS and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance methodology for the analysis of purified human plasma-derived exosome-like vesicles...
2020: PloS One
Julio Magliano, Jorge Navarrete, Verónica Lezue, Alicia González, Miguel Martínez, Carlos Bazzano
INTRODUCTION: Mohs micrographic surgery technique allows for complete margin analysis of skin tumors, which explains its lower recurrence rates over conventional surgery. Although it is known that routine processing of excision specimens represents less than 0.5% of the margins, a direct comparison with micrographic technique has not been performed so far. OBJECTIVE: To compare the margins of nonmelanoma skin cancers excised conventionally, processed with serial transverse cross-sectioning ("bread-loafing"), and had negative margin readings, against the margins obtained through micrographic technique from the same tumors...
September 17, 2020: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Michael Y Xiong, Steven Kolker, Richard G Bennett
Radiation can induce changes to skeletal muscle cells that may mimic and thus be confused with cells of atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), pleomorphic dermal sarcoma, spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma, and other spindle soft-tissue tumors. An 80-year-old White man presented for Mohs micrographic surgery of an AFX on the left lateral neck. The medical history was notable for a tongue squamous cell carcinoma 9 years before that had been treated with wide local excision, left neck dissection, and radiation to the oral cavity and left neck...
September 17, 2020: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Enrico Luchinat, Letizia Barbieri, Matteo Cremonini, Alessio Nocentini, Claudiu T Supuran, Lucia Banci
Candidate drugs rationally designed in vitro often fail due to low efficacy in vivo caused by low tissue availability or because of unwanted side effects. To overcome the limitations of in vitro rational drug design, the binding of candidate drugs to their target needs to be evaluated in the cellular context. Here, we applied in-cell NMR to investigate the binding of a set of approved drugs to the isoform II of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in living human cells. Some compounds were originally developed towards other targets, and were later found to inhibit CAs...
September 21, 2020: ACS Chemical Biology
He Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2020: Protein & Cell
Jingwei Xue, Yue Jia, Lei Yang, Jinhui Feng, Dan Wu, Xiang Ren, Yu Du, Huangxian Ju, Qin Wei
This work outlines an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) platform with versatile and high-performance, which using the complex luminescent molecules [Ru(Ⅱ) complex] formed by carbohydrazide (CON4H6) and tris(4,4'-dicarboxylicacid-2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(Ⅱ) dichloride [Ru(dcbpy)32+] as emitters to facilitate intramolecular ECL mechanism for reducing the response distance and interference, and they were immobilized on the porous bismuth vanadate nanoarray (BiVO4 NAs) to improve the orderliness of electron transfer...
September 21, 2020: Analytical Chemistry
Ming-Chung Wu, Yen-Tung Lin, Shih-Hsuan Chen, Meng-Huan Jao, Yin-Hsuan Chang, Kun-Mu Lee, Chao-Sung Lai, Yang-Fang Chen, Wei-Fang Su
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have become one of the most promising renewable energy converting devices. However, in order to reach a sufficiently high power conversion efficiency (PCE), the PSCs typically require a high-temperature sintering process to prepare mesostructured TiO2 as an efficient electron transport layer (ETL), which prohibits the PSCs from commercialization in the future. This work investigates a low-temperature synthesis of TiO2 nanocrystals and introduces a two-fluid spray coating process to produce a nanostructured ETL for the following deposition of perovskite layer...
September 20, 2020: Small
Jin-Hua Tu, Yue-Shan Piao, De-Hong Lu, Lei-Ming Wang, Li Liu, Dong-Yu Bai, Hai-Wei Han, Yi-Kai Lin, Shan Zhong
Cartilaginous metaplasia is rare in primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms and has not been described in the histone 3 (H3) gene (H3) with a substitution of lysine to methionine (H3 K27M mutant) diffuse midline glioma before. Here, we report a case of H3 K27M mutant diffuse midline glioma with cartilaginous metaplasia in a 56-year-old woman. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a ring-enhanced lesion located in the medulla oblongata and extended superiorly into the fourth ventricle. The tumor was macroscopically completely resected...
September 20, 2020: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Emanuele Cristiny Goes, Gabriela Cardoso Dal Pont, Priscila Raijche Oliveira, Chayane da Rocha, Alex Maiorka
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing doses of putrescine injected in ovo on hatchability, intestinal morphology and pre-starter performance of broilers. For this purpose, 720 eggs from broiler breeders were separated into a negative control (no injection) and injection treatments with increasing doses of putrescine (0.05; 0.1; 0.15 and 0.2%), totalling five treatments of 144 eggs each. Eggs were distributed in a completely randomized design inside the setter and the injection of solutions occurred at 17 days of incubation...
September 21, 2020: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Johanna Tüshaus, Stephan A Müller, Evans Sioma Kataka, Jan Zaucha, Laura Sebastian Monasor, Minhui Su, Gökhan Güner, Georg Jocher, Sabina Tahirovic, Dmitrij Frishman, Mikael Simons, Stefan F Lichtenthaler
To understand how cells communicate in the nervous system, it is essential to define their secretome, which is challenging for primary cells because of large cell numbers being required. Here, we miniaturized secretome analysis by developing the "high-performance secretome protein enrichment with click sugars" (hiSPECS) method. To demonstrate its broad utility, hiSPECS was used to identify the secretory response of brain slices upon LPS-induced neuroinflammation and to establish the cell type-resolved mouse brain secretome resource using primary astrocytes, microglia, neurons, and oligodendrocytes...
September 21, 2020: EMBO Journal
Lisa M Pinatti, Heather M Walline, Thomas E Carey, Jens Peter Klussmann, Christian U Huebbers
Infections with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV) are responsible for a significant number of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), with infection rates currently rising at epidemic rates in the western world. Synchronous bilateral HPV+ tumors of both tonsils are a very rare event whose understanding, however, could provide important insights into virus-driven tumor development and progression and whether such integration events are of clonal origin. In this study we analyzed a single case of a bilateral tonsillar p16+ HPV+OPSCC...
2020: Archives of clinical and medical case reports
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