Ellen Go, Mervin C Yoder
Blood vessel formation is a key feature in physiologic and pathologic processes. Once considered a homogeneous cell population that functions as a passive physical barrier between blood and tissue, endothelial cells (ECs) are now recognized to be quite "heterogeneous." While numerous attempts to enhance endothelial repair and replacement have been attempted using so called "endothelial progenitor cells" it is now clear that a better understanding of the origin, location, and activation of stem and progenitor cells of the resident vascular endothelium is required before attempting exogenous cell therapy approaches...
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
Anastasiia D Kurenkova, Ekaterina V Medvedeva, Phillip T Newton, Andrei S Chagin
With very few exceptions, all adult tissues in mammals are maintained and can be renewed by stem cells that self-renew and generate the committed progeny required. These functions are regulated by a specific and in many ways unique microenvironment in stem cell niches. In most cases disruption of an adult stem cell niche leads to depletion of stem cells, followed by impairment of the ability of the tissue in question to maintain its functions. The presence of stem cells, often referred to as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or multipotent bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), in the adult skeleton has long been realized...
2020: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Jingzhen Shi, Yingjie Zhang, Jinzhi Wang, Jianbin Li, Zhenxiang Li
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of anlotinib combined with chemoradiotherapy for treating esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) using patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). Methods: PDX-bearing mice were randomly divided into five groups, as follows: control group receiving normal saline, the group receiving radiotherapy, the group receiving cisplatin combined with radiotherapy, the group receiving anlotinib combined with radiotherapy, and the group receiving anlotinib, and cisplatin combined with radiotherapy...
2020: Frontiers in Oncology
Aji Mathew, Walid Abuhammour, Basil Fathalla, Bosaina Otour
Most of the parvovirus infections in humans are benign. Clinical manifestations of parvovirus B19 infections in children vary from erythema infectiosum in healthy children to aplastic crisis in patients with hematological disorders (such as sickle cell disease) and immunocompromised patients. Parvovirus B19 infects the erythroid progenitor cell in the bone marrow and causes transient erythroblastopenia. Transient leukoerythroblastic reaction is a rare presentation of parvovirus infection. Our case is a child presenting with fever of unknown origin (FUO) who was investigated and treated in different hospitals for FUO...
June 26, 2020: Curēus
Ali Shahabi, Hope Hastings, Harry Winfield, Amer Khiyami
Non-neural granular cell tumor was first described in 1991 as an unusual primitive, polypoid variant of the conventional granular cell tumor. To date, this neoplasm remains a rare entity and the cell of origin is uncertain. While the histological features are similar to the conventional granular cell tumor, it represents a distinct entity that is negative for S100 and lacks true nerve sheath differentiation. Here, we describe a case of a 4-year-old male who presented with a painless, soft nodule on his right chest wall that was slowly increasing in size...
2020: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
Shanshan Luo, Desheng Hu, Moran Wang, Peter F Zipfel, Yu Hu
The complement system, originally classified as part of innate immunity, is a tightly self-regulated system consisting of liquid phase, cell surface, and intracellular proteins. In the blood circulation, the complement system, platelets, coagulation system, and fibrinolysis system form a close and complex network. They activate and regulate each other and jointly mediate immune monitoring and tissue homeostasis. The dysregulation of each cascade system results in clinical manifestations and the progression of different diseases, such as sepsis, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, C3 glomerulonephritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or ischemia-reperfusion injury...
2020: Frontiers in Immunology
Wolfgang Fischer, Nicole Tegtmeyer, Kerstin Stingl, Steffen Backert
The pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori is genetically highly diverse and a major risk factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma in humans. During evolution, H. pylori has acquired multiple type IV secretion systems (T4SSs), and then adapted for various purposes. These T4SSs represent remarkable molecular transporter machines, often associated with an extracellular pilus structure present in many bacteria, which are commonly composed of multiple structural proteins spanning the inner and outer membranes...
