Gleb O Skryabin, Andrei V Komelkov, Sergey A Galetsky, Dmitry V Bagrov, Evgeniy G Evtushenko, Igor I Nikishin, Kirill I Zhordaniia, Elizaveta E Savelyeva, Maria E Akselrod, Iulia G Paianidi, Elena M Tchevkina
Proteins involved in the organizing of lipid rafts can be found in exosomes, as shown for caveolin-1, and they could contribute to exosomal cargo sorting, as shown for flotillins. Stomatin belongs to the same stomatin/prohibitin/flotillin/HflK/C family of lipid rafts proteins, but it has never been studied in exosomes except for extracellular vesicles (EVs) originating from blood cells. Here we first show the presence of stomatin in exosomes produced by epithelial cancer cells (non-small cell lung cancer, breast, and ovarian cancer cells) as well as in EVs from biological fluids, including blood plasma, ascitic fluids, and uterine flushings...
September 20, 2020: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Réka Horváth, Izabella Battonyai, Gábor Maász, János Schmidt, Zsuzsanna N Fekete, Károly Elekes
Perception and processing of chemical cues are crucial for aquatic gastropods, for proper elaboration of adaptive behavior. The pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is a model species of invertebrate neurobiology, in which peripheral sensory neurons with different morphology and transmitter content have partly been described, but we have little knowledge regarding their functional morphological organization, including their possible peripheral intercellular connections and networks. Therefore the aim of our study was to characterize the sensory system of the tentacles and the lip, as primary sensory regions, and the anterior foot of Lymnaea with special attention to the transmitter content of the sensory neurons, and their relationship to extrinsic elements of the central nervous system...
September 20, 2020: Brain Structure & Function
Mélanie Kirchmeyer, Florence Servais, Aurélien Ginolhac, Petr V Nazarov, Christiane Margue, Demetra Philippidou, Nathalie Nicot, Iris Behrmann, Claude Haan, Stephanie Kreis
Cytokines orchestrate responses to pathogens and in inflammatory processes but they also play an important role in cancer by shaping the expression levels of cytokine response genes. Here, we conducted a large profiling study comparing miRNome and mRNA transcriptome data generated following different cytokine stimulations. Transcriptomic responses to STAT1- (IFNγ, IL-27) and STAT3-activating cytokines (IL6, OSM) were systematically compared in nine cancerous and non-neoplastic cell lines of different tissue origins (skin, liver and colon)...
September 17, 2020: Journal of Molecular Biology
Sam T Albadri, Diva Salomão
INTRODUCTION: Metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) has mostly involved the pelvic lymph nodes; metastases to the cervical lymph nodes are exceedingly rare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of cytopathology files (January 1990 to March 2019) identified 13 cases of metastatic PAC to cervical lymph nodes diagnosed using fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). The clinical and demographic information were collected from the electronic medical records, and the slides were reviewed...
August 25, 2020: Journal of the American Society of Cytopathology
Arthur S Reber, František Baluška
The most widely accepted view in the biopsychological sciences is that the cognitive functions that are diagnostic of mental operations, sentience or, more commonly, consciousness emerged fairly late in evolution, most likely in the Cambrian period. Our position dovetails with James's below - subjectivity, feeling, consciousness has a much longer evolutionary history, one that goes back to the first appearance of life. The Cellular Basis of Consciousness (CBC) model is founded on the presumption that sentience and life are coterminous; that all organisms, based on inherent cellular activities via processes that take place in excitable membranes of their cells, are sentient, have subjective experiences and feelings...
September 16, 2020: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Baicheng Yi, Waruna Lakmal Dissanayaka, Chengfei Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Incorporating fully assembled microvascular networks into bioengineered dental pulp constructs can significantly enhance functional blood flow and tissue survival upon transplantation. Endothelial cells (ECs), cellular building blocks of vascular tissue, play an essential role in the process of prevascularization. However, obtaining sufficient ECs from a suitable source for translational application is challenging. Dental stem cells (DSCs), which exhibit a robust proliferative ability and immunocompatibility because of their autologous origin, could be a promising alternative cell source for the derivation of endothelial lineages...
September 2020: Journal of Endodontics
Bingdong Sui, Di Wu, Lei Xiang, Yu Fu, Xiaoxing Kou, Songtao Shi
Postnatal stem cells critically maintain tissue homeostasis and possess immense potential for tissue regeneration. These stem cells in the orofacial system were not identified until early 2000s when they were first found in the dental pulp and termed dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Isolated from either permanent or deciduous teeth, DPSCs were characterized to be highly clonogenic with multidifferentiation and neurovascular properties. Subsequent studies suggested that the origin of DPSCs may be associated with neural crest-derived cells and localized adjacent to neurovascular bundles as indicated by specific surface markers...