2020: Frontiers in Microbiology
Khushbu Priyadarshi, Kavita Shirsath, N Bhargav Waghela, Anupama Sharma, Ajay Kumar, Chandramani Pathak
To overcome the obstacle of anti-cancer therapy significant attention has been drawn for improving drug delivery system. Since recent past, different approaches were applied using synthetic or natural derivatives for improving efficacy of anti-cancer drugs in cancer therapeutics. Gallic acid (GA) is a natural polyphenol, which exhibits a broad spectrum of biological activities, but its therapeutic application was limited due to poor bioavailability and toxicity. In the present study, we had conjugated the GA with PAMAM dendrimers and proposed the insights of molecular mechanism on inhibition of cell proliferation and programmed cell death through apoptotic pathway in human colon carcinoma cells...
August 5, 2020: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Dan Luo, Chunlei Li, Lun Wu, Qinhua Chen
Lung cancer is a malignant tumor with high incidence and mortality in the world, which seriously threatens people's safety and health. Early diagnosis of lung cancer is the key part in the process of prevention and treatment of lung cancer. It can improve the survival of patients with lung cancer. Exosomes are closely related to the invasion and metastasis process of tumor, it plays an important role in the development of lung cancer. Biomarkers based on exosomes have become a powerful diagnostic tool of lung cancer...
August 5, 2020: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Antonio G Soares, Elena Mironova, Crystal R Archer, Jorge Contreras, James D Stockand, Tarek Mohamed Abd El-Aziz
Cisplatin (CDDP) is an important anticancer drug. A common side effect of CDDP is renal salt and water-wasting syndrome (RSWS). The origin of RSWS is obscure. Emerging evidence, though, suggests that broad inhibition of sodium transport proteins by CDDP may result in decreases in tubular reabsorption, causing increases in sodium and water excretion. In this sense, CDDP would be acting like a diuretic. The effect of CDDP on the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), which is the final arbiter fine-tuning renal Na+ excretion, is unknown...
August 1, 2020: Cancers
Michał Ciebiera, Mohamed Ali, Magdalena Zgliczyńska, Maciej Skrzypczak, Ayman Al-Hendy
Uterine fibroid (UF) is the most common benign tumor pathology of the female reproductive organs. UFs constitute the main reason for a hysterectomy and hospitalization due to gynecological conditions. UFs consist of uterine smooth muscle immersed in a large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM). Genetic studies have demonstrated that UFs are monoclonal tumors originating from the myometrial stem cells that have underwent specific molecular changes to tumor initiating stem cells which proliferate and differentiate later under the influence of steroid hormones...
August 1, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maximilian Sprang, Claudia Paret, Joerg Faber
The analysis of tumours using biomarkers in blood is transforming cancer diagnosis and therapy. Cancers are characterised by evolving genetic alterations, making it difficult to develop reliable and broadly applicable DNA-based biomarkers for liquid biopsy. In contrast to the variability in gene mutations, the methylation pattern remains generally constant during carcinogenesis. Thus, methylation more than mutation analysis may be exploited to recognise tumour features in the blood of patients. In this work, we investigated the possibility of using global CpG (CpG means a CG motif in the context of methylation...
August 1, 2020: Cells
Konrad Ocalewicz, Artur Gurgul, Marcin Polonis, Stefan Dobosz
In the present research, the eggs from four rainbow trout females were used to provide four groups of gynogenetic doubled haploids (DHs). The quality of the eggs from different clutches was comparable, however, interclutch differences were observed in the gynogenetic variants of the experiment and the survival of DH specimens from different groups varied from 3% to 57% during embryogenesis. Transcriptome analysis of the eggs from different females exhibited inter-individual differences in the maternal genes' expression...
July 31, 2020: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Ungsig Nam, Seunggyu Kim, Joonha Park, Jessie S Jeon
Inflammation is the initiation of defense of our body against harmful stimuli. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), originating from outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, causes inflammation in the animal's body and can develop several diseases. In order to study the inflammatory response to LPS of blood vessels in vitro, 2D models have been mainly used previously. In this study, a microfluidic device was used to investigate independent inflammatory response of endothelial cells by LPS and interaction of inflamed blood vessel with monocytic THP-1 cells...