September 2020: Journal of Endodontics
Eliecer Coto, Isaac Pascual, Pablo Avanzas, Elías Cuesta-Lavona, Rebeca Lorca, María Martín, Daniel Vázquez-Coto, Carmen Díaz-Corte, César Morís, Julián Rodríguez-Reguero, Juan Gómez
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The interleukin-17 (IL-17) pathway would play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and coronary-artery disease (CAD). The IL-17 inflammatory mediators are expressed by Th17 cells, a group of CD4 + leukocytes that infiltrate the vascular milieu and are pivotal in the origin, progression, stability and rupture of the atherosclerotic lesion. Cigarette smoke compounds stimulated the expression of IL-17 and IL-17-receptors. In atherogenic mice models the deficiency of IL-17RA resulted in a reduction of the atherosclerotic lesion size and leukocyte infiltrate...
September 16, 2020: Cytokine
Xiaoyu Ding, Wanjian Gu, Yujie Zhong, Xiaoyao Hao, Jinyu Liu, Shukai Xia, Lan Luo, Mingjiu Chen, Chunni Zhang
BACKGROUND: Pertuzumab is currently used in combination with trastuzumab as the first-line treatment for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. However, pertuzumab was originally developed independently from trastuzumab and was later incidentally found to have synergistic efficacy when combined with trastuzumab, it remains to be seen whether a more potent synergistic efficacy partner exists for trastuzumab. METHODS: A trastuzumab-based functional assay was used to screen anti-HER2 antibodies harboring trastuzumab-synergistic antitumor activity...
September 16, 2020: EBioMedicine
Chunxu Wang, Muxin Yu, Peng Zhou, Baorong Li, Yingmiao Liu, Lixiu Wang, Xiaojing Chen, Jingwen Du, Yufeng Wang, Jinming Zhang, Haijiao Jing, Yiming Feng, Yue Zhang, Yueyue Li, Zengxiang Dong, Shaohong Fang, Valerie A Novakovic, Jin Zhou, Jialan Shi
BACKGROUND: The role of vascular endothelium in acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which APL cells interact with endothelial cells (ECs) and to further explore how the endothelium affects bleeding as well as therapeutic interventions. METHOD: APL cells and an original APL cell line, NB4 cells, were used for experiments. The effects of leukaemic cells on ECs were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the endothelial barrier function and procoagulant activity were detected...
September 16, 2020: EBioMedicine
Zehui Wei, Mathew Abraham, Elle V Chadwick, Robert B Beckstead
Pathology and putative virulence factor expression of three Histomonas meleagridis isolates differing in geographic origin, cell passage number (56 or 100), or cell populations grown from a monoculture were compared. Turkey poults inoculated with the high cell passage number isolates or monoculture isolates varied in gross lesion severity and weight gain (P<0.0001). Screening of a published H. meleagridis cDNA library identified forty- eight cysteine proteinases (CP) and one superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) proposed to function in either tissue damage and/or invasion and oxidative defense...
September 4, 2020: Veterinary Parasitology
Ana M Urbano
Metabolic reprogramming is now regarded as a hallmark of cancer. This phenomenon was first observed at the level of cellular energetics, in the form of very high rates of lactic acid fermentation, not only in anoxia, but also in the presence of oxygen levels that do not compromise respiration. This intriguing tumor phenotype, characterized by a very low energy yield, was unveiled, in the early 1920s, by Otto Warburg, one of the greatest biochemists of all time. This manuscript outlines aspects of Warburg's personal and research life that, in retrospect, might be viewed as a preparation for his successful approach to the cancer problem...
September 16, 2020: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Molecular Basis of Disease
Shubbir Ahmed, Tripti Shrivastava, Rajesh Kumar, Mohit Kumar, Manidipa Banerjee, Naresh Kumar, Manish Bansal, Supratik Das, Sweety Samal
BACKGROUND: The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the primary target for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) which can block infection. The current design strategy of soluble forms of Env in native-like trimeric conformation induces neutralizing antibodies with minimal breadth and potency. Extensive shielding by N-glycans on the surface of the HIV-1 Env acts as an immune evasion mechanism by restricting B cell recognition of conserved neutralizing determinants. An alternate approach is to design Env protein with glycan deletion to expose the protein surface...
September 16, 2020: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. General Subjects
Neal Murphy, Pratik Shah, Andrew Shih, Houman Khalili, Anthony Liew, Xinhua Zhu, Annette Lee
Single-cell sequencing (SCS) is a powerful new tool that applies Next Generation Sequencing at the cellular level. SCS has revolutionized our understanding of tumor heterogeneity and the tumor microenvironment, immune infiltration, cancer stem cells (CSCs), circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and clonal evolution. The following chapter highlights the current literature on SCS in genitourinary (GU) malignancies and discusses future applications of SCS technology. The renal cell carcinoma (RCC) section highlights the use of SCS in characterizing the initial cells driving tumorigenesis, the intercellular mutational landscape of RCC, intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) between primary and metastatic lesions, and genes driving RCC cancer stem cells (CSCs)...
2020: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ruangurai Promchai, Wonnop Visessanguan, Plearnpis Luxananil
An efficient expression-secretion system for heterologous protein production in food-grade hosts, Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis, is still required to broaden their applications. The optimal signal peptide compatible with both the desired protein and the target host is important for the system. Here, we constructed new expression-secretion vectors to be used in both bacteria. A natural plasmid originating from food-grade L. plantarum BCC9546 was used as a core vector combined with a strong constitutive promoter, L-ldh promoter, and various signal peptides from several types of L...
September 19, 2020: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Suman Ranjit, Luca Lanzanò, Andrew E Libby, Enrico Gratton, Moshe Levi
Fluorescence microscopy, in particular immunofluorescence microscopy, has been used extensively for the assessment of kidney function and pathology for both research and diagnostic purposes. The development of confocal microscopy in the 1950s enabled imaging of live cells and intravital imaging of the kidney; however, confocal microscopy is limited by its maximal spatial resolution and depth. More recent advances in fluorescence microscopy techniques have enabled increasingly detailed assessment of kidney structure and provided extraordinary insights into kidney function...
September 18, 2020: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Ignacio López, Eleftheria Chalatsi, Saskia I J Ellenbroek, Alexandra Andrieux, Pierre-François Roux, Juan P Cerapio, Grégory Jouvion, Jacco van Rheenen, Jacob-S Seeler, Anne Dejean
Sumoylation is an essential posttranslational modification in eukaryotes that has emerged as an important pathway in oncogenic processes. Most human cancers display hyperactivated sumoylation and many cancer cells are remarkably sensitive to its inhibition, thus supporting application of chemical sumoylation inhibitors in cancer treatment. Here we show, first, that transformed embryonic fibroblasts derived from mice haploinsufficient for Ubc9, the essential and unique gene encoding the SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme, exhibit enhanced proliferation and transformed phenotypes in vitro and as xenografts ex vivo...
September 18, 2020: Oncogene
Altaf Mohammed, Robert H Shoemaker, Shizuko Sei
Cancer immunoprevention is achieved through promoting antitumor immune surveillance to block tumor formation and progression. Following the success of prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) in preventing HPV-associated cancer, immunopreventive cancer vaccines targeting tumor antigens have been increasingly evaluated against cancers of non-infectious origin. While advances in cancer immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have clearly shown that the host immune system can mount effective antitumor immunity against tumor antigens when immune checkpoints are optimally blocked, the use of ICIs in the prevention setting has not been widely explored due to concerns of ICI-associated adverse events...
September 18, 2020: Cancer Prevention Research
Daichi Morimoto, Sigitas Šulčius, Kento Tominaga, Takashi Yoshida
In the photic zone of aquatic ecosystems, microorganisms with different metabolisms and their viruses form complex interactions and food webs. Within these interactions, phototrophic microorganisms such as eukaryotic microalgae and cyanobacteria interact directly with sunlight, and thereby generate circadian rhythms. Diel cycling originally generated in microbial phototrophs is directly transmitted toward heterotrophic microorganisms utilizing the photosynthetic products as they are excreted or exuded. Such diel cycling seems to be indirectly propagated toward heterotrophs as a result of complex biotic interactions...
2020: Advances in Applied Microbiology
Patrick Kirchweger, Helwig Valentin Wundsam, Ines Fischer, Christiane Sophie Rösch, Gernot Böhm, Oleksiy Tsybrovskyy, Vedat Alibegovic, Reinhold Függer
BACKGROUND: Ganglioneuromas (GNs) are extremely rare, slowly growing, benign tumors that can arise from Schwann cells, ganglion cells, and neuronal or fibrous tissues. Due to their origin from the sympathetic neural crest, they show neuroendocrine potential; however, most are reported to be hormonally inactive. Nevertheless, complete surgical removal is recommended for symptom control or for the prevention of potential malignant degeneration. CASE REPORT: A 30-year-old female was referred to our oncologic center due to a giant retroperitoneal and mediastinal mass detected in computed tomography (CT) scans...
September 18, 2020: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
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