July 31, 2020: Micromachines
Ida K Ø Hansen, Tomas Lövdahl, Danijela Simonovic, Kine Ø Hansen, Aaron J C Andersen, Hege Devold, Céline S M Richard, Jeanette H Andersen, Morten B Strøm, Tor Haug
Turgencin A, a potent antimicrobial peptide isolated from the Arctic sea squirt Synoicum turgens , consists of 36 amino acid residues and three disulfide bridges, making it challenging to synthesize. The aim of the present study was to develop a truncated peptide with an antimicrobial drug lead potential based on turgencin A. The experiments consisted of: (1) sequence analysis and prediction of antimicrobial potential of truncated 10-mer sequences; (2) synthesis and antimicrobial screening of a lead peptide devoid of the cysteine residues; (3) optimization of in vitro antimicrobial activity of the lead peptide using an amino acid replacement strategy; and (4) screening the synthesized peptides for cytotoxic activities...
July 30, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mario Lecce, Rosa Molfetta, Nadia Domenica Milito, Angela Santoni, Rossella Paolini
Mast cells (MCs) are immune cells that act as environment resident sentinels playing a crucial role in Th2-mediated immune responses, including allergic reactions. Distinguishing features of MCs are the presence of numerous cytoplasmic granules that encapsulate a wide array of preformed bio-active molecules and the constitutive expression of the high affinity receptor of IgE (FcεRI). Upon FcεRI engagement by means of IgE and multivalent antigens, aggregated receptors trigger biochemical pathways that ultimately lead to the release of granule-stored and newly synthesized pro-inflammatory mediators...
July 30, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Martin Majerník, Rastislav Jendželovský, Peter Fedoročko
The relevance of experimentally gained information represents a long-term debating issue in the field of molecular biology research. The loss of original conditions in the in vitro environment affects various biological mechanisms and cellular interactions. Consequently, some biochemical mechanisms are lost or critically altered. Analyses in these modified conditions could, therefore, distort the relevancy of experimentally gained information. In some cases, the similarities with original conditions are so small that utilization of simpler in vitro models seems impossible, or could occur in a very limited way...
July 30, 2020: Cancers
Paolo Rossi, Alessia Cappelli, Oliviero Marinelli, Matteo Valzano, Lucia Pavoni, Giulia Bonacucina, Riccardo Petrelli, Pierluigi Pompei, Eugenia Mazzara, Irene Ricci, Filippo Maggi, Massimo Nabissi
Among the various innovative products obtainable from hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) waste biomass originating from different industrial processes, the essential oil (EO) deserves special attention in order to understand its possible application in different fields, such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and botanical insecticides. For the purpose, in the present work, we studied the chemical composition of EOs obtained from different hemp varieties, namely Felina 32 and Carmagnola Selezionata (CS) using monoecious, male, and female inflorescences, and we evaluated their mosquitocidal activities on larvae and pupae of two main malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae and An...
July 29, 2020: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Klaus Christian Mende, Tobias Fabian Pantel, Jörg Flitsch
Craniopharyngioma as a rare tumor originating from cells of rathke's pouch and representing 2-5% of all intracranial tumors is a rare and generally benign neoplasm of the central nervous system with two incidence peaks one in childhood and one after 40 years of age. Data on adult patients is scarce compared to childhood onset tumors, however the burden of disease caused by the tumors and related treatment options is significant. Clinical symptoms range from headaches, visual disability, cranial nerve affection or hypothalamic symptoms (e...
August 4, 2020: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Rune Rasmussen, Keisuke Yonehara
The brain monitors the sensory environment via signals from the sensory periphery, such as the olfactory epithelium, the inner ear, and the retina. Understanding how sensory stimuli are processed throughout the sensory hierarchy, and how this relates to behavior, is a central outstanding question in the field of neuroscience. The processing of visual motion in mice offers unique opportunities for addressing these questions thanks to a rich literature on the anatomical and physiological properties of motion-sensitive neurons across the visual system, paired with recent developments of cutting-edge genetic and imaging approaches...
August 3, 2020: Current Biology: CB
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